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is in waiting; and sometimes to bring back

dr s. d. the groom wiih still greater expedition. His Not exceeding two hours and forty constitutiou, therefore, is required to be good,

minutes.

0 7 0 and his spirit invincible; he must be enabled

Three hours

08 0 to go five and twenty or thirty miles at a stage

Three hours and twenwithout drawing bit, or the least respect to the

ty minutes. 0 90 state of the roads or the weather.

Three hours and forty HACKNEY, is used to denote, further, 2.

minutes.

0 10 0 A hireling; a prostitute (Ruscommon), 3.

Four hours

0 11 0 Any thing let out for hire (Pope). 4. Much used; common (Harrey). To HACKNEY. v. a. (from the noun.) To fifteeen minutes further time.

And so on at the rate of sixpence for every practise in one thing; to accustom, as to the oad (Skakspeare).

The fares are to be taken by the hour or mile HACKNEY-COAChes, those exposed to

only, and not by the day.

The sun-set hours, after which coaches are hire in the streets of London, and soine other obliged to go on the lighted roads, shall be great towns and cities, as Edinburgh, Liver- after eight between Lady Day and Michael, pool, Bristol, &c. at certain rates tixed by au

and after five between Klichaelmas and thority (See COACH.). These first began to ply in the streets of London, or rather waited hours beyond the carriage-way pavement, shall,

Lady Day; and coaches discharged after such at inns, in the year 1625, and were originally besides the above fares, have the will fare to no more than twenty in number. The following is a correct table of the present a stand beyond the saine, the full fare back

the extremity of such pavement; or if wired Gres.

such extremity or standing, at the option FARES ACCORDING TO DISTANCE.

For coaches hired to go into the country in

d. the day-tiine and there discharged, auditioral Not excecding one mile . . 0 1 o fares are to be taken for their relurl empty to One mile and a half 0

6 the pavement or next stand where hired froin, T:90 miles

0 2 as follows: for ten miles, five shillings; eight Two miles and a half o 30 miles, four shillings; six miles, three shillings; Three miles

( 3 6 and four miles, two shillings. If under four Three miles and a half o 4 () miles, nothing. Four miles

4 6 Coachmen are not compellable to take more Four miles and a half o 6 than four adult persons inside and a servant live miles.

6 0 out; but if they agree to take more, then one Five miles and a half o 6 6 shilling in addition io the fare inust be paid for Six miles ..

7 cach extra person ; and if the coach is hired for Six miles and a half

o the country, and to return, one shilling for such Seven miles

6 extra person going, and one shilling for his reSeven miles and a half o 9 () turning. Eight miles

0 96 Visitors of Vauxhall, and other places of Eight miles and a half o 10 6 public resort, ordering coaches to wait, must Nine mila

011

pay

a reasonable sum in hand, to be account. Nine miles and a half o 11 6 ed for when the coach is discharged. Ten miles .

Coachmen summoned for refusing to go
Ten iniles and a

half
0 13

0 with fares, who can prove that they have been Eleven mile; . . 0 13 6 twelve hours at work, or were at the time Eleven miles and a half o 14 0 actually hired, and it appearing that they did

Twelve miles . .. 0 15 O not use any uncivil language, or mis-conduct And so on at the rate of 6d. for every half themselves, are not to be punished for such remile, and an additional 6d. for every two miles fusai; but, on the contrary, receive from the completed.

party complaining a compensation for loss of time, not exceeding five shillings, nor less than three shillings.

Every coach shall have its number on each

£. s. d. side; and if any proprietor shall presume to Not exceeding thirty minutes. 0 1 o alter his number he shall forfeit 51. half to the

Forty-five minutes 0 6 king, and half to the informer. The horses to
One hour.

0

o be used with hackney-coaches shall not be One hour and twenty

under fourteen hands high. minutes

03 Any coachman refusing to go at, or exacta One hour and forty

ing more for his hire than according to the minutes.

0 4 0 foregoing rates, shall forfeit a sum not exceedTwo hours

0 o ing three pounds or under teu shillings; and Two hours and twen

in case of misbehaviour by abusive language ty minutes. 0 6 0 or otherwise, the commissioners may revoke

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his licence, cr infiict a penalty not exceeding ITADES, the Greek term used in Scripturethree pounds to the poor, and on non-pay for the unseen state. See ADES. ment, to be committed and kept to hard la- HADLEY, or HADLEIGH, a borough in bour for thiry days.

