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Im GL 101
amare am iz presented some of the accve-named mire te Lenaca of 375
Set Jat are teared u and his sen ir akng so. While the peared in two Direct = 1 g Cast, the Tare 3 3 marty or supposing that arvet is as performance at the Lenaea
a te ive not much longer.
Tie wer wrent is saced 445/4 or a 15.Inter beleves that it should be. na ica II 200-2153-155
Note a the Simon fr ze Smy of Religion in Homer, Sv Professor Armor Furoanks, of ze Jamersoy of lowa (read by
The surf me iferent us if sca ifen Emer is necessarily difficult fr the sulent vigas that there is the result of a long process of revestment, siken my nere mi anguage but the picture of life as well must have been in v as res some points we can see that the accum of sign vui te swer = uns vid vuld act afect so easily language i nisu Asa Kar must have interfered with reign more ban vi angage, ir signs user bound to locality. Yet Is rette 18n met ur schlars to apply xuly distinct methods 3. the wines of sur Is commen" ang tu de epic language was not SUKH I L me nae mu time athuga i nevis te “manufactured" jens or grammaticas Is Less the scal to trace any
evolucen a assumei stata a de prens at t came to be understood in many parts of Greece wire i vas difcut ir as he spoke one dialect to undersir à VE FURT ÅLES N as stated In other words, the language VN 2SUKLY *ec' cara a DE XES Y 18mlada fom *ferent sources. Are we not juste: assuming at the same prapie bb's true of the picture of sed te? That the cure of reign a ke manner, does not reproduce the reign of a one nacerone perod, though i indades no absolutely new creation of the reet; that is crassens hue to the poet's unconscious art; tat tante interservé al zeer Greece, when the worship of one cult-centre wed) oben ze Seega on fancher cub-centre?
Les assum, cea be gate, the son of enc region should follow the same lines as the story of epat unruge. As ecessary frst to study the picture of
religion in the poems with all due regard to what we may learn from other sources as to different "strata." The results of this study cannot be directly used for the religion of one epoch or one place, any more than the results of such a study of epic language or metre. Secondly, we may ask what modifying influences must be assumed as acting on the bards. Evidently the account of the gods and of worship is cut loose from local religious centres and given such a universal form as will suit poetry sung in many places. Again, the deeper phases of religion are not suited to the banquet occasion with which this poetry is associated. Perhaps the "rationalistic" atmosphere of the epic, its disregard for magic, some forms of divination, etc., is due partly to the attitude toward this phase of religion among the "princes" who were entertained by the bard. Thirdly, we may be able to connect some parts of this picture of religion with data from other sources, before and after the epic, and thus give it its true place in the history of Greek religion.
36. Can Ancient and Modern Views of the Minor Sapphic and Other Logaoedic Forms be reconciled? by Dr. Herbert W. Magoun of Cambridge, Mass. (read by title).
The object of this paper was to show that the difference between ancient and modern ideas of the Minor Sapphic and other logaoedic forms is chiefly one of viewpoint. The rhythm actually used in the days of Horace may have been, and probably was, essentially the same as that now employed. The reasons for this supposition are as follows: First, all logaoedics were composed in 4/4 time. The evidence on this point is conclusive. Second, all such measures contained rhythmical elements. This also can be abundantly proved. Third, the metricians confessedly omitted those elements. Fourth, pauses did occur within the lines, Schmidt et al. to the contrary notwithstanding. Native testimony on this point must outweigh modern conjecture. Fifth and last, the analyses that have come down to us are metrical, and therefore devoid of the rhythmical elements, which are necessary to complete the bars.
The Minor Sapphic has the structure (Latin, standard form): _UL_IL AUU_IUL_Ā. Stripped of its rhythmical elements, this gives the scheme : _. Adding the possible alternate short syllable in the fourth place (Greek form) and the syllaba anceps, gives the result: .~~_lu_~, which is exactly the analysis found in Hephaestion. The alternate short may occasion some trouble in the scheme; but it occasions none in practice, if the sense is properly observed. A balancing element usually a pause- always occurs in the bar. Observing the apparent trochees, Schmidt evidently surmised that the time was 3/8. He accordingly analyzed the line as (Greek): _ul_ÿl-uul
, or (Latin): _~l_> |_twl_ul__~, ignoring the fact that the final syllable, at least in Latin, is generally long. Others, however, modified the Latin scheme and treated the last two syllables as, L│— ^, by syncopation.
