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The people have got a disorder,

The same which they call discontent; And perhaps you may meet a rewarder,

If you thus force them all to keep Lent. The war has fo bleft this whole nation,

That nothing we by it can get; Excepting starvation, taxation,

And a few dozen millions in debt. But this is so small to compare Sir,

To your ease, your enjoyment and guzzle ; That whoever to speak of it dare Sir,

Their blafphemous fnouts you will muzzle. But this last little bit of oppression,

Has made such a terrible bother ; That upon my most honest confession,

You'd better not think of another.
We're not quite so lost to all thinking,

Nor yet fo forgot to be brave ;
But that when our dear country is sinking,

Our country we boldly will save.
Then hear me in true Englidh meafure,

Although your infernals are past, It is just in the people's own pleasure,

How long, or how flort they shall last.
Beware how

Beware how you dare to oppress;
Nor forget that there may come an hour,

When the people their wrongs will redrefs.

you exercise

power,

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No. 39.

THE PHILANTHROPIST:

MONDAY, DECEMBER 28.

LONDON.

Printed for and sold by Daniel ISAAC EATON, Printer and

Bookseller to the Supreme Majesty of the People, at the Cock and SWINE, No. 74, Newgate street.

1795

PRICE ONE PENNY.

For the PHILANTHROPIST,

REASONS

WHY THE PEOPLE ARE THE BEST KEEPERS OF THEIR OWI

LIBERTIES

(Continued from our lafl.) A SEVÉNTH reason why a people qualified with a due and orderly succesfion of their supreme assemblies, are the best keepers of their own liberties, is because, as in other forms, those persons only have access to government, who are apt to serve the lust and will of the prince, or else are parties or compliers with some powerful faction: so in this form of government by the people, the door of dignity stands open to all (without exception) that ascend thither by the steps of worth and virtue: the confideration whereof hath this noble effect in free states, that it edges mens spirits with an active emulation, and raiseth them to a lofty pitch of design and action.

The

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The truth of this is very observable in the Roman ftate; for during the vassalage of that people under kings, we read not of any notable exploits, but find them confined within a narrow compass, oppressed at home, and ever and anon ready to be swallowed up by their enemies. After this government of kings was abolished, you know that of grandees in a standing fenate was next erected ; under which form they made shift to enlarge their bounds a little: but the most they could then do, was only to secure themselves from the attempts of the banished Tarquins, and those petty neighbours that envied the small increase of their dominion. But at length, when the ftate was made free indeed, and the people admitted into a share and interest in the government, as well as the great ones; then it was, and never till then, that their thoughts and power began to exceed the bounds of Italy, and aspire towards that prodigious empire. For, while the road of preferment lay plain to every man, no public work was done, nor any conquest made; but every man thought he did and conquered all for himself, as long as he remained valiant and virtuous : it was not alliance; nor friendship, nor faction, nor riches, that could advance men; but knowledge, valour, and virtuous poverty, was preferred above them all.

For the confirmation whereof, we find in the same story, how that many of their brave patriots and conquerors were men of the meanest fortune, and of so rare a temper of spirit, that they little cared to improve them, or enrich themselves by their public employment, so that when they died, they were fain to be buried at the public charge. We find Cincinnatus, a man of mean fortune, fetch'd from the plough, to the dignity of a dictator : for he had no more than four acres of land, which he tilled with bis own hands. Yet so it happened that when the Roman consul with his whole army was in great peril, being circumvented and straitned by the Equuns, and the city of Rome itself in a trembling condition; then, with one confent, they pitched upon Cincinnatus, as the fittest

man

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man for their deliverance: and he behaved himself so well,
with so much magnanimity, integrity, and wisdom, that he
relieved the consul, routed and utterly subdued the enemy,
and gave as it were a new life to his country's liberties : which
work being over, he with willingness quitted his authority,
and returned to the condition of a painful private life.

This example might seem strange, but that we know it was
ordinary in that state, till it grew corrupt again; for we read
also, how Lucius Tarquin, (not of the tyrant's family) a
man of mean fortune, yet of great worth, was chosen general
of the horse, and drawn to it out of the country, in which
place he surpassed all the Roman youth for galladt behaviour.
Such another plain country-fellow waz Attilius Regulus, the
scourge of Carthage in his time; of whom many eminent points
of bravery were recorded : as were also most of those heroic
spirits that succeeded, down to the times of Lucius Paulus
Emilius, by whose conquefts, the first charms and inchant-
ments of luxury were brought out of Asia to Rome, and there
they soon swallowed up the remainders of primitive integrity
and simplicity. And yet it is very observeable also, that so
much of the ancient severity was remaining still even in the
time of this Paulus, the famous general, that a silver dich,
that was part of the spoil, being given to a fon in-law of his,
who had fought stoutly in that war, it was thought a great re-
ward; and observed by the historian, to be the first piece of
plate that was ever seen in the family.

This observation then arises from this discourse, that as Rome never thrived till it was settled in a freedom of the people so that freedom was preserved, and that intereft best advanced when all places of honour and trust were exposed to men of merit, without distinction; which happiness could never be obtained, until the people were instated in a capacity of preferring whom they thought worthy, by a freedom of electing men succeflively into their supreme offices and assemblies. So long as this custom continued, and merit took place, the peo

ple

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ple made shift to keep and encrease their liberties : but when it lay neglected, and the stream of preferment began to run along with the favour and pleasure of particular powerful men, then vice and compliance making way for advancement, the people could keep their liberties no longer ; but both their liberties and themselves were made the price of every man's ambition and luxury.

The eighth reason, why the people in their assemblies are the best keepers of their liberty, is, because it is they only that are concerned in the point of liberty : for whereas in other forms the main interest and concernment both of kings and grandees, lies either in keeping the people in utter ignorance what liberty is, or else in allowing and pleasing them only with the name and shadow of liberty instead of the substance; so in free-states the people being fenfible of their past condition in former times, under the power of great ones, and comparing it with the poflibilities and enjoyments of the present, become immediately instructed, that their main interest and concernment consists in liberty; and are taught by common sense, that the only way to secure it from the reach of great ones, is, to place it in the people's hands, adorned with all the prerogatives and rights of supremacy. The truth of it is, the interest of freedom is a virgin that every one seeks to deflour ; and like a virgin; it must be kept from any other form, or else, (so great is the lust of mankind after dominion) there follows a rope upon the first opportunity.

This being considered, it will easily be granted, that liberties must needs lie more secure in the people's than in

in any other's hands, because they are most concerned in it: and the careful eyeing of this concernment, is that which makes them both jealous and zealous; so that nothing will satisfy, but the keeping of a constant guard against the attempts and incroachments of any powerful or crafty underminers.

Hence it is, that the people having once tasted the sweets of freedom, are so extremely affected with it, that if they disco

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