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633. Per somnum : join with eructans. mero: the wine given to him by Ulysses.

634. sortiti vices : ‘having determined our parts by lot'; i.e. the parts, more or less dangerous, which each should take in the transaction.

635. telo: the instrument used was a sharp-pointed stake.

637. Phoebeae lampadis : cf. IV, 6. instar: properly, an indeclinable noun in apposition with quod. See note on II, 15.

641. qualis: refers to his appearance and his features, quantus to his size.

645. Tertia iam — complent: already the moon is coming to the full for the third time.

646. Cum : 'since.'
647. ab rupe: with prospicio.

651. primum: after long watching, now, for the first time,' he has caught sight of ships, and these the Trojan fleet.

652. Huic — Addixi: whatever it should prove to be, I resolved to give myself up to it. Fuisset (after addixi) stands for the future perfect indicative of direct discourse. At the moment when he made the resolution his form of expression would have been addicam, quaecumque fuerit.

654. potius: rather than leave me to be destroyed by the Cyclops.

655-681. Polyphemus, who has been deprived of his eye by the artful Ulysses, descends to the shore to wash the blood from the socket. He overhears the Trojans as they attempt to sail away, pursues them far into the water, and then utters loud cries which call forth all his giant brethren. They stand about on the hills casting threatening looks in vain at the Trojans, who are already beyond their reach.

658. Observe the ponderous line adapted in sound to the object described.

659. Trunca — firmat: "a lopped-off pine tree (held) in his hand guides and assures his steps.' Cf. VI, 30.

660. ea: see note on hoc, I, 17. 662. ad aequora: 'to the open sea’; where he could most easily bathe

The expression elaborates the idea contained in altos fluctus. Some, however, take the line as an example of hysteron proteron.

663. inde: refers to aequora ; he washes it with the water dipped with his hand from the sea.

664. gemitu: for et gemens; cf. II, 323. It denotes the manner of the act expressed in dentibus infrendens, while dentibus itself expresses the means or instrument of infrendens.

666. inde : of place. celerare : historical infinitive. 667. sic merito: so deserving ’; i.e. to be received into our ships. 669. vocis; cf. 1. 556. It refers here to the 'plashing noise' of the oars.

his eye.


671. Ionios : i.e. coming from the direction of the Ionian Sea. potis : sc. est and ille. aequare sequendo: “to match the waves in pursuing'; i.e: to overtake those who are borne on the swift waves.

673. penitus exterrita (est): ‘far within (its borders) was terrified.' 676. For the difference of number in the verbs here, see note on II, 31. 677. nequiquam : qualifies the whole phrase, adstantes lumine torvo. 679. vertice: local ablative.

681. Constiterunt: see note on II, 774. The perfect of this verb often has the force of a present. The oak was sacred to Júpiter, and the cypress to Hecate, the Diana of Hades.

682-715. They leave the shores of the Cyclops, and coasting by the mouth of the river Pantagia, the towns of Megara and Thapsus, the bay of Syracuse, then by the river Helorus and the promontory of Pachynum, they sail west. erly by Camarina, Gela, Mount Acragas, or Agrigentum, and doubling Lilybaeum, the western cape of Sicily, arrive at Drepanum, where they are received by king Acestes, and where Anchises dies.

682. Praecipites: agrees with nos. quocumque rudentes Excutere: 'to loosen our sheets for any course whatever. Cf. 1. 267

683. ventis secundis : dative; 'to the guiding winds’; to whatever course they may be favorable.

684-686. A perplexing passage. The sense, however, is perfectly clear. The wind was bearing the fleet to the northward, and directly toward the straits of Scylla and Charybdis. The warning of Helenus is opposed to this course, yet the danger from the Cyclops seems at the moment so much greater than any other that they resolve to sail back (certum est, etc.) toward the straits; but then suddenly a breeze is sent by a favoring divinity from the north, and thus they escape both the perils of the straits and of the Cyclops. The passage from Scyllam to cursus is in indirect discourse dependent upon an idea of saying implied in monent; hence the third person in teneant. utramque viam: subject of esse understood. Scyllam and Charybdim are governed by inter. discrimine parvo: ablative of description with viam ;

with small distance (of death). Translate thus: “On the other hand, the instructions of Helenus warn them that between Scylla and Charybdis the path on either side is but little distant from death, if they fail to hold their course.' dare lintea retro : must be understood of their return toward the straits, for the wind was then in that direction.

687. angusta : narrow '; because Pelorus is situated on the straits.

688. Vivo: see note on I, 167. The Pantagia flows into the sea below Leontini between rocky banks. Hence its mouth is of natural rock.'

689. Thapsum: a 'level’ peninsula bounding the Megarean Gulf on the south side.

690. Talia: 'such spots (as these).' relegens retrorsus Litora: 'coast. ing back again along the shores.' Virgil conceives Achemenides to have approached the coast of the Cyclops from the southern point of Sicily. He is now sailing with Aeneas in the contrary direction. errata: = pererrata ; by which he had wandered.'

692. sinu: dative with praetenta. The harbor of Syracuse is formed by Ortygia and Plemyrium.

