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Jupiter and the Olympiad gods. (From a Grecian bas-relief.)


Council of the gods. Pallas, Lausus, Mezentius. 1-117. Jupiter calls the gods to a council in Olympus, and persuades them to put an end to discord. Venus complains of the hard persecution of the Trojans, and Judo bitterly replies. Jupiter declares at last that tbe lates shall decide the conflict without any interference of the gods.

1. Panditur. Olympus was opened in the morning and closed in the evening. Comp. I, 374. Omnipotentis, supreme or sovereign, as the seat of the_Omnipotent. Bipatentibus, with two-valved doors. See on II, 330.7. Verba retro; i. e., turned back again to the same bitter hostility as in former times during the Trojan war. - 13. Alpes immittet aportas, will send the opened Alps ; a bold expression for hostis per Alpes apertas immittet; referring to the invasion of Hannibal. The language is analogous to that of Tacitus, Agr. 18, mare expectabant, for hostes per mare erpectabant. 24. Aggeribus murorum. Comp. IX, 769. For murorum some MSS. give the archaic form moerorum.- 28. Arpis, called Aetolian because Diomed, its founder, was of Aetolian descent. -29. Volneran Diomed had inflicted a wound on the hand of Venus in battle at the siege of Troy. The occasion was the same as the one alluded to in I, 94, sqq. 42. Super imperio, concerning the supreme dominion ; namely, that promised to the Trojans in I, 257.– 53. Hio; i. e., domi meae, in my home in either or all of the three favorite resorts mentioned. - 54. Premat. Supply ut. The infinitive is the regular construction after iubere. Inde, from that quarter ; i. e., from Ascanius and his posterity. Summam belli, the direction of the war. 71. Tyrrhenam-quietas, to stir up an Etrurian league or peaceful tribes. To excite the peaceful Tyrrhenians to a warlike alliance. Agitare is used rather with reference to gentis than to fidem. - 73. Hio, here, on this present occasion of difficulty, where is the agency of Juno or Iris 77. Qaid, what (is it)? is it shameful for the Trojans to commit violence, to oppress, etc. ? Face atra. See IV, 334.—-79. Soceros, paotas; referring to Latinus and Lavinia. - 80. Praefigere arma. See on I, 183.- 83. It was by Cybele that the ships were actually transformed; but every favor to the Trojans, by whomsoever effected, is ascribed by Juno to Venus.- 90. The infinitive is an irregular construction after quae causa fuit. The prose would be quae causa fuit Europae Asiaeque consurgendi 1- 102. Tremefacta solo, trembling in its depths or foundations. Supply milescit. - 103. Placida is proleptic. — 108. Fuat, an archaic form for sit. - 109. Italum Heyne makes a genit, after obsidione. Others join it with fatis. Castra , i. e., of the Trojans.—_110. Sive errore, etc., or whether by å mistake of Troy, or the Trojan party (in the departure of Aeneas at this crisis), and by the fatal warnings (of Iris to Turnus, now working mischief). lll. Sua exorsa, etc., his own beginnings (his own enterprises) shall bring to each, etc.113-115. Comp. IX, 104-106.

118-145. The Trojans are distributed along the ramparts, and, though dejected, resolutely maintain the defense under the direction of Mnestheus and other leaders.

118. Circum; adverbially; round about. Portis , abl., at the gates. Instant, with infin, as in I, 423.— 133. Caput; Greek acc limiting detectus. - 136. Buxo; either dát. or abl. Comp. II, 19. It retains the final o.

144. Moerorum; the old form of murorum. See on 24.- 145. Campanae urbi; Capua. The derivation of the name from Capys is, of course, fanciful. Both Campania and Capua probably have the same root as campus.

146-214. Aeneas forms an alliance with the Etrurians, who immediately set out with him in their ships, to carry succor to his beleaguered camp. The poet enumerates the ships and the forces on board, and mentions the leaders of the Etrurians. There are thirty ships, and the troops are arranged under four leaders, Massicus, Abas, Asilas, and Astur.