Suffolk, wiin á market on Mondays. li is goAny person refusing to pay the fare, or de- verned by a mayor, and has a very handsome facing ihe coach, may be brought by warrant church. Large quantities of yarn are spun bivore any justice, who, on proof upon oath, here for the Norwich manufacture. Lat.'52. may award satisfaction to the party; and in 10 N. Lon. I. 6 E. case of refusal to pay, may bind him over to II ADRIAN. See ADRIAN. the next sessions.

HADRIANEA, iu antiquity, games ob. Rents and penalties to be levied by distress, served at Puzzuoli, in honour of the emperor anci, in default thereof, imprisonmeni till paid ; Adrian. and if any rent is fourieen days unpaid, the HADSJAR, or LACHSA, a province of licence may be withdrawn.

Arabia, bounded on the north by Arabia DeA coach should be taken possession of before serta, on the east by the Persian Gulf, on the the coachman is told where to drive; if he south by Oman, and on the west by Nedsjel. then refuses to proceed he, is liable to be pı- The asses and camels of this country are much nished; and if at any time you apprehend that values, and some thousands of the latter an. more than the proper fare is demanded, you mually sold into Syria. In the interior parts may offer whatever is asked, but charge the of the country dates form a principal branch coachman to take no more than is due; and if of the food of the inhabitants. Pearl-fishing he then persists in the orercharge and takes it, on the coasts produces considerable advantage, you may take his number and apply for redress and there is some foreign trade. Lachsa is at the Hackney-Coach Office, in Somerset- the capital. place; though the penalties are equally reco- HEMA. (cogere, from ców, to burn, because verable before the alderman of every ward of of its heat.) Blood. This word forms the the city, or any justice of peace.

commencement of a great variety of compound HA'CQUETON. s. (haquet, old French.) terms in medicine. Some piece of armour (Spenser).

HÆMAGOGOS, (of airce, blood, and ayet, HAD). The preterit and part. pass. of have. I draw away.) The name of a medicinal compo

HADBOTE, in our old writers, a recome sition described in Myrepsus, and intended to pence or amends for violence offered to persons bring away the lochia, or forward the menin holy orders.

strual discharges. It consists of black helleHADDINGTON, a borough of Scotland, bore and the fætid gums, with honey. in a county of the same name.

Part of a mo- HÆMANTHUS. Blood-flower. In bonastery here is occupied as a parish church; tany, a genus of the class hexandria, order moand at a small distance are the ruins of a nun- nozynia. Involucre many-leaver, many-fiuv. nery. Lat. 55. 50 N. Lon. 2. 35 W.

ered; corol superior, six-parted; berry threeHADDINGTONSHIRE, or East Lo- celled. Fourteen species : all Cape planis, exTHIAN, a county of Scotland, bounded on the cepting one, which is indigenous to Sierra W. by Edinburghshire, on the N. by the frith Leone. The following are the chief. of Forth, on the E. by the German Ocean, 1. H. coccineus. Leaves tongue-shaped, and on the S. by the county of Berwick. It flat, smooth, pressed close to the ground: urmis about twenty-five miles long from E to W. bel contracted, fastigiate, shorter than the inand ifteen miles where broadest. A great volucre; border of the corol spreading. The tract of this county, extending to the S. and leaves are procluced in the autumn, continue E. is for the most part chainpaign, and very through the winter, and decay in the spring; fertile and beautiful. The soil is, in many the plant through the summer being leafless. places, doubly productive. Rich crops are The Powers precede the leaves in the autumnal raised on the surface; and the mines of coal season. are inexhaustible. The southern part of this 9. H. multiflorus. Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, county is very mountainous. In 1801 this acute, concave, erect; umbel many-flowered, county contained 29986 inhabitants.

longer than the involucre ; peduncles jointed; HADDOCK, in ichthyology. See Ga- border spreading; stamens ascending. This is DUS.

