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uot.—456. Furentis. The Centaurs often brought fatal conflicts upon themselves under the maddening influence of wine; notably on the occasion of their attempt to seize upon Hippodamia, the bride of Pirithous, when many of them were slain by Pirithous and the other Lapithae, and by Theseus, his friend and guest.- 456. Leto ; ablat. of means. 467. Magno cratere. See figure of Bacchus, page 24, and Comp. Ae. IX, 346.

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458–542. Episode and conclusion: No life so happy as that of the husbandman ; It is, indeed, without the splendor and luxury of the metropolis, yet blessed with undisturbed peace (secura quies), exempt from fraud (nencia fallere), rich in resources (dives opum), surrounded with the beauty and the bounties of nature, and retaining the traditions of primitive industry, frugality, religion (sacra deorum), flial reverence (sancti patrés), and justice (458-474); in such a life, next to the study of the deep truths of nature, the poet himself would seek repose (475-489); such a life is indeed, not less to be desired than that of the philosopher; for it, too, is exempt from the anxieties of public station and from the common passions, the avarice, the ambitions, strites, and turmoil of the world; content with the rewards of rustic labor, the pleasant things of the woods and fields, the joys of the country fireside, the manly sports, the life of the olden time (490–540); concluding lines (541, 512).

460. Iustissima; giving the husbandman just return for labor. Cicero says: The earth repays with interest what she receives. De Sen. 15.–461. Si non, etc. Foribus superbis ; join with alta, as ablat. of manner. -462. Salutantum undam. The palaces of the Roman nobility were thronged at an early hour in the morning, usually for two hours, by clients and friends, either in token of respect, or to obtain advice and assistance. Totis aedibus. The atrium and the other apartments accessible to visitors are crowded during the “levee," and thus from the whole mansion pours the crowd, passing out through the vestibule and portal. -463. Nec inhiant, and if they do not stare at. Mi (agricolae) is the subject. The meaning seems to be, that country people have no such splendid mansions to admire either as owners or visitors. "Testudine ; join with varios. The door-posts or jambs, and also the walls of apartments, were sometimes inlaid with tortoise-shell. - -464.

Inlusas, embroidered. See cut, Notes on Aeneid, p. 35.- 466, 466. Neque, etc. The dative illis is again implied, as in 462. 466. Casia probably means, here, the oriental aromatic cinnamon that was mixed with oil, for anointing the hair and the person. The simple country people used the pure olive-oil for this purpose, unmixed with exotic pertumes. For the Italian variety of casia, see E. I, 49, and Ge. II, 213.467. At, yet, nevertheless, answers to the concessive force of si.468. Latis fundis, on the broad lands, or in the wide fields. Supply sunt. Otia, times of leisure.

469. Frigida Tompe ; a frequent synonym for any delightful valley. 471. Saltas ao lugtra ferarum refer to the chase.

473. Extroma, last ; in her abode upon earth, after abandoning all other classes of men ; for, in the iron age, she (Astraea or Justice) departed to heaven, forsaking at last even the dwellings of husbandmen. Comp. Ae. I, 292, sq. Per illos ) sc. agricolas. 475. Primum. The study of the philosophy of nature

Cassia. would be his first choice; but if that be denied to him, then the life of the husbandman. Ante omnia , join with dulces. Comp. E. II, 62. Musae, as the guides to contemplation.

476. Quarum sacra fero, whose sacred symbols 1 bear; as if he were leading a sacrificial procession; hence, “whom I serve as priest.”. So Horace, as a poet, calls himself Musarum sacerdos. See Hor. O. III, 1, 3.-479-482. The interrogative clauses depend on monstrent, as objects co-ordinate with the foregoing accusatives. 479, 480. Qua vi, etc., describes the flow and ebb of the tides. 481, 482. See n. on Ae. 1, 745, sq.

