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the same meaning (to struggle), and is needed here to complete the picture. Nodis, knots, curving joints, denotes the alternate contraction and extension of the joints, either vertical or horizontal, which in the snake are the means of motion, and which, in this case, when he is struggling violently, rise into large undulating knots. -281. Vela facit, unfurls the sails ; for dat, or pandit vela. -282. Promisso munere. No particular rewaru has been mentioned in the narrative, but we may inter from 305 that in the ship race, also, none was to go unrewarded. - -284. Datur lengthens the last syllable here. Operum Minervae ; the use of the needle, distaff, and loom.
-285. Genus ; Greek acc.
286–361. Description of the foot-race. Aeneas chooses a meadow, encircled by wooded hills, as a circus, or stadium. He invites all who wish to make trial of their speed in a foot-race to present themselves. The most prominent competitors are Nisus, Euryalus, Diores, Salius, Patron, Helymus, and Panopes. Nisus takes the lead, Salius is next, and third Euryalus, followed by Helymus and Diores. Near the goal Nisus falis down, but gives the victory to his friend Euryalus by tripping up Salius. Helymus takes the second prize, and Diores the third. The idea of the footrace is suggested by II. XXIII, 740–797.
287, 288. Quem-silvae, which woods surrounded on all sides with curving hills, which wood-covered hills encircled. Ruaeus makes the abl. elliptical, denoting place : (situated) on winding hills ; others, ab). of instrument. -288. In valle theatri; in the midst of a valley which resembled a theatre; the same as cavea, 340. Most commentators, however, join theatri with circus. -290. Consessu ; dative for in consessum. -291. Qui. The antecedent is eorum understood. -296. Nisus--pueri, Nisus (distinguished) for his affectionate love for the boy (Euryalus). – -299. Ab. See on I, 730.
-300. "Helymus was a friend of Acestes, mentioned above, 73.—-307. Caelatam, mounted, or embossed, with silver ; probably having a wooden handle embossed, or inlaid, with figures in silver. Ferre ; for ferrendam, as in 248, 262.
-308. Praemia, prizes ; to be distinguished here from honos, the present which was to be common to all. -310. Phaleris insignem, adorned with trappings. These were straps of leather mounted with metallic ornaments, and fastened about the breast, neck, and head of the horse. -311, 312. Amazoniam, Threiciis; general appellatives here, signifying such as Amazons and Thracians use ; for both races were renowned as archers. -312. Lato auro; abl. of description ; of broad gold ; that is, broad and gilded. Circumplectitur. The belt, as seen in some antique representations of the quiver, passes round the quiver, and the two ends joined together by the buckle, or brooch. See page 27. -313. Tereti gemma, of, or with, tapering jewel ; a jeweled clasp. The ablative as auro, above. -315. Los cum ; the place for starting; Comp. 132. -316. Corripiunt spatia, they rush upon the course ; "take the track.” Comp. 145, and I, 418. Limen, the starting-point. -317. Ultima signant, they mark'the farthest point ; that . is, with the eye; for without fixing the eye on the goal, they may turn from a direct line. -318. Corpora ; nicely chosen here for the persons themselves.
-319. Fulminis alis. The thunderbolt was often represented on coins, with wings.—Heyne. -321. Deinde is joined with insequitur understood; post with relicto, governing eum understood. -323. Quo sub ipso, close behind whom. Ipse here, as in III, 5, implies directly, immediately;
-324. Calcem-calce, and even now rubs heel with heel ; i. e., foot with foot; almost abreast of Helymus, lacking only a pace of it. -325. Umero í dat. towards his shoulder; i. e., the shoulder or side of Helymus. So Ruaeus and Heyne. The passage is suggested by 11. XXIII, 764. Spa'ir plura ; for plus spatii. Supersint-relinquat. "The poets sometimes ise the pres. subj. even instead of the plup.". M. 347, b, obs. 3. -326. Ambiguum Heyne regards as masculine, translating, would have left him (Helymus) uncertain (of the victory);
but it is generally taken as an indefinite neuter : he would have left it (the thing, or the result) uncertain. --que, found in most of the MSS. instead of -ve, is inconsistent with the foregoing transeat prior, unless we adopt the very unnatural translation: “And would have left the (now) doubtful (Helymus) lehind.”. -327. Spatio extremo, in the farthest part of the course ; the ultima mentioned in 317. The race seems to have terminated here, and not to have turned back from the goal, as in the regular circus.—328. Sub finem, near to the end ; detining more precisely the preceding words. Levi sanguine, in smooth, that is, slippery, blood; the ablative of situation. Victions had been slaughtered on the spot, as is implied in sacro, 333.329. Ut; possibly local here and equivalent to ubi ; but more sately taken as causal, since. Forte. It so happened that, when they were slaughtering bullocks, the blood had soaked the ground in this part of the race-course.