the only species of the genus which has hither. HADDON (Dr. Walter), a learned En- to been found wild in any other part than the glishman, born in Buckinghamshire in 1516, Cape. It is described by Seba as a native of and educated at Eton school, from whence he Sierra Lcone. was sent to King's college, Canıbridge, where 3. H. carinatus. Leaves linear, and hol. he took his doctor's degree in civil law. He lowed like the keel of a boat: stalk taller and was one of the most zealous promoters of the flowers paler than those of H. coccineus, or reformation, which brought him into some the cochineal blood-flower. danger in the reign of queen Mary. On the HÆMATE'MASIS. (hæmalemasis, from accession of Elizabeth, he was made master of arger, blood, and ruw, to romit.) Vomitus the court of requests. He was also emploved cruentius. A vomiting of blood. This dis. on state affairs. He died in 1571. His mis- ease is mostly symptonjatic of some other, cellaneous works were printed in 1567, in 4to. and generally arises from plethora, obstructed under the title of Lucubrations.

catamenia, or scurvy.

toe.

HÆMATITES. in or; ctology. See Fero brzus herb of Australasia, with a scarlet infloRUM.

re cence. HEMATOCE'LE. (hæmatocele, from HAEMOPTYSIS. Chamoplysis, eiusruis; espia, blood, and xman, a tumour.). A collec- from corpus, blood, and +1.4', to spit.) Hemope tion of blood in the runica vaginalis, testis, or A spitung of blood. A zenus of disease, in the cellular men.brave of ihe scrotum. It arraiged by Cullen in the class pyrexiæ, and generally takes place from puncturing a blood- order hæmorrhagiæ. It is characterized by vessel in the operation for removing the water counting up florid or frothy blood, heat or of hydrocele. If the quantity be great, and pain is ide chest, irritation in the larynx, and the effiux be not stopped by cold applications, a saltish tasie in the mouth. There are five the bleeding vessel should be secured. species of this disease: 1. Hamoptysis pletho

HÆMATOLOGY. (ha matologia, aiuato rica, from fullness of the vessels. 2. Hæmopagya; from aika, blood, and noyos, a discourse.) tysis violenta, from some external violence. The doctrine of the blood.

3. Hæmoptysis phthisica, from ulcers corrodHEMATOMPHALOCELE. (hematom- ing the small vessels. 4. Hæmoptysis calcuphalocele, wiperstojupcedoxnan; from aspere, blood, losa, from calculous maiter in the lungs. 5. ouba? 3, the navel, and xoan, a tumour). A Hæmopiysis vicaria, from the suppression of species of ecchymosis. A umor about the some customary evacuation. navel from an extravasation of blood. It is HEMORRHAGIA. (ha norhagia, aius mostly absorbed, but, if too considerable, a paryoce; from aben, blood, and fryrups, to break punciure may be made to evacuate the blood, out.) Hæmorrhage, or afflux of blood. An as in ecchymosis. See ECCHYMOSIS. order in the class pyrexiæ of Cullen's nosology HEMATOPUS. Sea-pie. Pied oyster- is so called.

It is characterized by pyrexia catcher. In zoology, a genus of the class aves, with a discharge of blood, without any exterorder grallæ. Bill compressecl

, the tip an nal injury; the blood on venæsection exhibitequal wedge; nostrils linear; longue a third ing the buffy coat. The order hæmorrhagiæ part as long as the bill; feet formed for running, contains the following genera of diseases, viz. ihre:-toed, cleft. One species. H. Ostrale- epistaxis, hirinoptysis, phthisis, hæmorrhois, gus, with red bill, eyelids and legs, the former and menorrhagia. sometimes tipt with black; scarlet irids; body HEMORRHOIDAL ARTERIES. Arsometimes totally black; frequently head, neck, teriæ bæmorrhoidales. The arieries of the and body above black, beneath white. Inha- rectum: they are sometiines two, and at other bits almost every sea-shore; and is, of course, times three in number. 1. The upper hæfound on the coasts of our own country; six- morrhoidal artery, which is the great branciu teen and a half inches long; feeds on marine of the lower mesenteric continued into the worins and insects, but chiefly on oysters and pelvis. 2. The middle hæmorrhoidal, which limpets, which it extracts froin the shells with sonetimes comes of' from the hypogastric argreat dexterity: eggs four or five, olive-yellow, tery, and very often from the pudical artery. with irregular purplish spots. See Nai. Hist. li is sometimes wanting. 3. The lower or P1. CXXIV.

