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V. CONCLUDING MEMORANDA.

There are some subjects which it is proper to notice in this place, partly relating to critical detail, and partly to other matters.

1. A list of the passages in which the MSS. A. and C. have not been followed where they unite in a reading.

READING ADOPTED.

1. 5. λούσαντι

11. Θυάτειρα 13. ἐν μέσῳ χρυσῆν 15. πεπυρωμένοι 2. 1. τῆς

ἐν μέσῳ
χρυσῶν

13. πιστὸς

3. 9. δίδωμι

6. 6. ἐν μέσῳ

READING IN A. & C.

λύσαντι ~; a reading which has a good deal of probability, as the vowels might have been interchanged either way; but it is much less supported by Versions; and also as to sense, it is the easier reading.

Θυάτειραν (a mere orthographical error.) ἐμμέσῳ (a mere orthographical error.) -σαν (mere orthographical variation.) -νης (mere erratum.)

τῷ (see the series of addresses; the most
ancient MSS. often give a similar
ending to two following words; see the
passage.)

ἐμμέσῳ (mere orthographical error.)
- σεῶν (mere orthographical variation.)
πιστός μου

διδῶ (orthographical error.)

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11. 18. τοῖς μικροῖς καὶ τοῖς τοὺς μικροὺς κ. τοὺς μεγαλους. (inter

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13. 7. καὶ ἐδόθη . . . νικῆσαι omitted from the similar beginning of

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These twenty-three passages are all the places in which the consenting testimony of A. C. is not followed, besides a few most unimportant cases of orthography; and indeed about half those here given are little more than variations in this respect. Also in some passages an omission in these two MSS. is marked as probable, the word or words being in brackets in the text these passages are ii. 5, iii. 2, 3, vii. 5—8, 9, x. 4, xiv. 4, 5, xviii. 3.

Besides these passages there are others in which A. & C. differ, and in which neither of them is followed; also those in which one of the two is followed; also passages in the parts in which C. is defective in which A. is not followed; it did not appear necessary to draw up a list of these classes of passages, as the especial object of that here given is to show how rarely the most ancient copies agree in a reading which is either false or improbable, or not sufficiently certain.

2. Variations of the Elzevir text, 1624, and that of Stephens's 3rd edition, 1550.

The "Received Text" is a name commonly given to the Elzevir editions, to the second of which (1633) the editor or printer has appended the appellation "Textus ab omnibus receptus." The common editions of the Greek Testament follow either these editions or that of Stephens, 1550. The readings of the first Elzevir edition, 1624, have been placed in brackets in the inner margin when they differ from the text adopted; for purposes of reference a list is here given of the places in which the text of Stephens, 1550, differs from the Elzevir editions. In all of these places the Stephanic reading follows Erasmus.

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It may also be noticed that in Rev. 16. 5, Elz. 1624, has the reading dolos, while that of 1633 has eróμevos; this latter reading was adopted from Beza and is followed by our Authorised Version; it is not found any known MS.

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I believe that the comparison given above (which was made from actual collation) is more exact than any that has been published. Mill noticed twelve places in the whole New Testament in which these two texts differed; Wetstein pointed out several more. Birch in his collations gives a list of the variations; by comparison I find that he has inserted several incorrectly, the two texts agreeing precisely in the places cited: he probably used some reprints of the two texts which were not quite accurate:-he has also omitted several readings. In comparing this list with Tischendorf's (Prolegomena, p. lxiij), I find that he has omitted nine of the passages here given.

Most collations of Greek MSS. have been made with one or the other of these two texts or those which spring from them; and this it is which makes it of importance to know where they differ; because there is otherwise considerable danger of falling into error as to the readings which we may suppose to be found in MSS.

3. The last six verses from the 1st edition of Erasmus, 1516.

The last six verses of this book, (or rather perhaps the latter half of ver. 16, and the whole of the five which follow), having been supplied by Erasmus in his first edition by a retranslation from the Latin, it may be well to give them in this place, in order to show that some readings which rest solely upon this guess-work authority were not excluded by Erasmus even after he had seen the Complutensian Polyglott, and hence they are still found in the copies commonly used.

I give the text of Erasmus between the Complutensian and that here adopted, indicating the latter as agreeing with both, or else specifying it when

necessary.

C. εγώ ιησούς έπεμψα τον άγγελον μου μαρτυρήσαι υμίν ταύτα Ε. Εγώ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ἔπεμψα τὸν ἄγγελόν μου μαρτυρῆσαι ὑμῖν ταῦτα T. ""

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το γένος του δαυίδ,

· ῥίζα καὶ τὸ γένος του δαβίδ,

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Δαυΐδ

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ακούων ειπάτω έρχου. και 0

Ε. νύμφη λέγουσιν, ἐλθὲ. καὶ ὁ ἀκούων ἐιπάτω, ελθέ.

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Ε. διψῶν, ἐλθέτω. καί ὁ θέλων, λαμβανέτω τὸ ὕδωρ ζωῆς δωρεάν,

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και εάν τις αφέλη από των λόγων του βιβλίου Ε. βιβλίῳ τούτῳ. καὶ ἔι τίς ἀφαιρῆ ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων

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C. της προφητείας ταύτης αφέλοι ο θεός το μέρος αυτού από του Ε. τῆς προφητείας ταύτης. ἀφαιρήσει ὁ θεὸς τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ

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C. ξύλου της ζωής και εκ της πόλεως της αγίας

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των γεγραμμέ ἁγίας, καὶ τῶν γεγραμμέ

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εν τω βιβλίω τούτω.

λέγει ο μαρτυρών ταύτα και έρχομαι

C. vwv
Ε. νων ἐν

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βιβλίῳ τούτῳ. λέγει ὁ μαρτυρῶν ταῦτα. ναὶ ἔρχομαι

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C. ιησού χριστού μετά πάντων τῶν αγίων. αμήν.
Ε. ΙΗΣΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν.

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Αμήν. τῶν ἁγίων. αμήν.

4. I have now done with the critical part of this Introduction; and, I trust, that sufficient grounds have been shown for the present work having been undertaken, and also for the principles on which it has been executed. In addition to what has been said above, (§ I. 5), I may here remark, that no charge of innovation can be fairly brought against the text here adopted. The innovation really has been the adoption and use of modern readings instead of ancient; this arose from modern copies having been most known at the time of the invention of printing. I do not judge it needful to make any apology for departures from the "Received Text," the only particulars in which any justification could be needed, are the places in which the most ancient copies, A. and C. agree, in what appears to me to be an erroneous reading. These places I have specified above. Of course I do not mean for a moment to allege that this text is perfect; I know too well the difficulties which encompass the subject for me to imagine that; but I give my conclusions accompanied by my principles and data in order that they may be examined, and that the text be not condemned previously to this being done.

No one will, I believe, expect any apology for an English text adapted to the Greek here given; I have sought to give an accurate rendering throughout, and not merely in the places in which this Greek text differs from that on which our Authorised Version is based.

In this introduction I have avoided anything which might relate to the interpretation of the Revelation; this was not my object, but it was to supply a text which might aid those who in subjection of mind to the word of God are seeking the teaching of the Spirit to know the things that are here written. No thoughts of my own on the subject of interpretation have, I

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