-330. Fusus (erat), had been poured out. Super ; adverb. 331, 332. Presso solo is the ablative absoluté denoting time. When once his foot had pressed this treacherous spot, he instantly slipped and fell headlong:334. Ille ; in apposition with the foregoing subject, as in 1, 3.
-336. Revolutus, rolled over. Spissa harena, on the dense sand. -337. Euryalus lengthens the last syllable here. -338. Plausu, fremitu; abl. of manner.
-339. Nunc ; emphatic; now that Nisus and Salius are thrown out.340. Caveae ingentis, of the rust theatre ; the vallis theatri. See 288. 340, 341. Ora prima, the front seats of the fathers. The senators at Rome occupied the seats in front; so now the nobles and clders were seated in front of the multitude. -344. Veniens virtus, his merit presenting itself.
-349. Palmam---nemo, no one moves the prize from the (détermined) ordir. The prizes were to be given to those who should come out first, second, and third, with no other condition specified. -352, Aureis ; here, á dissyllable.
-354. Niso ; an emphatic substitute for mihi. Comp. II, 79, and IV, 31.
-357. Simul his dictis. H. 437, 2; A. 261, b; B. 179, R. 1; G. 418, R.; M. 172, obs. 3. -358. Clli. Comp. I, 254. -359. Artis; the acc. pl. in apposition with clypeum. -360. Danais; dative of the agent after refxum. See on I, 326. The Greeks had taken the shield from a temple of Neptune, and, perhaps, it had come into the hands of Aeneas through Helenus.361. Hoc munere. H. 384, II, 2; A. 225, d ; B. 258; G. 348; M. 260, b.
362-494. The pugilistic contest is next described. Dares, a Trojan, presents himself as the challenger, but at first no one is disposed to compete with him. Then an old Sicilian of Trojan descent, Entellus, is induced by his friend Acestes to enter the lists. They put on the gauntlets furnished by Aeneas, and begin the fight. Entellus at first stands on the defensive, and merely parries or avoids the blows of his more nimble antagonist. At last the old man aims a blow with immense effort at Dares, who adroitly turns aside, leaving Entellus to fall headlong by the impetus of his own motion. Entellus, thus roused by shame and revenge, rises from the ground, attacks Dares with fury, and gains the victory. The description is suggested by Il. XXIII, 051-699.
362. Peregit. For the tense, see on postquam, 1, 216. -363. Animus praesens, a prompt spirit.----364. Evinctis palmis, the palms being bound ; i. e., with the caestus ; not a “boxing-glove covering the hand, but a coil of leather thongs, filled with lead or iron, and bound around the palm and wrist, and sometimes extending to the elbow. -366. Auro is, perhaps, best referred to the practice of gilding the horns; and velatum explained as a zeugma. -370: Paridem. The post-Homeric poets represent Paris as a hero excelling in agility, strength, and the use of weapons. -371. Ad tumulum ; at the funeral games in honor of Ilector. Quo, in which ; abl. Comp. I, 547. -373. Veniens se ferebat, etc., who, descending from the Bebrycian race of Amycus, boasted himself ; freely translated, who boasted of his descent from, etc. As in II, 377, III, 310, the participle agrees with the
Bubject, yet virtually modifies the predicate as if in the accusative. I have given the more usual translation of this passage, assigning to veniens a meaning quite unauthorized. Perhaps the following may be more correct : Who, coming (to the contest), gave himself out (to be) of the Bebrycian family of Amycus. Amyci. Amycus, king of the Bebrycians, compelled all strangers to contend with him, until at length he was killed' by Pollux, who had landed with the other Argonauts in Bithynia. -_-375. Prima į á substitute for primus ; first presented himself. So Forbiger; but some understand it more literally: the beginning (of battles, or of the fight). 381. Aeneae ; better the dative than the genitive.--384. Finis ; not here purpose, but time; what will be the end of delaying? Usque ; separated from quo by tmesis. -385. Ducere Supply me as the subject. -387. Gravis; for graviter. -388. Ut consederat, as (by chance) he had seated himself. -389. Prostra; in vain, if, after all, you suffer another to carry away the prize on the present occasion. -391. Nobis ; a dativus ethicus ; where, now, is that god of ours ? -395. Senecta is joined by Ruaeus with hebet, by some with gelidus, which the rhythm seems rather to require. 397. Qua is governed by fidens. H. 425, 1, 1), n.; A. 254, b; B. 257; G.