external hæmorrhoidal is almost always a HÆMATOXYLON. Logwood. Can- branch of the pudical artery, or that artery pechy. In botany, a genus of the class de- which goes to the penis. candria, order monogynia. Calyx five-parted; HEMORRHOIDAL

Venæ hæc petals five; capsule lanceolate, one-celled, two- morrhoidales. These are two. 1. The exvalved; the valves boat-shaped. One species, tirpal, which evacuates itself into the vena a native of the bay of Campechy, at Honduras; ili ica intema. 2. The internal, which conveys a tree rising from eighteen tó iwenty or five its blood into the vena portæ. and twenty feet, with crooked spinous branches; HEMORRHOIS. ' (ha morrhois, avuopsa:5, leares abruptly pinnate ; leafleisinversely heart- fro: aiguce, blood, and pow, to flow). Aimorrhois. shaped, flowers racemed. It is still in frequent The pries. A genus of disease in the class use in medicine ander the name of LIGNUM pyrexia and order hæmorrhagiæ of Cullen. COMPICHIENSE, which see for its medicinai They are varicose excrescences arising about powers.

the verge of the anus, or the inferior part of In dyeing many of the darker colours, log, the intestinum rectum. The rectuin, as well wood is of very essential use, and a very com- as the colon, is composed of several muscular moo ingredient. It is of especial use in dve- membranes, connecied to each other by an ing biack, adding a permanency as well as a intervening cellular substance; anel as the depth of colour to the black of galls and vi- muscular fibres of this intestine always tend by triol, when intermixed with them, which they their contraction to lessen its cavity, the innever possess of themselves.

ternal membrane, which is very lax, forms , HÆMATU’RIA. (hæmaturia, aiporreto: itself into several rugæ or folds. In this confrom air, blood, and xov, uripe.) Bloody struction nature respects the use of the part, urine; mostly symptomatic of some other disease. which occasionally gives passage to, or allows

HÆMODORUM. In botany, a genus of the retention of, the excrements, the hardness the class triandria, order monogynia. Petals arid bulk of which might produce considerable six; the interior ones bearing the stamens lacerations if this intestine were not capable above the middle: stigma obtuse; capsule in- of dilatation. The arteries and veins subferior, three-celled. One species only; a gla- servient to this part are called hæmorrhoidal,

VEINS.

а

manner

and the blood that returns hence is carried 10 for some days, may cease to be sn, and dry up; the meseraic reins. The intestinum recium but the skin does not afterwards retain its foris particularly subject to the hæmorrhoids, mer firmness, being inore lax and wrinkled, from its situation, structure, and use; for like the empty skin of a grape. If this exwhilst the course of the blood is assisted in ternal pile swell and sink again several times, almost all the other veins of the body by the we may perceive, alier each return, the redistension of the adjacent muscles, and the inains of each pile, though shrivelled and pressure of the neighbouring parts, the blood decayed, yet still leti larger than before. The in the hæmorrhoidal veins which is to ascend case is the saine will those that are situated against the natural tendency of its own weight, within the rectum; they may happen indeed is not only destitute of these assistances, but is never to return again, if the cause that proimpeded in its passage: for, tirst, the large duced then be removed; but it is probable excrements which lodge in this intestine dilace that the excrements in passing out occasion a its sides, and the different resistances which return of the swelling, to which the external they form there are so many impediments 10 ones are less liable: for the internal piles make the return of the blood; not in the large veins, a sort of knots or tumours in the intestine, for they are placed along the external surface which straightening the passage, the excreof the intestine, but in all the capillaries ments in passing out occasion irritations there which enter into its composition. Secondly, that are nore or less painful in proportion to as ofien as these large excrements, protruded the efforts which the person makes in going to by others, approach near the anus, iheir suc- slool; and it is thus these rumours become cessive pressure upon the internal coats of the gradually larger. The hæmorrhoids are subject intestine, which ihey dilate, drives back the to many variations; they may become inflamed blood into the veins, and so far tend to suspend from the above irritations to which they are its course;