-483. Sin introduces the alternative to primum, etc., 475.- 484. Ciroum praecordia į join with frigidus (flowing coldly). The power and acuteness of the mind are conceived by Vergil to depend upon the state of the blood. Empedocles taught that the soul was in the blood about the heart, or, as Cicero understands him, that it was the blood itself. Cic. Tusc. I, 19.486. Ubi supply sunt. Where are these places sung by, other poets? Are they, indeed, inaccessible to me? Vergil longed to visit the regions immortalized by Grecian poets. 487. Bacchata. Comp. Ae. III, 125. -488. O, qui; fully expressed: 0, ubi est qui.-490, 492. Potuit, subiecit , the perfect definite, here, not essentially different from the present tense. Vergil adopts the sentiment of the Epicureans and of Lucretius, who taught that, in ascertaining the fundamental laws of naturethat is, the causes of things—they had risen superior to the fear of death, of a future state, and of the retributions dreaded by ordinary mortals.495. Populi fasces, purpura regum; symbols respectively of the highest offices in Rome, and of the splendor of foreign kingdoms; neither of these excites the ambition ( flexit) of the secluded husbandınan.- -496-502. The perfects are aoristic. See on Ge. I, 49.—496. Infidog- fratres. The allusion is probably not to the Roman civil strifes, but to the enmity of Tiridates and Phraates, whose rival claims to the throne of Parthia were well known at Rome, and afforded, therefore, an apt example of the evils of the anıbition for royal power. -497Conjurato Histro. On the north bank of the Danube dwelt the warlike Dacians, who were now threatening to descend from their mountain homes, and invade the empire by crossing the frozen river. The Danube is used figuratively, like the Euphrates in Ge. I, 509, for the people dwelling near it. The wars with the Dacians actually commenced in B. c. 34, and were nearly continuous for twenty years. They were often renewed in later times. Coniurato does not necessarily imply any confederacy with other tribes ; simply, all their chiefs and warriors, united in the uprising.


498. Res Romanae perituraque regna, Roman affairs and tottering kingdoms. Formerly, the Roman Senate, through its proconsuls and commissioners, and, lately, Augustus with his counselors and generals, have been largely occupied in'" settling the affairs" of old monarchies that were, or were supposed to be, on the eve of dissolution. Such now were Egypt and Armenia, and, in the mind of the poet, perhaps, Parthia. -499. Doluit inopem. The poverty-stricken are found in the city rather than the country.

-501, 502. The perfects as in 496, sqq.502. Tabularia. The office of the public records, connected with the temple of Saturn at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, was resorted to by those who desired to consult the documents deposited there.—503. Sollicitant alii freta carries the notion of troubling the deep in the eager pursuit of gain, just as the foregoing class disturb the Forum insanum forum) with angry litigations and mad ambition for office. -604. In ferrum ; meton. for in bellum. Penetrant, etc., refers to the arts and intrigues of courtiers.--505. Petit exscidiis, assails with destructive forces. So bello petiisse Penatis, Ae. III, 603. Some, however, make exscidiis in the dative. Urbem ; probably intended in a general sense; but there may be, as some think, an allusion to the rumored purpose of Antony to attack the city of Rome. --508. Hic-rostris. One class is charmed with eloquence (rostris), and thus incited to practice it. _Stupet is followed here by the ablative ; in Ae. II, 81, by the accusative. Hunc. Another class is roused to emulation, when gazing admiringly (hiantem) at the men of world-wide fame as they enter the theatre, and are greeted with tlie redoubled plaudits of the whole Roman people (plebisque patrumque). Such a reception was that of Maecenas, described by Horace, 6. II, 17, 25: Cui populus frequens Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum.- -509. Per cuneos, over or along the benches. See illustration, Ge. III, 25. The store seats are divided into wedge-like sections by the transverse passage-ways or alleys. Geminatus enim, repeated, indeed ; equivalent to ut qui geminatus sit.

