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G. 1, 43, «q.

the stock. In such a case it seldom or never recovers its vigor. Que continues the force of the negation. Even if the damaged vines are cut down caesae), they can not grow up again (reverti), and shoot forth green and fourishing as before (similes revirescerè) from under the ground (ima terra).

-313. Similes ; like themselves, of the same quality as before. — 314. Superat, remains ; possesses the ground alone, the vines being destroyed.

-316. Tam prudens, etc.; elliptical for tam prudens habeatur ut persuadeat. Let no one, be he ever so wise. —316. Borea spirante. When the wintry wind prevails. Tellurem movere refers to the work of trenching for the new vines. 317. Hiems ; here, the cold weather either at the beginning of winter or on the verge of spring, when the ground is too stiff to be easily penetrated by the delicate fibers of the root. Semine iacto, when the young vine is planted.-318. Concretam, stiffened with cold. Comp. Ae. XII, 905. Adfigero ; for se adfigere, fasten upon. So Heyne. 319. Rabenti. Comp. G. IV, 306. —-320. Candida avis refers to the stork.- -323. Adeo, here, introduces an additional and not 'less important fact.

“ The spring, indeed, is also favorable," etc. Nemorum, silvis ; as in 310, of vineyards and orchards.-325. Aether. See E. VII, 60, and note. The allegory personifying the atmosphere as exerting a quickening influence on the fertility

of the earth, belongs to the earliest period of mythology.--326. Omnis , with fetus. —-327. Magnus, magno ; expressive of the vast extent of the acther or the firmament, and of the earth spread out beneath-330. Parturit, is teeming; i. e., with all vegetation.--330, 331. Auris laxant. Comp. 316, sq., and

-331. Sinus ; for glebam. Superat, as in G. I, 189. Omnibus (arcis)dative.

-332. Novos soles ; the suns of the fresh returning spring. -333. Nec metuit, etc., emphasizes the idea of tuto.-334. Caelo. Comp. 306, and G. I, 322. - 337. Habnisse. The subject is dies.-338. Ver agebat, was passing or enjoying its spring-time. 339. Euri. The east winds were rough. See Ae. 1, 85.- -341. Duris ; because not yet mellowed by tillage. -343. Res tenerae ; i. e., the young plants of every kind. Laborem, exposure, peril ; incident to vicissitudes of weather, rough winds, extremes of heat and cold. -344. The last syllable of the line is elided by synapheia.

-345. Exciperet contains the notion of receiving under one's protection; sheltering, cherishing.---346. Quod superest, as for the rest ; moreover. Vir. galta, here, vine-layers, propagines. -349. Tenuis, subtle, penetrating. Comp. G. I, 92.-350. Halitus; for aer. Animos tollent, will lift their (own) spirits ; will get new strength. Iamque, and indeed.-

-351. Super ; with urgerent. Saxo atque pondere testae; but not both at once ; sometimes with the stone, sometimes with the potsherd or tile. -352, 363. Hoc, hoo ; a repetition for emphasis.-36. Ad capita, at or about the crowns of the roots. The soil at the base of the trunk must not be allowed to become hard and impervious to moisture and air.–367. Plowing between the rows is also the common method of cultivating our peach-orchards. Flectere , as in Ae. I, 156.- -358. Calamos, etc. It was necessary to fasten (aptare) reeds, or else slender rods stripped of their bark (rasae), to the young vines.

-369. Sudes furcasque valentis. Strong stakes are prepared, some straight and some forked, so that the former may rest as bars on the crotches of the latter when fixed upright in the ground. These are the support of the vine, perhaps, in its sccond year.—360. Viribus ; ablat. of the means.-361. Tabulata. The different stages or tiers formed by the limbs of the supporting tree. -362. Prima aetas; for vitis aetate prima. Frondibus ; ablat. of

-363. Parcendum, must be left untouched. -363, 364, Se agit, shoots. ---364. Laxis habenis į a metaphor denoting freedom from restraint. Comp. Ae. V, 662.-—-365. Ipsa has been referred variously to aetas, to vitis, to acie, and even to virgulta, in v. 346. It seems most satisfactory, on the whole, to refer it to acie as contrasted with the following uncis manibus. Thus: we must not yet touch the tender vine with the edge of the knife itself, but " pinch off” the leafy sprays with the contracted fingers. -367. Inde introduces the directions about the third and last stage of growth, as Conington thinks; the first being prima aetas, the second dum se palmes agit, etc.—372. Laborum. Comp. 343.376. Pascuntur; supply quam ; suggested by cui.-377. Scopulis, here for collibus or cliris. -_-378. mi emphatic; "those destructive beasts."'- -381. Ineunt, etc. The public festivals of thanksgiving to Bacchus open the theatrical plays with the sacrifice of goats. -382. Praemia. To the dramatists whose plays were accepted by the Archon—that is, to the gifted or, to talent (ingeniis)-the Athepians awarded goats as prizes. Hence the play, itself was called "payodia, goatsong. The goat thus given as a prize was immediately sacrificed to Bacchus. Pagos et compita ; the places where the primitive dramas were performed.


