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cessary to subjoin the more promi- ancient Greek or Latin. It retains nent diftin&tions *. Certain it is, the articles and inflection of cases, that the modern Greek, pronounc- but has neither duals nor aorists. ed as the ancient in England, would The tenses are formed by the verbs be as unintelligible to them as the substantive. Italian at Rome or the French at “A summary account, which my Paris, if we spoke or read them ex- present limits allow me only to of actiy as they are spelled, giving the fer of a language so little known in letters and syllables the same power Europe, may be considered as no , as to those in our own language. unacceptable curiosity by some

« The Romeika resembles in its readers. construction the Italian and French, “ The grammar of Simon Porand rejects the transposition of the tius was the earliest attempt. Pere

“ * The ancient alphabet and character are retained by the moderns, who are ill versed in or negligent of orthography, both in their epistolary correspondence and monumental inscriptions. Their printed books are tolerably correct. Some of them write the character very neatly. In their books for the church service the capital letters are grotesquely made and ornamented, departing entirely from the antique and fimple form.

“ Without entering into too wide a digression, I shall remark only the different powers given to letters which in the combination of syllables produce a sound to differ. ent from that which wc have been accustomed to hear given them.

“ B, connected with fyllables, is pronounced as our v, and is expressed by the modern Greeks by a after a fho: Braidsvs, vasílifs-- 4 P OTES, ambotes.

“ A and , as the hard or soft th of the English : drv, then. Mr. Knight, in his ingenious treatise entitled “ An Analytical Effay on the Greek Alphabet,' 410. 1791, observes, that the ancient manner of pronouncing 0, was indisputably that which is • still preserved by the modern Greeks, the Copts, and the English, that is, by a con• Arained aspiration between the tongue and upper teeth. Al the other European nations pronounce it as a mute consonant, and throw the aspiration on the next succeeding vowel. P. 13. A is fyllabically formed by r after y: warta, panda.

“ E has a sound of frequent recurrence, and with a certain nicety of articulation is expressed indiscriminately with the diphthongs ai and os : which mode seems to have been adopted from the French. It has a broad tone, as e in éire, or our a in fate.

“forf, as in philosophythe diphthong av is universally av, as autos, autos.

“ T has a soft tone between the g and y of the English ; as Mayayia, Panagèa. Two Sy are ng, as in the ancient Ayysaos.

« 1 medial as ee, and final as y in humanity.
" K incipient as with us. X incipient very guttural.

“ N final is generally quiefcent, and when preceded by two vowels, the latter is likewife sunk: to repor, to nero— TO xpasion, to krafy:

“ Q and I are used indiscriminately. The double as is the diphthong ou, as in tho French.

" sI after this b, and before = f, as lata, efta.
"Y, ncipient, medial, or final, as ec.
“ H and the diphthong u have likewise the same sound.
“ OY has the force of oui in French, and corresponds with the English w.

“ As a mechanical mode of facilitating pronunciation, the following management of the organs of speech is recommended, as tending to the acquirement of those rounds. which are most frequent in the Romeska.

“X, x before a confonant, as in xpuotos, is beft pronounced by drawing the tongue to the throat, and holding it suspended under the palate with the lips a little open.

“ A as dth, which is effected by forcing the tongue against the upper row of teeth. “ r incipient as gh, more gutturally than in English.

“softer than X, which sound is produced by placing the point of the tongue between the teeth, almost closed with a kind of hissing.

"But perfection mug depend upon an accurate eary colloquial facility, and long practice.


Thomas, a capuchin of Paris, com. σοφοτατος παρα τες αλλ8ς, αεετε; poted another; and Spon has affix- wise man. ed to his voyage a meagre vocabu- “ DIMINUTIVES are much used lary, which lie calls · Petit Dic- in conversation, by the mndern • tionaire.' Mavro Kordato's Lexi- Greeks as by the Italians. They • con' (as I have before observed) join sdi and axs to masculine or contains the most systematic ana- neuter nouns, and 6722 and saz to lyfis. There are grammars extant feminine; as, arbetsd, arzıdaxi,' of Romeïka, French and Italian, for a little man-a little boy: 'Legane, the use of the natives who acquire yopitza,' a little foul-a little girl; those languages. That of Benardi- but etpecially to proper names, as no Pianzola, of Turkish, Romeïka, Tergàxi, Eoirla. and Italian, printed in the Roman • PRONOUNS. The genitives of character, is that in most general pronouns personal are always added acceptation.

to nouns: carnp8, TATTOTE, T&T «With no pretenfions to philo- της, πατηρ μας, πατήσας, πατήστεlogical accuracy, I offer a summary my, his, her, our, your, their father. sketch, noticing the leading difcri. " Personal relatires are declinaminations, from claflical Greek, ble, and the others are supplied by and its analogy to the Italian and the invariable pronoun ove. There French, in grammatical construction. are likewise demonftratives and in

“Articles. The modernGreeks terrogatives, &c. as in the ancient retain the articles o, n, 70, as used Greek. by the ancients, which are constant- " VERBS. There are four kinds: ly prefixed to nouns, as demonstra- derivative ; auxiliary tiles, I am, tive of genders, of which the neu- 01Aw, I will, and exw, I kave, which ter is admitted as one. Plurals fe- form the tentes of the other; and minine are made by the article anomalous, or impersonal, which and the ancient dative, as a nuespais

are but few. days.