Schmidt's (Latin) analysis and the above 4/4 scheme have two things in common; namely, both recognize the fact that the third syllable is regularly longer than the fourth and that the fifth takes more time than the sixth and seventh. In the Greek the place of the caesura is not fixed, and the rhythmical elements
are used with much greater freedom, in the matter of position, than in Latin. The cyclic dactyl, so-called (Greek 3/8 scheme), has no justification.
The lack of agreement at the close, in the 3/8 and 4/4 analyses, seems to have been due to a desire on Schmidt's part for uniformity. A similar reason may be urged for the non-agreement, in some parts of the other forms, of the 3/8 and 4/4 analyses. The renderings actually used by Schmidt and other scholars were probably in 2/4 time, if not in 4/4. Correct 3/8 time is almost never used in practice. A 2/4 rendering results from the 3/8 schemes, because a slight deliberation is used in scanning, which amounts to the use of minute balancing pauses between the words and syllables. They are too brief to be noticed; for they are not over one-sixth of a second in length for ordinary speech. The 4/4 renderings and analyses will be found to satisfy all the essential requirements of both ancient and modern ideas on this subject.
The Latin forms are the more regular of the two, and they may be taken as the standard in consequence. Even these, however, show frequent irregularities. In the Greek, the rhythmical elements, including the caesuras, are constantly shifting their positions, and almost every line must be considered by itself. It was for this reason that the metricians confined themselves strictly to the conventional feet, which remained constant. In the Asclepiadean group, the forms with divided bars (see below) are Latin. The Greek may have preferred the other arrangement. The divided bars, indicated by the double lines (I), correspond to modern musical usage. The analyses (Latin standard lines) are as follows:
1. Asclepiadean, Major || ___ | __ ~ ~L^I_UUL^I_UULU|_ñ || 2. Asclepiadean, Minor ||
UUL^I_UULUI _Ā ||
A few changes may be necessary in minor details. For example, there are reasons for thinking that the Asclepiadean group, in Latin, always ended either as ~LI~_^ || or as
Recent attempts to avoid the cyclic dactyl have been made by dividing the choriambus ( ~|~ __); but the remedy is worse than the disease. The fundamental error in the time is retained, and the scansion is made more mechanical than before. A simpler method would have been the use of a true dactyl in 3/8 time (or d. ). There is no harmony, however, between a 3/8 (quick waltz) rhythm and logaoedics. See the paper on Time Relations above, p. xxxiii f.
While the 4/4 analyses will not scan, they differ but slightly from renderings already in use. The best way to follow them is to keep the prose accents of the words and observe the sense of the lines; in other words, to read naturally, as in English. The stress ictus should be abandoned. The use of stressed tones following the division lines of the bars in music, does not appear to have antedated the sixteenth century A.D. It did not become the fixed practice till the eighteenth. To attempt to carry it back to classical times; in the light of these facts, is futile.
Finally, it should be noted that the dipodies of the drama, in both Latin and Greek, are to be explained by a 4/4 structure, which admitted logaoedic lines wherever necessary.
Adjourned at 4.45 P.M.
The next meeting of the Association will be held in conjunction with the Archaeological Institute of America in December, 1906, at the George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PACIFIC COAST.
The Seventh Annual Meeting was held at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art in San Francisco on December 27, 28, and 29, 1906.
The meeting was called to order on Wednesday at 2 P.M., by the first Vice-President, Professor E. B. Clapp, in the absence of President J. Goebel.
Professor Leon J. Richardson then presented his report as Treasurer for the year 1904-1905:
The Chair appointed the following committees:
Time and Place of Next Meeting: Professors Nutting, Johnston, and Noyes.
The reading and discussion of papers was then begun.
1. Notes on the Pseudo-Vergilian Ciris, by Dr. I. M. Linforth, of the University of California.
This paper is to be published in full in the American Journal of Philology.