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507. Succedam : (requesting) that I proceed to the camp.' Ut is omitted.

508. saeclis : ‘by years’ of life.

511. Hinc: “from this country'; Italy; hence, not completely externus, as required by the soothsayer, l. 503.

1 523. Ni signum, etc.: the apodosis is suggested by putabant ; "they were pondering on many a peril in their anxious hearts,' and would have continued thus meditating, “ unless,' etc. Either Venus herself is permitted on this occasion to use the thunder, or Jupiter hurls it at her request.

525. ruere: the flashing of arms in the sky, the sound of trumpets, and other warlike tokens, in the heavens, were not infrequent to the imagination of the Romans, as the pages of Livy and other historians testify.

529. Per sudum: “through the clear sky’; though the arms themselves were surrounded by a cloud.

531. promissa : the promise is not mentioned before in the poem.

533. Olympo: for ab Olympo. The heavenly token summons me, is intended for me, not for thee.

542. Herculeis ignibus: Aeneas proceeds at once to the ara maxima, or great altar of Hercules, where the worship had been conducted on the previous day, and there, as the one to whom the supernatural sign had been sent, he renews the altar fires, and makes offerings first to Hercules, as the deity of the place, and then to the household gods of Evander, who have received and sheltered him, and who had also been included in the sacred honors of the day before.

547. in bella : 'on warlike perils ʼ; not actual war.

552. exsortem: not drawn by lot like the rest; therefore equivalent to egregium, insignem.

554-607. The parting of Evander with Aeneas and Pallas, and the arrival of Aeneas at the camp of the Etrurians near Caere.

555. regis : Tarchon (1. 506).
556. periclo: dative. The fear increases as the danger threatens.

558. euntes : sc. filii, suggested by pater and the general sense of the passage.

569, 570. finitimo Huic capiti: “this person (reigning) near him’; ‘me, his neighbor.'

576. in unum : 'to a meeting.' 579. abrumpere: cf. IV, 631.

588. pictis armis: the Arcadians painted their shields with symbolic figures.

589. perfusus unda: 'bedewed with the wave'; just risen from the east

ern ocean.

596. Note this famous line, the rhythm of which imitates the sound of galloping horses.

597. Caeritis amnem : 'the river of Caere'; the river running by the town of Caere.

598, 599. undique — cingunt: 'the encircling hills hem in and surround the wood (lucum or nemus through which the river runs) with dark pines' that covers their slopes.

601. diemque : ‘and a (festal) day'; a day set apart to his worship.

604. locis: “in position '; join with tuta. de colle: the whole Tyrrhenian army (legio) could be seen from the hill, where it was encamped. Cf. III, 647, and note. de colle is not the position of the spectator, Aeneas, but that of the object beheld, namely, the Etrurian army.

605. latis in arvis : probably refers to a broad plateau on the summit of the hill, affording a convenient and safe camping-ground. With tendebat sc. tentoria.

606. Huc: i.e. to the nemus or sacred grove in the valley. He does not visit the Etruscan camp on the hill until the following morning, when he forms the league with Tarchon. See X, 148 sqq., where this part of the narrative is resumed.

3, the

608–730. Venus brings to Aeneas the shield wrought by Vulcan, and adorned with raised work illustrating the following events and scenes in Roman history: 1, the story of Romulus and Remus; 2, the rape of the Sabine women; punishment of Mettus Fufetius; 4, siege of Rome by Porsenna; 5, Manlius and the Gauls; 6, a procession of the priests of Mars and Pan ; 7, the punishment of Catiline in Tartarus ; 8, the battle of Actium; 9, triumph of Augustus.

610. gelido secretum flumine: withdrawn by the cool stream? apart from his followers. Flumine, ablative place where.

Fig. 68. — Bronze Wolf (11. 631 sqq.) 611. ultro: 'beyond' what is expected, hence, here, 'suddenly.'

626 sqq. 'In Virgil's description of the shield of Aeneas every scene is a prophetic conception of events in Roman history, culminating with the glories of Augustus; the whole is thus strictly in harmony with the leading purpose of the poem, as an epic of national glory.' – Papillon.

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630. Fecerat et: he had also represented. In this sense facere takes the infinitive. 635. sine more: contrary to the usage of nations; 'lawlessly.'

636. Consessu caveae: 'in the assembly of the circus.'
643. maneres : = debebas manere.
644. Tullus : Tullus Hostilius, the third king of Rome.
647. Accipere: sc. illos (= Romanos), as the subject.

630. Aspiceres: you might see.' auderet: indirect discourse after verb of mental action implied in indignanti, minanti.

652. In summo: 'on the top of the shield '; on the upper part of the orb as it stood, or as it would appear

when held up before the warrior in battle. Fig. 69. — Sistrum

654. recens regia : 'the palace (always) fresh.' The (1. 696)

hut of Romulus, built in the first days of Rome, was always renewed by the Romans whenever its thatch had decayed, and therefore it was recens, as represented on the shield.