the necessary consequence of exposed, and this inflammation cannot always which is, a distension of the veins in pro- be reinored by art. In some, the infiamportion to the quantity of blood that fils mation terminates in an abscess, which arises ihem. Thirdly, in every effort we make, in the midle of the tumour, and degenerates either in going to stool, or upon any other into a fistula.. These piles are very painful tiff occasion, the contraction of the abdominal the abscess is forined. In others, the inflammuscles, and the diaphragm pressing the con- mation terminates by induration of the hætents of the abdomen downwards, and these morrhoid, which remains in pressing upon the parts contained in the pelvis, schirrus. These never lessen, but must another obstruction is thereby opposed to the necessarily grow larger. This schirrus somereturn of the blood, not only in the large times ulcerates, and continually discharges a veins, but also in the capillaries, which being sanies, which the patient perceives by stains of too weak a texture to resist the impulse of on his shirt, and by its occasioning a very trouthe blood, that always tends to dilate them, blesome viching about the verge of the anus. may thereby become varicose.

These kinds of hæmorrhoids sometimes turn 'T'he dilatation of all these vessels is the cancerous.

There are

some haemorrhoids, primary cause of the hæmorrhoids; for the and those of diflerent sizes, which are covered internal coat of the intestine, and the cellular with so fine a shin as frequently to admit blood meinbrane which connects that to the mus- to pass through. This fine skin is only the cular coat, are enlarged in proportion to the internal coat of the rectum, greatly attenuated distension of the vessels of which they are by the varicose clistension of its vessels. The composed. This distension, not being equal hi inorrhave may proceed froin two causes, in every part, produces separate tumours in painely, either from an excoriation produced the guí, or at the verye of the anns, which by the hardness of the excrements, or from increases according as the venal blood is the rupture of the tumefied vessels, which obstructed in them, or circulates there inore break by their too great distension. In some slowly.

of these, the patient voids blool almost every Whatever, then, is capable of retarding time he goes to stool; in others not so conthe course of the blood in the hænorrhoidal stantly. We sometimes meet with men who veins may occasion this disease. Thus, have a periodical bleeding by the piles, not persons that are generally costive, who are unlike the menses in women; and as this accustomed to sit long at stool, and strain hard; evacuation, if moderate, does not weaken pregnant women, or such as have had difficult the constitution, we may infer that it supplies labours; and likewise persons who have an some other evacnation which nature either obstruction in their liver, are for the most part ceases to carry on, or does not furnish in due afflicted with the piles; yet every one has not quantity; and hence also we may explain why the hæmorrhoids, the different causes which the suppression of this discharge, to which are mentioned above not being common to all, nature had been accustomed, is frequerily or at least not having in all the same effects. attended with dangerous diseases. The neWhen the hæmorrhoids are once formed, they morrhoids are sometimes distended to such a seldom disappear entirely, and we may judge degree as to fill the rectum, so that if the of those within the rectum by those which, excrements are at all hard they cannot pass. being at the verge of the anus, are plainly to In this case the excrements force the hæmor. We seen. A small pile, that has been painful rhoids out of the anus to procure a free passage, consequently the internal coat of the rectum, which was the true and ancient country of the to which they are connected, yields to ex• Hagarens. tension, and upon examining these patients HAGGAI (pleasant), the tenth of the immediately after having been at stool, a part minor prophets, and of those three prophets of the internal coat of that gut is perceived who were sent to the Jews after their return forming a sort of ligature or stricture round the from the Babylonian captivity, was born at hæmorrhoids. A dificulty will occur in the Babylon about A. M. 34457, and prophesied return of these, in proportion to their size, about 520 years before the Christian æra. The and as the verge of the anus is more or less occasion of his prophecy was the stop which contracted. If the bleeding piles come out in was put to the building of the Temple, during the same manner upon going to stool, it is many years after the foundation of it had been then they void most blood, because the verge laid. The people had applied themselves to of the anus forms a kind of ligature above the building of their own houses, and negthem.

lected the house of God; till moved at length HÆRETICO COMBURENDO, a writ by the earnest exhortations of the prophets whiclı anciently lay against an heretic, who, they resumed the work, and completed it in a having once been convicted of heresy by his few years. The style of this prophet is for the bishop, and having abjured it, afterwards most part plain and prosaic; interspersed, falling into it again, or into some other, is however, with several passages of much subthereupon committed to the secular power. limity and pathos. See HERESY.