“The derivative verbs are active, “Nouns are declined by articles, paslive, and deponent only, and are propofitions, and inflections, Nouns divided into two clafles, barytone masculine and feminine have unic and circumflex, the former of versally but three different termin which have the accent placed on nations in both numbers, and the the last tyliable but one, as y, eis, neuter but two only. There are I write ; and in the paflive on the five declensions arranged according last fyllable but two, as ypatumo, to the termination of the nomina. I am wrillen. The latter are active case.

centuated on the final syllable, as “ ADJECTIVEs are always pre- anaww, I love; and in the passive fixed to nouns, as in Englith, ex- on the last but one, as araasues, I cepting by the intervention of a am loved. The difference of converb, and are declinable with arti- jugations is determined by the firti cles peculiar to the three genders. person present and the first person There are likewise five declen- perfect of the indicative mood. fions.

The barytones have four and the “ COMPARATIVES and SUPER- circumflex three conjugations. LATIVES change the positive as the “ There is no infinitive mood, ancients—ofos, sopotezos, popota- from which tenses in other lan70;, adding likewise the prepofi- guages are deduced; but the potentions mapore and amo; o ardpwaos tial with a conjunction is substituted. as sãype ow, to write. The active par. communicate, merely as a matter ticiple resembles the Italian gerund of curiosity, fome idea of the struc- yp& Portas, writing ; and the par. ture of a language upon which the five is pure Greek-ayfa Qoutros, character of barbarism has been ofwritten.

ten fixed with less justice than that “ Adverbs are mostly determin- of syltem and refinement upon the ed by awacha, very well. Italian and Spanish. The devia« PREPOSITIONs all govern an

tions from the original tongues accusative case.

have sprung from the same caules, “ These flight observations may and are nearly equal."

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On the LATIN TERMS used in NATURAL HISTORY, by the Rev. JOHN

BRAND, A. M. &c.

[From the third Volume of the TraNSACTIONS of the LINNEAN


HE Latin has been adopted thor; or improprieties (verba im.

as the language of natural propria, Quint.), when, though so history; but the latinity of the na- found, they are not to be found tural historians has undergone no used in the same sense. This must Tinall censure.

be admitted: but it is here con“ By the adoption of the Latin tended, that it does not on this acas the common language of the count alone follow that they are fo. science, in the degree in which it This is proved from the practice of obtains, new discoveries in it are the ancient grammarians in the inpropagated with great facility. 0. vention of technical terms, in conther branches of philofophy have junction with the authority of Tul. not had the same good fortune; ly. and every European nation is be- First, the use of a Latin primicome philofophical: and thus, as tive or derivative, in a sente in which Mons. D'Alembert has observed, it does not occur in any pure Rohe who devotes himself to the cul- man writer, is not necessarily an tivation of any one of them, if he impropriety, technically so called ; would keep his knowledge up to for if a considerable variation from the level of its state, is reduced to such an established sense were fo, the neceflity of Ainging away a the very grammatical terms of the very valuable part of his life, in ac. Roman writers would full under quiring seven or eight languages. that censure, as for instance (articu

“ But the latinity of the terms lus) an article, (verbum) a verb. in which natural history is written, When these terins were first used fias been censured : upon this by grammarians, there was a great charge the following remarks may variation from their pre-establithed be made.

sense, and their priinary significa. “ Such terms must be either pri- tions-a joint, a word. mitives or derivatives; now either “ It is likewise certain, that if of these may be barbarisms, when grammar had not been reduced innot found in any good Latin au- to an art among the Romans, these

terms degreo

terms would not have been now have long pursued these researches;
found in their technical senses in that to unusunl fuljects I may ap-
their writings. And if a writer of ply teruts which never have been
this age, having reduced the art in- in ufe.
to a system, h::d presented the world "liticus. 'Certainly: but if our
with the first Latin Grammar, and Latin language will not furnith
had given the same names, verbum, 'them, you may have recourse to
articulus, to the same things, bis the Greek.
offence against pure latinity, or the