660. Virgatis: the small cloaks of the Gauls were 'striped' or checked, like the plaids of their modern kinsmen, the Scottish highlanders.

664. Lanigeros: the peak on the cap of the Salian priest, or priest of Mars, was encircled at the base by a tuft of wool.

670. Secretos: ‘set apart’ from the wicked.

671. Haec inter, etc.: the battle of Actium, perhaps, filled up the center of the shield.

673. argento: join with clari. Cf. III, 464.

676. erat: it was possible' to see. See note on VI, 596.

678. Hinc: contrasted with Hinc, 1. 685.

680, 681. tempora flammas vomunt: referring to the ornaments on his helmet. patrium vertice sidus: a star appears in the bas-relief work just over the head of Augustus. This is the lulium, here patrium sidus, termed also in the Eclogues, IX, 47, Caesaris astrum, a comet which Fig. 70.- Anubis appeared while Augustus was celebrating the funeral

(1. 698) games in honor of Caesar. Augustus was the adopted son of Caesar.

688. coniunx: Cleopatra, the paramour of Antony. 689. reductis : cf. adductis, V, 141.

696. sistro: the sistr um was a small musical instrument of iron, used in the worship of Isis.

697. angues: there is a reference here to the asps which Cleopatra is said to have used as the instruments of her death.

698. monstra: the Egyptian gods had the heads of beasts; Anubis, that

of a dog; hence, latrator. These are represented as fighting against the gods of Rome.

704. Augustus dedicated to Apollo a temple on the Actian promontory in honor of his victory.

710. lapyge ferri: “to be carried by the lapyx '; or northwest wind.

712. tota veste vocantem : 'inviting with all his (unfolded) mantle.' The god of the Nile is represented as opening his ample robes to receive the fugitives.

714. Augustus, on his return to Rome in 29 B.C., celebrated three triumphs for his victories respectively in Dalmatia, at Actium, and at Alexandria.

725. Lelegas Carasque: the early inhabitants of the west coast of Asia Minor; put here for the people of Asia Minor in general.

726 sqq. In Roman triumphs it was customary to carry representations of the rivers that flowed through the subjugated territory.

727. bicornis : perhaps with reference to the two principal outlets of the Rhine, the Vahalis and Rhenus. See note on l. 77.

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1–76. Iris, as the agent of Juno, encourages Turnus to attack the Trojan camp in the absence of Aeneas. On the approach of Turnus, the Trojans determine to follow the parting directions of Aeneas, to act only on the defensive. Turnus, exasperated at their inaction, prepares to set fire to their ships. 1. diversa parte: in a different quarter '; referring to the negotiations of Aeneas at the court of Evander and at the camp of the Etrurians.

3. parentis : ‘of his ancestor. According to X, 619, Pilumnus was the abavus, or great-great-grandfather, of Turnus.

8. urbe: the fortified camp at the landing place at the mouth of the Tiber.

9. Palatini : the name in historical times of the early settlement, Pallanteum, of Evander. petit: the last syllable is long under the ictus.

10. Corythi: see note on III, 167. 11. Lydorum: for Tuscorum. See note on II, 781, and VIII, 479. agres

tes: in apposition with manum.

18. nubibus actam : 'conveyed by the clouds’; well said of Iris.

20. discedere caelum: Iris in her de. scent seems to make the sky open like a curtain, so that the stars come into view.

23. hausit: Turnus drew water, to wash his hands before making his prayer. Cf. VIII, 69.

26. pictai: cf. aulai, III, 354; aurai,

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VI, 747

27. Messapus: see VII, 691.
28. Tyrrhidae: see VII, 484.

29. This verse seems to have been introduced by some copyist who took it from VII, 784.

30-32. The calm and regular march of Fig. 72. — Juno of Naples the army over the plains is likened to the

quiet current of a great river. surgens: swelling with its seven calm (tributary) streams.'

31. Per tacitum : “in silence.' Per is often thus used to denote manner. 32. alveo: a dissyllable here.

39. Condunt se, etc. : “the Trojans rush through all the gates for protection.' Those who happen to be on the outside of the camp, when the alarm is given by Caïcus from the battlement, hasten through the gates, and thus secure themselves from the enemy.

53. Principium pugnae: in apposition with the sentence, iaculum auras.

55, 56. mirantur, etc.: 'they (Turnus and his followers) wonder at the unwarlike spirit of the Trojans, (and) that they do not present themselves on the open plain.'

64. Ex longo: sc. tempore ; long,' 'for a long time'; join with collecta. sanguine : ablative of separation. See H. 465; LM. 604; A. 243, d'; B. 214, 1, d); G. 390; (H. 414, III).

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