HAGGARD. a. (hagard, French.) 1. HAERLEM, or HARLEM, a populous Wild; untamed; irreclaimable (Spenser). 2. city of the United Provinces, in Holland. (hager, Ger.) Lean; rugged; ugly (L'Est.). In the year 1732, it contained 7963 houses, 3. Deformed with passion (Smith). and about 40,000 inhabitants. The church, HAGGARD. s. 1. Any thing wild or irwhich is the largest in Holland, is adorned reclaimable (Sha'speare). 2. A species of with a very fine organ. It consists of 3000 hawk (Sandys). pipes, the largest 38 feet long, and 16 inches HAGGARDLY. ad. (from haggard.) Dein diameter: it has 68 stops, of which the forinedly; uglily (Dryden). most curious is the vox humana. Haerlem is HA'GGESS. s. (from hog or hack.) A mass situated near a lake of the same name; and to of meat enclosed in a membrane. the S. of the town is a wood, cut into delight- HA'GGISH. a. (from hag.) of the nature ful walks and vistas. At this city there are of a hag; deformed; horrid (Shakspeare). considerable manufactories of linen, tapes, T. HA'GGLE. v. a. (corrupted from and ribbands. Here is also a noted Philoso- hackle or hack.) To cut; to chop; to mangle phical Society. Lat. 52. 24 N. lon. 4. (Shakspeare). 38 E.

To HA'GGLE. v. n. To be tedious in a HÆRUCO. In zoology, a genus of the bargain ; to be long in coming to the price. class vermes, order intestina. Bouy round, HAGGLER. s. (from haggle.) 1. One the fore part two-necked, and surrounded with that cuts. 2. One that is tardy in bara single row of prickles; without proboscis : gaining. one species only, with a greyish white and HAGIOGRAPHA, a name given to part wrinkled body. Inhabits the intestines of the of the books in scripture, called by the Jews mouse; and is distinguished from the genus Cetuvim. The word is compounded of a yo, echinorhynchus by its wanting the retractile “ holy;" and yaow, “ I write.” The name is proboscis.

very ancient: St. Jerom makes frequent men. HAFT. s. (hæft, Saxon.). A handle; that tion of it: before him, St. Epiphanius called part of any instrument that is taken into the these books simply Ipreosia. The Jews divide hand (Dryden).

the sacred writings into three classes : The To Haft.v.a. (from the noun.) To set in a Law, which comprehends the five books haft.

of Moses: the Prophets, wich they call HAG. s. (hægepre, a goblin, Saxon.) 1. Neviim: and the Cetuvim Dones, called by A fury; a she monster (Crashaw). 2. A the Greeks, &c. Hagiographa: comprewitch; an enchantress (Shakspeare). 3. An hending the book of Psalms, Proverbs, Job, ugly old woman (Dryden).

Daniel, Ezra, including also the book of To Hag. v. a. (from the noun.) To tor- Nehemiah, Chronicles, Canticles, Ruth, the ment; to harass with vain terrour (IIudilrus). Lamcitations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. The

HAG. HAG-F18H. In ichthyology. See Jews sometimes call these books the Writings, GASTROBRANCHUS.

by way of eminence, as being written by imHAGARENS, the descendants of Ishmael. mediate inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Thus They are called also Ishmaelites and Saracens; says Kimchi, in his preface io the Psalms, and lastly, by the general name of Arabians. Maimonides, in More Nevoch, and Elias As to the Hagarens, they dwelt in Arabia the Levita in his Thisbi, under the word ana. Happy, according to Pliny. In the Chronicles They distinguish the hagiographers, however, it is said (1 Chron. v. 10.) that the sons of from the Prophets ; in that the authors of the Reuben, in the time of Saul, made war against former did not receive the matters contained in the Hagarens, and became masters of their them by the way called Prophecy, which country eastward of the mountairs of Gilead; consists in dreams, visions, whispers, ecstasies,

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