-384. Unctos per atres. The skins of the goats were filled with wine and besmeared with oil, and then bestowed as prizes upon those who could dance upon them without falling. This, with the rest of the merry-making that followed the tragedy, gave rise to the Attic comedy (rwydia, villagesong). -886. Noc non Ausonii. The Italians, no less than the Greeks, have their festivals in honor of Bacchus; those of the spring-time, to make the god propitious to the growth and fruitage of the vine ; those of the autumnal vintage, in thanksgiving: --- 386. Incomptis, rude; as contrasted with the verses of the Attic poets (ingeniis). -387. Corticibus ; ablat. of the material or of description. The masks of bark were bending (cavatis) from the natural curvature of the bark in growing. A marble mask of Bacchus, made to be suspended in this manner, and also a medallion representing a tree with such masks hanging from its hranches, are preserved in the British Museum, and are given in Smith's Dict. of Antiq., from which our illus


Mask of Bacchus, and tree with masks. tration is copied. Horrenda, hideous.- -389. Mollia. Besides the definitions of the Dictionary, referring to this passage, the meaning “movable"i. e., swaying to and fro in the wind-is given by some. Ruaeus renders it fictília, plastic. Pinu. The pine cultivated about the vineyards was probably unlike any of the kinds familiar to us in America; most likely the stone-pine," a species common in the south of Europe, and a characteristic feature of Italian landscapes ; resembling, with its bare trunk and crown of branches and foliage, rather the general appearance of a palm than of our cone-shaped pipes. -390. Hino, causal, hence; on account of this observance. - 391. Complentur ; that is, with growth or fruitfulness (fetu).392. Quocumque. As the antecedent we may supply omnis locus. Ciroom egit. The shifting wind makes the god turn his face in many directions,

and his favorable influence is felt in them all. 393. Saum. See on sua, 240. Honorem bere refers to sacrificial hymns. -394. Lances. The chargers are filled with the first fruits of fields and orchards. See cut of " rustic sacrifice,''. page 18. 397. Ille labor ; that, namely, which is described in the following sentence : namque, etc. -399. Versis. The hoe is upturned or reversed, so that the back may be used instead of the teeth in breaking the heavy clods.400, 401. Levandum frondo, must be relieved of (superfluous) foliage ; must be well pruned.

401. In orbem, in a round or circle (kindred in form to in versum, in numerum), is joined by some with redit; by others, more correctly, perhaps, with actus ; carried on or pursued in routine. 402. In 80 ; never deviating from the fixed order of work and care that it brings round. Annus. The year especially of the farmer. - - 406. Relictam, Stripped of fruit and leaves ; naked. -407. Attondens fingit. He cuts off some of the “ canes" entire, and shortensin others, and thus brings the vine into the best

Stone-pine. • form for the fruitage of the next year. 408. Primus ; as compared with your neighbors; “ be the first to burn," etc. Devecta cremato i. e., devehito et cremato. See on Ge. I, 285. If you do not dispose of the prunings and rubbish early, and when you have leisure for it, you will be obliged to take more valuable time by-and-by. — 409. Vallos. These must not be left exposed to decay more rapidly than is necessary. -410. Postremus. By too early gathering you will damage the wine.

410, 411. Bis, bis. The rapid growth of the foliage of the vine (umbra, perhaps, also, of the supporting tree), and that of the grass and weeds, require pruning and " weeding” twice in the season ; once when the clusters are "setting, and again when they are ripening:- 411, Segetem, the vineyard. 41%. Laudato, eto. Be contented to admire the extensive landed estates of others, and, at the same time, for yourself, feel that you are better off in possessing a very limited amount of land. -413-415. Rasoi, harundo, salioti. Perhaps all were used for tying up the vines, though the reed was also used for supporting the young vines.- -415. Exercet, tasks the husbandman. -418. Pulvis movendus. Dust raised in stirring the soil was supposed in some way to benefit the vines.- 419. Metuendus. Either hail or violent rain is to be feared by the clusters.