Caestus. 345, R. 1; M. 264.
-400. Nec dona moror, nor do I regard the gifts. Deinde. See on 14. -402. In proelia; join with ferre. Quibus. Forbiger supplies indutus ; some make it an abl. of instrument. 403. Duroque intendere tergo is equivalent to duro intendens tergo. For other examples of this idiom, see III, 355; IV, 257. -404. Tantorum with boum conveys the same notion as if it were tam qualifying ingentia. 406. Longe recusat, shrinks far back. So Ladewig. 407, 408. Pondus-versat, tries the weight of the
gauntlets, and turns over, this way and that, the immense folds themselves. Their numerous great coils are distinguished from their weight. -409. Pectore. For the case, see on vadis, I, 126. -410. Arma is added to signity that they were weapons actually used by him in combat. -413. Sanguine, cerebro. The blood and brain of some who had been beaten or killed by Eryx. 414. Suetus. Supply stare or pugnare.
418. Id is ambiguous, but probably relates to thu proposition following, to take equal gauntlets. Sedet; for sedet animo or plucet. Probat. Supply et. Auctor, adviser, friend. Acestes had incited the old man to the fight. — 421. Duplicem amictum. As an old man, he had quietly seated himself, wrapped in a cloak made of coarse cloth' doubled. Such a cloak was called by the Romans abolla.422. Lacertosque is connected with the following verse in scanning: 423. With oxuit in this usage, vestibus is understood. -426. In digitos; join with arrectus. 431. Mole, in his heavy frame. 431, 432. Trementi labant may be rendered tremble and totter. Genua; bere, a dissyllable, gen-wa. Aeger anhelitus, a difficult panting ; a hard drawing of the breath that betrays infirmity. -433. Volnera í á metonymy for verbera. 434. Ingeminant; here, transitive. -434, 435. Pectore-sonitus, emit deep sounds from the chest ;, either from the blow received, or, as some fancy, from the effort made in dealing the blow, like wood-cutters. -437. Gravis; in the predicate, implying that he is fixed and steady by his weight. Nisu, firm position. -438. Tela medo exit, merely shuns blows. For the acc. after excit, see H. 386, 3 ; A. 237, d ; B. 215, á, 2; M. 224, c, obs. Ille ; Dares; subject of pererrat and urget. -444. A vertice ; for desuper ; as in 1, 114. 446. Ultro, of his own impulse ; not because struck or impelled by some external force.—150. Studiis, with eager interest. 451. Caelo. See on Latio, I, 6. -456. Daren. Also acc. Dareta, 460. -457. Ille. See on I, 3. -458. Quam; transl. as, and join with multa. The correlative would regularly be tam instead of sic. 459, 460. Densis-creber, frequent with thick föllowing blows ; for densis et crebris ictibus. Versat, drives round and round ; as agit toto (lequore, 456. -466. Viris alias, superhuman strength ; do you not perceive that his strength is other (than mortal)? Some god helps him. Others translate the passage, that thy (others, his) strength is other than before. Conversa numina, that the divinities are changed. When Entellus fell, the gods seemed to be on the side of Dares; now that they have become adverse, he need not feel disgraced to submit to their power, He is not wanting in prowess, but is only infelix. 467. Deo, to the god (whoever he may be). que —et, Wagner savs, denote immediate sequence.
-469. Utroque, to either, or each side. -471.' Vocati. These friends represent Dares.
-476. Qua morte, from what (certain and cruel) death. Revocatum, rescued. See on submersas, I, 69. -478. Donum pugnae, as the prize of the combat. -479. Media inter cornua, right between the horns. -480. Arduus, rising to his full height. -481. Humi. See on I, 193. Observe the monosyllable closing the verse. H. 613, n. 4; B. 356, i ; G. 761, R. 5; and comp. I, 105.