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Fig. 32. — The Fountain of Arethusa in Modern Times (11. 694 sqq.) 696. The story was that the nymph Arethusa was loved by the river god Alpheus. When he pursued her, she was changed by Artemis into a stream that flowed beneath the sea to Ortygia. The god continued to pursue her, and his waters were mingled with hers in the fountain which bears her name.

697. Iussi : commanded'; i.e. by Anchises.

698. Exsupero: for praetervehor ; 'I sail by.' Helori : the river Helorus runs into the sea a little above the promontory of Pachynum with a very gentle current, which is sometimes even rendered stationary by the easterly wind, so that the neighboring lands are overflowed and fertilized.

701. Camarina : not the city itself, but a lake near the city, was forbidden by the oracle of Apollo to be removed. When the inhabitants, on account of pestilence, caused the lake, in spite of the oracle, to be drained, the city was thus exposed to its enemies, who passed over the bed of the lake and captured it.

702. Immanis: 'impetuous,' to be taken with Gela. Gela: takes the long a final from the Greek.

703. Acragas: a hill on which was situated the splendid city of Agrigentum, some ruins of which are still in existence.

704. magnanimum, etc.: this would seem to be the remark of the poet rather than of Aeneas.

705. datis ventis : ablative absolute. Selinus: mentioned both by ancient and modern writers as remarkable for the abundance of palm trees in its vicinity.

706. saxis caecis : ‘by reason of the hidden (or submerged) rocks.' Join with dura, 'dangerous.'

711. nequiquam : *(saved) in vain ’; because he was not suffered to see the end of all their wanderings, and the accomplishment of their enterprise.

718. Conticuit: refers to the voice of the speaker; "he ceased to speak.' quievit: to the task and fatigue of narrating; "he rested.'


Dido - her love and death.

1-89. Dido confides to her sister Anna the passion she has conceived for Aeneas, and, encouraged by her, she begins to think of winning him to an alliance in marriage; meanwhile the public works of Carthage and the duties of government are neglected.

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1. At: denotes the return from the narrative of Aeneas to that of the poet, which was interrupted at the end of the first book. gravi cura: 'with deep passion. saucia: see I, 719-722.

2. alit: not voluntarily, for at first she resists the feeling.

3. Multa, multus: to be taken closely with recursat and equivalent to adverbs, ‘oft ... oft.

4. honos: the glory of his family, as sprung from Jupiter and Venus. Cf. 1. 12, and X, 228.

8. male sana: cf. II, 23.
9. insomnia : = somnia graviora et terri.

Fig. 33. — Cupid bending his

Bow bilia, 'startling dreams.'

10. Quis — hospes: an elliptical expression, equivalent to: quis est hic novus hospes, qui successit ?

11. Quem, etc.: ‘presenting what a noble mien !' lit. bearing himself what in countenance !' pectore et armis: ablatives of quality with hospes. Supply est. Armis is from arma.

12. genus: predicate accusative with esse. Eum (understood) is the subject.

13. Degeneres animos: souls of base descent.' The heroism of Aeneas confirms his claim to a divine origin.

15. fixum immotumque : in agreement with the following clause, which is the logical subject of sederet.

17. deceptam: see note on I, 69.

18. pertaesum: sc. me. H. 457; LM. 585; A. 221, 6; B. 209; G. 377; (H. 410, IV).

19. potui succumbere: ‘I might have yielded.' H. 525, 1; LM. 693; A. 308, c; B. 270, 2; G. 254, R. I; 597, R. 3; (H. 476, 4). culpae: loving and marrying another after Sychaeus was, to her mind, a fault; for she had resolved to remain true to him.

21. sparsos Penates: for the construction, see note on II, 413. 22. hic: refers to Aeneas.

The .quantity here is short, as in VI, 792. labantem: an instance of prolepsis,'has shaken my resolution until it totters.

24. optem : H. 556; LM. 719; A. 267, c; B. 280, 2, a; G. 260; (H. 484, I). prius: is expressed again in Ante, l. 27, owing to the length of the intervening passage.

24, 25. dehiscat, adigat: see note on memoret, II, 75.
26. Erebi: a god of Hades, put for Hades itself.
29. habeat: sc. eos, referring to amores ; let him keep them.'
30. sinum - obortis : she bedews her bosom with gushing tears.'

31. luce: in prose would be quam vita. sorori: 'to thy sister'; more expressive than mihi.

32. Solane — iuventa: wilt thou through thy whole youth in loneliness pine away with grief ?' lit. ‘be wasted away grieving. Iuventa is an ablative of time, modifying the phrase maerens carpere.

33. noris : future perfect (noveris) with the sense of a future.

34. Id: i.e. your abstaining from marriage. sepultos: naturally transferred from the buried body to the Manes, at rest in Hades and free from earthly anxieties.

35. Esto: 'granted (that)'; referring to what follows. aegram: 'in thy grief’; mourning for Sychaeus.

36. Libyae : locative case. Tyro: ablative of place where.

37, 38. triumphis Dives : because it abounded in warlike tribes and chiefs continually engaged in internal wars.

38. amori: pugno, bello, certo, and luctor take the dative by poetic usage.

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