420-457. The olive and other fruit-bearing trees require much less labor than the vine ; wild shrubs, too, and forest-trees yield valuable products, and on some accounts are a greater blessing to man than the gift of Bacchus.

421. Tenacis; not yielding their hold on the sod. -422. Auras tulerunt, have borne or have become used to the air, that is, to the wind and weather of the open field, which are more trying than the exposure of the nursery. Olives are usually raised in Italy on hill-sides. 423. Ipsa. Comp. E. IV, 21. Satis, the plants ; the newly-planted olives. -424. Cum vomore, eren with the share, or at once with the plow ; implying that no additional labor is needed. Others take cum for quum, and supply recluditur. Frages; the olive-berries. — 426. Hoci ablat. of cause; for this reason, Placitam Paci. The olive-branch, from time immemorial, has been the emblem of peace. — 426. Trunoos valentis, for truncorum vires; the strength and vigor of their trunks conveying due nourishment. -428. Que connects vi propria and haud indiga as modifiers of nituntur.---429-432. At the same time, the wild lands and woods yield their fruits and dark juicy berries, and other things needful to man, all without any labor on his part.

431. Tondentur cytisi. The cytisus is a kind of shrub-clover, the leaves of which are valuable food for cattle, and the flowers for bees. See E. I, 79. The use of the taedae is here added : to make the evening fire on the open hearth, and thus afford à cheerful light for the cottage.

-434. Quid maiora sequar? Why should I speak of more imposing things, or of the grand trees of the woods ? Even the lowly (humiles) plants and shrubs, such as the willow and the

broom, are beneficent. — Olive twig and fruit.

435. Illae, even they ; in appo

sition with the subject. See on Ae. I, 3. -436. Satis, for the plantations or orchards. Pabula melli, See on E. I, 55.437, 438. Iuvat spectare, videre. In saying that these objects



Evergreen cypress.


are delightful to behold, the poet impliee, as the context shows, that they also yield some substantial blessing to man, without being indebted to his labor (hominum non obnoxia curae). 437. Mount Cytorus abounded in boxtrees, remarkable for their size ; thus, " to carry box-wood to Cytorus" became a proverb of the same significance as carrying corn to Byzantium," or “coals to Newcastle.” The box is an evergreen, growing froin fitteen to twenty teet in height. 438. Naryciae picis ; the Bruttian pitch, gathered from the trees of the forest of Sila, by the colonists of Narycian Locri settled in that region. See on Ae. III, 399.-440. Ipsae ; even unpromising as they would seem to be, fruitless, and often shattered and stripped by the furious winds. 441. Perunt. Limbs and fragments are scattered by the tempest.- 443. The last syllable of the_line is elided by synapheia.444. Hinc equivalent to ex his. - 446. Frondibas almi. Tho leaves of the elm, as well as other trees and shrubs, were used for fodder.-447. Myrtus. See on I, 306. Validis hastilibus ; supply fecunda. Comp. Ae. III, 23, 46. Bona bello, yood for war; because its tough and fine-grained wood is excellent for

- 448. Cornus. The European cornel is kindred to the American “dogwood.” Its fruit has the appearance of cherries. Ituraeos , used here as a general epithet. The Arabs of Ituraea,

like the Cretans and Parthians, were skillful archers.- 449. Neo; to be taken with non in the next line. Lēves, rasilo ; of the appearance and feeling of the wood after being turned in the lathe.-450. Ferro acato especially the chisel and auger.

461. Torrentem undam; descriptive of the Po, as insano vertice in Ge. I, 481, Alnus. See illustration, page 28.

The European alder, unlike our American shrub of that species, is large enough to be hollowed out for canoes, and was much used in ancient times for that purpose. A canoe, or “dug-out," about thirty feet European cornel twig. long, was taken out of Lake Morat, in Switzerland, and is now in the museum at Avenche. It belongs, no doubt, to pre-historic times. The following is a pen-sketch of it made a few years ago, on a visit to the museum at that place. -452, Missa Pado, hurried along on, or "shootingdown the Po. Pudo is an ablat. of route. -453. Cor tiaíbas, etc. The bark of trees, and also partially decayed trunks of holm

Log canoe found in Lake Morat, and now in the museum at Avenche. oaks, served for hives. The latter may have been suggested by the habit of wild bees of selecting hollow trees for their homes. See Ge. IV, 83, 84. Alveo is scanned in this verse as a dissyllable. — 454. Join Aoqne with memorandum. Baccheia dona ; the gifts of Bacchus ; the vine and its prod

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