482. Super, above, over him. -483. Meliorem animam. Dares would have been slain as a victim to Eryx; but the life of the bull is
iven as a more acceptable sacrifice. Eryx was the master of Entellus, and fias just now, as a god, secured him the victory:
485-644. The trial of skill in archery. There are four competitors : Hippocoön, Mnestheus, Eurytion. Acestes. Their order is determined by lot. dove fastened by a cord to a ship's mast, erected for the purpose in the “long circus." The arrow of Hippocoön strikes the mast, but misses the bird. string only, and the bird escapes. Eurytion kills her on the wing. Acestes discharges his arrow into the air at random. It takes fire and vanishes in the sky. In consequence of this miracle, the old man is pronounced victor. The contest is suggested by Il. XXIII, 850-873.
The mark is a
486. Qui forte velint, such as by chance may wish. -487. Ingenti manus with powerful hand. See on manu, 241.
-488. Traiecto in fune, by a rope passed through (the mast). The upper part of the mast was already pierced with holes. _489. Tendant. See on I, 20. -492. Locus, the place; meton. for che lot which decided the place or order. Hyrtacidae. Hippocoon and Nisus (IX, 177) are both called sons of Hyrtacus. -493. Oliva. Mnestheus, as one of the victors in the ship race, has still the olive wreath on his head. Eurytion, like Hippocoön, is not elsewhere mentioned.' His brother Pandarus was famed for archery, and under the direction of Minerva (iussus) had broken off the truce with the Greeks by discharging an arrow at Menelaus. 11. IV, 86, 899, -498. Acestes į meton. for the name or lot of Acestes, -499. Et ipse, even he, though aged. -501. Pro se quisque, each one with all his power. H. 461, 3; A. 202, d; B. 287, c; G. 202, R. 1, I; M. 495. -502, Nervo stridente ; ablat. absol. -505. Timuit -pennis. The frightened bird showed its fear (timuit) by fluttering with its wings; strictly: in respect to, or in her wings.506. Ingenti-plausu is referred by Heyne and others to the noise of the bird's wings, as above, in verse 215;, but, just as applause greeted Hippocoön when his name was first drawn from the urn (491), so it was natural L’hrygian Amazon. that on making the first shot, which was not a bad one, though it just missed the bird, the friendly crowd should applaud him again. -507. Adducto arcu, his bow being drawn ; i. e., so that the head of the arrow comes to the bow. -508. Alta petens, aiming high.512. Notos is governed by the preposition in. For a similar displacement of the prep. see II, 654. -513. Arcu contenta parato, strained on the ready bow,
-514. Tela; for the singular; his shaft. "The arrow is said to be strained as well as the bow. See on 507.' Fratrem. Eurytion invoked the aid of Pandarus, a deified hero, as Entellus (483) that of Eryx.—521, Ostentans. The distant flight of the arrow, and the noise of the bow, would show the strength and skill of old Acestes. -522–524. Subitum—vates, here a prodigy, sudden, and destined to prove of great portent, is presented to their eyes. The
great event afterwards explained it, and the dreadful soothsayers interpreted the omens too late. Sera = sero. On the whole, it seems altogether probable that the omen is intended by Vergil to foreshadow the burning of the ships, described below, 659, sqq. ; though Aeneas at the moment (530) saw in it nothing alarming.– -523. Exitus ingens is thought by some too grave a term to apply merely to the burning of the ships. But if ingens may describe the clapping of a dove's wings (216), surely the setting of a whole fleet on fire, and the loss of four ships, all through the agency of two goddesses, may well be called ingens eritus. The prayer of Aeneas below (685-691) indicates that the conflagration was a matter of such moment as to call for the interposition of Jupiter, and ingentes curae overwhelmed Aeneas in consequence of losing these four ships. The aged Nautes, a prophet, then advised (see 704) what should be done. He may be one of the vates, who, too late, that is, when the ships were on fire, saw with terror what the burning arrow portended. -530-532. Nec maximus, etc. Aeneas regards the prodigy as a token of divine favor towards Acestes, and laetum indicates the saine understanding of it on the part of Acestes himself.-533, 31 AA