147. Ili refers both to the Trojans and their Rutulian 'assailants. 148. Castris ingressus Etruscis. The narrative is resumed from VIII, 602. - 149. Regii Tarchon, the Etrurian commander. 163. Hand fit, etc.; the apodosis after ut-preces. So Ribbeck.- 164. Libera fatis free in re spect to fate; no longer held by the prohibition of the fates, mentioned in VIII, 502, sqq. For the genit. see on II, 638. 165. Lydía. See on II, 781.- 156. Duci retains the final 1,- 167. Subiuncta 'leones, literally, joined as to lions under the beak. Comp. III, 428.- 158. Ida perhaps a personification of Mount Ida carved in wood, and drawn in a chariot by lions; the latter projecting from the prow of the ship.- 159. Hlio, here, or in this ship.- 180. Solo, in respect to soil, or territory, i, e., in location; contrasted with ab origine. 188. Crimen amor vestrum, your fault (was) love. The words may refer to Cycnus and the sisters of Phaëthon; or, possibly, to Cinyras and Cupavo. “Formaeque insigno paternae, and your device or crest (was) of your father's form ; explanatory of olorinae pennae. The ornament on the helmet of Cupavo was the form of a swan, worn to commemorate the transformation of his father, Cycnus, into a swan,- 190. Um

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bram. The sisters of Phaēthon were transformed into poplar-trees.— 196. Baxum --minatur, threatens (to hurl) a huge rock into the waves. The centaurs were sometimes sculptured in the act of hurling rocks, as if in battle. 202. Triplex. Vergil assigns to his native city a threefold origin, Etruscan, Greek, and, perhaps, Umbrian, while each of these three elements is represented in four towns (quaterni populi), making twelve in all, subject to Mantua. The strongest element, however, vires, is Tuscan.--204. In so. Mezentius, by his cruelty, has excited the Tuscans to revolt against him.205. Benaco. Supply ortus. Comp. X, 666.— 206. Mincius. The river-god, Mincius, is the figure-head of the ship.- 207. Gravis. The term is transferred from the ship to its commander. Comp. V, 270, 271. Others take it literally. Centena arbore ; for centum remis. Comp. terno, V, 120.

215-286. While Aeneas is pursuing his voyage in the moonlight, the nymphs into which the Trojan ships have been transformned appear to him on the water, and one

of them, Cyınodoce, informs him of the assault on his camp. He prays to Cybele, and directs his followers to be instantly ready for battle. On his approach to the camp, the

ts raise a shout, and engage in the defense with still more vigor, while Turnus, nothing daunted, prepares to resist the new-comers at their landing.

215, 216, Curru Phoebe pulsabat Olympum. See on III, 512; V, 721. 221. Numen habere maris, to have the dicinity of the sea ; to possess the divine character or attributes pertaining to sea-goddesses. ---234. Hanc faciem rofecit. has reproduced this form : has reproduced us, but in this new form. --238. Iam loca iussa, etc. We must understand that the Etrurian cavalry have been directed by Aeneas to join the Arcadian cavalry of Pallanteum, and to proceed with them down the bank of the Tiber to some point appointed by him (loca iussa) near the place of his expected disembarkation. We learn from 362, 863, below, that this spot was at the junction of some small stream with the Tiber. Turnus will of course aim to prevent the arrival of the allied forces at the Trojan camp. Etrusco; sing. for pl. Etruscis.

----239. Medias opponere turmas, to interpose his squadrons ; i. e., between the new allies and the camp.--253. Ad frena. Supply iuncti. 254, 255. Propinques anguri

um, bring near the omen, or the promised event. 270. Capiti. Supply Aeneae.- 274. Ille { expressed for emphasis, in apposition with ardor. See on I, 3.- 277. Praecipere ; for occupare; to anticipate them in getting possession of the shore. — 279. Perfringere, to break through their ranks. 281. Referto, reproduce; imitate. — 283. Vestigia Greek acc. limiting labant. Counp. V, 331, 332.

287–861. The ships come to land in safety, excepting that of Tarchon, which is forced upon a sand-bank and broken to pieces. Aeneas and his allies on landing are instantly engaged in the conflict.

288, 289. Servare-pelagi, to watch the retreat of the ebbing sea ; so as to spring upon the beach when the wave had retired. - 290. Per remos; others spring to the land by means of oars which they plant with one end in the sand, and thus swing themselves or spring to land. So Heyne. Others think they slide over the oars. 291. Spirant, heave or boil. 292. Inoffensum, unresisted ; i. e., unbroken by any bold, rocky bank. Tarchon seeks a point where the wave rolls up steadily increasing or spreading (crescenti aestu) to the beach, intending to take advantage of this movement to push his ships far on the land. -_-295. Tollite-rates, lift, push on your ships ; i. e., by a powerful stroke of the oars. 304. Fluctus fatigat refers to the swinging to and fro of the two ends of the ship on the waves before it goes to pieces. The impulse given by the oars, aided by the movement of the water, had driven it partially across the sand-bank or ridge, so that both the forward and hinder part are thrown one way and another by the action of the waves for a few moments, and then the hull, in consequence of the strain, breaks in the midst and goes to pieces.- 319. Heronlis arma that is, the clava. Comp. V, 410. 326. Nova gaudia, the new love ; in apposition with Clytium. -334, Steterunt. The penult is short. - 345. CoHibus, from Curés. - 350. Boreae de gente suprema, of the lofty race of Boreas. Comp. VII, 220.--351. Ismara. This is understood by some as a neuter plural, by others as a feminine singular. The latter is probably correct. In Ge. II, 37, it is plural. See Dictionary,

