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PRINTED BY J. BARFIELD, WARDOOR STREET, PRINTER TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.

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THE RIGHT REVEREND

THE LORD BISHOP OF RIPON,

THESE VOLUMES

ARE RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

BY

HIS LORDSHIP'S MOST FAITHFUL, HUMBLE,

AND OBLIGED SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE.

No one can be more fully aware than myself of the serious importance of the subjects embraced in these volumes, and of the extent of capacity required to do them even ordinary justice; still, with all the consciousness which I feel of powers too narrowly circumscribed, I nevertheless cannot but encourage the hope that I have not spent upon those subjects in vain a very long period of severe and anxious labour. This labour has been pursued steadily and earnestly, with a fervent desire to be useful in my vocation; and though I may be far from realizing my whole aim in this respect, I cannot bring myself to anticipate the possibility of entire failure. There is a wide interval betwixt failure and success, and I trust I shall be found to have occupied some portion of this interval, however far I may be from the last desirable extreme, reached indeed by few of the numerous competitors who frequently devote the whole energy of their minds to its attainment.

The field upon which I have entered, though not altogether new, is certainly one that has been comparatively little trodden, and this only by men of profound erudition, who have rendered it almost exclusive ground, and so hedged it round with recondite speculations and philological subtleties as to exclude many who, had it been rendered accessible to them, would have gladly entered upon so rich a domain to enjoy the ripe harvest of its invaluable produce. My desire has therefore been to lay it open to the spiritual enjoyment of the ordinary wayfarer—to make it common property, where every earnest christian may not only behold, but likewise go and gather. I offer this as a work to general readers, though I trust it may be likewise acceptable to the better instructed. I have endeavoured to avoid as much as possible any appearance of dry and recondite inquiry, always repulsive, and indeed utterly barren to minds which have not been severely disciplined in literary investigation : it will however be at once seen that the subjects embraced in these volumes could not be treated in a manner level with the humblest capacity, especially where references are of necessity occasionally made to works of a very elaborate and deeply learned character; still I think it will be found that the matter has been generally kept free from the meshes of those dry theological abstractions, amid the entanglements of which so many pious and ingenuous minds are bewildered, instead of becoming enlightened.

If I have sometimes ventured to differ from the views of profound and acknowledged scholars, I have invariably done so with becoming respect and with a perfect conviction of my own great inferiority; at the same time with the assurance that a vastly inferior mind may chance to discover what has escaped the penetration of one far more highly gifted.

I may be permitted to remark, as a philosophical truth common to the experience of the most ordinary scrutiny, that great minds are made up of great and little elements, and little minds, on the contrary, of little and great, the first named quality in each respectively predominating ; so that no mind is necessarily or consequentially either exclusively great or exclusively little. The most limited experience will show that little thoughts may occur to a great mind, and great thoughts to a little mind, though the qualities of greatness and of littleness are in an inverse

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