" Varro. “I am obliged to you ; pre-established good use of those • but I will endeavour to exprefs words, would have been of the fame 'myselt in Latin, coutining myself magnitude as that of the original to such terms of Greek derivation Laun grammarians, and no more; as are already naturalized among the same innovations in a language, us, as philofophy, rhetoric,phyfics, living or dead, being of equal qua- dialectics. I have therefore form- . lity: yet the charge against the pro- 'ed the new term Qualitas, to expriety of the terms used by such a press the sense of the Greek word writer, would be the same in kind 'Iluórns; which even among them as that brought against the natural is not a word of common ute, but hiftorians; but it must have fallen 'confined to the philosophers. In liko to the ground-nor would it have manner, none of the terms of the been in degree less strong; for logicians are found in the popular bolder extenfions in the sense of language; and the fame is true of Latin terins, are not, that I recol- the terms of almost all the arts: ta Jeet, to be found in the Lexicon of 'new things new' names must begiven, our technical language. Thele faf- fortline of others transferred to them. tidious grammatical exceptions are, • If the Greeks take this liberty, in principle, exceptions both to the who have cultivated the sciences art and the philosophy of grammar. 'for ages, how much stronger is the If the naturalists err in this point, renfon it frould be granted to us, in they err with the grammatical fa- our first attempt to treat upon them! thers (cum patrilus).

Cicero. • It le ms to me, that “ Secondly, What I have to say you will do a cork of utility to the about derivatives not used in Latin public, if you not only increase the writers, will be contained in a short stock of our ideas, which you have comment on a passage in the Aca- ulreadly clone, but also that of our demnic Questions of Cicero, where

r words. he asserts the rights and privileges Varro. We fhall therefore of those who treat on philosophical hazard the use of new words when subjects in a language not yet en- 'neceffary, and by your authority. riched with proper terms, and ex- “ And where the fame necessity, emplifies his principles in the for- arising from the fame source, exifts, mation of a new derivative, an au- the time liberty is to be taken. thority from which I apprehend no And as Cicero, on this point, is an appeal will be made. The transla- unexceptionable authority, let us tion of this passage is as follows. examine his practice, to fee to what The original is placed at the end of degree it may be carried. The this article *.

word Qualitas, derived from Quale, Varro. “You will allow me the is now familiarized to the ear. The • same liberty which has always first boldness of this derivative is been affumed by the Greeks, who only perceived by redection; but its

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degree will &rike us more immedi. science with a number of new diso ately, if we take the Englith words coveries, confers a second general achat, or fuch (as), which answer to benefit, by enriching the language the Latin pronominal adjective Quale, in which he treats of thein, by all and add one of the substantive ter- such terms as thall be requisite to do minations (houd) or (nefs] to either, it in the best manoer. to make a philosophical term of it. “ Cicero, repeating his new term I ask the severe grammarians, who guolity, adds with great philosophiproteft against the class of new deri- cal pleasantry, • Faciamus tractando vatives in the philosophical language ufitatius hoc verbum, et tritius. of Linnæus, to produce among them And it may be said of the terms of a boider example of the creation of natural history, that our elegant clafa new term.

lical scholars will find their asperi“And by the same authority, we ties wear off very soon, if, by adding inay defend his imposing new ligni- to their former acquisitions'a knowo fications on old words; for in a few ledge of this new philofophy, they Bnes after the conclusion of the ex- make themselves practically versed tract, there occurs a liberty of this in the use of them. There may rekind, and as remarkable as the main some precisely descriptive, former; for Cicero there gives a which may be yet added; fome renew sense to the pronominal adjec- formation may be wanted in those sive Quale, in correspondence to that which may have been haftily adoptof his new derivative Qualitas; ufing ed; and from them we may expect it substantively to fignify any being it. or thing, as compounded of fub. “ It is to be observed, that these Itance and acciderit, or matter and arguments defend the liberty, not qualities; ' Et ita effeci quæ appel. the licentiousness, of introducing ·lant qualia ; e quibus in omoi na. new ternis; and defend it upon the I tura cohærente, et continuata cum footing of necessity only; and there. soninibus fuis partibus, effectum fore extend that iiberty no further este mundum.'

than such neceflity actually ex“ It deserves to be reinarked re- tends. specting these innovations, that this “ I had thought to have finished affertion of the legitimacy of the here: but having made so much use fra&tice in all like cafes is here put of the authority of the great orna. by Cicero into the mouth of Varro, ment of the Roman forum, the fenthe greatest critic and grammarian timents of ihe elegant expositor of of the Augustan age; who wrote on our own laws on this subject are not the Latin language, and addressed in be passed by. These, with a mihis works to Cicero himself. nute change to avoid the introduce

“ Hence it appears, that philofo- tion of freth matter, are as follows: phy is not refirained to the use of “This is a technical language calcu. the common terms of any language; lated for eterna! duration, and easy nor, for the same reason, to those of 6 to be apprehended both in present the historians, orators, dramatic and future times: and on these ac. writers, poets, &c. of that language, ! counts best suited to preserve those either separately or conjointly: but, memorials which are intended to as every art has terms of its own, so perpetuate (every discovery in na. bas every branch of science. tural hiftory]. It is true indeed,

“ Thus he who enriches any that many of the terms of art with 1997


• which

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