862-488. Pallas, the son of Evander, sees the Arcadian cavalry turning their backs, and hastens to rally them to the fight. He sets them the example of heroism, while on the other side Lausus, the son of Mezentius, slays several of the Arcadians, Etruscans, and Trojans.

362. Parto ex alia; at that point, namely, whore Aeneas had directed the Arcadian and Etruscan cavalry to await his landing. See 238. It seems to have been on the banks of a torrent, rocky and broken, and covered with rolling bowlders and debris left by freshets, and, therefore, unfit for cavalry. Pallas has left Aeneas on landing, and hastened to take command of his own portion of the cavalry, which has been obliged to dismount on account of the nature of the ground, and thus to fight on foot, acies inferre pedestris.— 366. Quis , here translated as iis, after quando, since, wbich connects this parenthetical clause to the foregoing daré terga. Quis alone would have sufficed to indicate the causal relation, but quando is added for greater distinctness, though the construction is anomalous.- 378, Deest, here a monosyllable.- 378. Troiam | the new Troy or camp of the Trojans. “Shall we retreat to the water, or cut our way through to the Trojan camp?"- 383. Dabat lengthens the final syllable. - 384. Quem ; Pallas. Non super occupat Hisbo, Hisbon does not surprise him from above, while thus engaged. -386. Wile; Hisbo. See on ille, I, 3.—_394. Caput lengthens the final syllable.- 399. Praeter; join with fugientem ; flying along by him.- 405. Optato, for ex voto, according to his wish. - 412. 80-årma. He completely covers himself with his shield. 426. Perterrita agm, for agm. perterreri. Virij i.e., Pallas. — 432. Extremi-acies , those on the outside or in the rear of the others make the ranks dense by crowding forward into the fight.

439-509. Turnus, warned by his sister Juturna, hastens to the aid of Lausus and the Latins. He fights and slays Pallas, wbo is then borne from the field by his friends.

439. Soror; the nymph Juturna, sister of Turnus. See XII, 138, sqq. -444. Aequore iusso, from the required ground; from the ground which he had commanded them to leave. The common construction would have been iussi. — 448. Tyranni, of the prince; Turnus. Comp. VII, 266.449. Spoliis opimis. See on VI, 841.- 468. Ire; bistorical infinitive. — 463. Victorem ferant, etc. “May the dying eyes of Turnus support, or be compelled to endure, the sight of me, victorious over him."- 466. Geni. tor | Jupiter. Natum, Hercules.- 473. Reicit. He turns away his eyes with sorrow from the battle-field.—-476, 477. Tegmina summa, the top of the covering. Forbiger understands by this the upper part of the corselet, where it covers the shoulder; here, the left shoulder. The spear having already made its way (viam molita) through the border of the shield, grazed (strinxit) the body of Turnus, but inflicted no serious wound, because of the obstruction afforded both' by the shield and corselet, in which it had spent the greater part of its force. - 478. Do corpore is for aliquid de corpore. The spear-point just grazed his body.--486. Ile ; Pallas. The last syllable of sanguis here is lengthened. -492. Meruit. The subject, according to Ruaeus and Heyne, followed by Gossrau, Forbiger, Ladewig, and others, is ille, referring to Pallas ; I send back Pallas to thee such as he has deserved to be (i. e., dead), by engaging in this war and venturing to combat with me. Conington makes Evander the subject.—496. Baltei a dissyllable here. -497. Impressum nefas, the impious deed wrought upon it ; that is, the murder of the husbands' of the Danaides. See "Class. Dict."

010-605. Aeneas in another part of the field hears of the death of Pallas, and furiously seeks Turnus, cutting his way through the enemy, and slaying many of the bravest. Ascanius at the same time leads forth the Trojan youth' from within the camp.

619. Inferias quos immolet, that he may slay them as victims. See XI, 81, 899. It was the custom of ancient heroes to sacrifice captives at the tombs or on the funeral piles of their friends killed in battle. This Achilles does

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