-510. Gaudent, etc. ; another class, stained with the fratricidal blood of civil war, and rejoicing in it. Supply alii. In alluding so freely to the civil wars as fratricidal and impious, Vergil and Horace were in no danger of offending Augustus, because their frequent praises of him as the savior of the country leave it to be inferred that his opponents alone were the guilty assailants of the public peace, and that the part taken in the conflict by him was necessitated by his duty to the republic. Thus

Horace does not hesitate to say (0. I, 35, 33), Heu, heu, cicatricum et sceleris pudet fratrumque, and always to characterize the civil wars as impious. -- 512. Alio, here, foreign. As a consequence of supporting the defeated factions in those strifes many are obliged to flee to foreign lands.- -513. Agricola, etc.; contrasted with the above-mentioned classes of men. -614. Labor; meton. for the fruit of labor; his toilful gain. Supply est. Parvos Penatis meton. for a humble home or family.-_-616. Meritos. The oxen have well deserved their food. -516-518. Neo requies, etc. The year fails not to make bountiful returns either of fruits, or of grain, or of the increase of the flock, one or all.- -519. Sicyonia. The neighborhood of Sicyon was well known as an olive-growing region. As with us the “cider-mill” in. cludes both the machine for crushing the fruit and that for pressing out the juice, so the oil-mill, or oil-press, contained both the trapetum (from Spareiv, to tread the grape) for crushing the pericarp of the olive-berry, and the press (prelum or torcular) for extracting the oil. The latter is illus

Olive-oil press.

trated in the accompanying woodcut from a wall-picture in Pompeii ; probably quite the same as the prelum for pressing grapes. The caldron represented at the left of the cut is used for heating water, to be poured into the press to aid a second flow of oil, after the first and purest has been extracted.

-520. Glande ; join with laeti ; sleek or fat with the acorn, or, by feed, ing on the acorn. -526. Demittunt implies that the dugs are well filled by the day's pasturage.—527. Ipse { the husbandman himself, as distinguished from the objects that surround him.-527-531. Dies agitat festos, He celebrates the vintage festival, or “thanksgiving," assembling his family, his friends, and his farm-slaves, including the shepherds and herdsmen ( pecoris magistris), offering sacrifices and libations on the altar placed in the midst of the company (ignis in medio (est)), and hanging on some elm-tree the prizes (certamina) for the contest with the javelin, which are destined to be given to the shepherds and herdsmen (pecoris magistris), and prizes for those who strip their sturdy limbs for the rustic games of wrestling and of the foot-race (agresti palaestrae). With

this vintage festival compare those of spring and harvest-time, Ge. I, 338, sqq.- -628. Cratera coronant į to be taken literally: they wreathe the rino-bowl. See on Ae. I, 724; and, for an example of the crater, the figure of Bacchus at the head of the notes on this book. -630. Certamina. I have followed the interpretation of Heyne and Voss in rendering certamina “prizes," rather than "mark" or "target,” preferred by most of the recent editors.-631. Nadant. The subject is agrestes or rustici, including others besides the pecoris magistri, but not excluding the latter.-534. Scilicet; with the foregoing verb, as in Ge. I, 282.- -534, 535. And by such habits of life in her yeomanry Rome became the strongest and most glorious of republics, and being, one city, became sevenfold (urbs septicollis), encircling seven hills with her walls and fortifications. Arces : as in Ac. VI, 783, where we find nearly the same words repeated.—536. Ante-regis. Before the supremacy of Jupiter in the affairs of men supplanted the happy reign of Saturn. Comp. Ae. VIII, 319, sq. Dictaet. According to the ancient mythology, Jupiter was born on Mount Dicte in Crete. -637. Impia. The slaying of the ox, an animal so patiently toiling for man (see 515), once seemed to be a violation of duty not less criminal than homicide. Cic. de Nat. Deor. II, 63.-538. Aureus. On the age of Saturn, see introduction to notes on E. IV, and on the use of aureus, note on E. IV, 9.-639. Inflari classica ; the trumpets sounded, the blast of trumpets. -641. Immensum spatiis aequor ; equivalent to immensis spatiis aequor, a field or race-course of unlimited extent. The book ends with an image from the chariot-race kindred to that which closes the first book.

Fruit in glass and terra cotta vessels. (From a wall-painting in Pompeli.)

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