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אֶל Etenim

an eminent watch-tower in it. There are against the people, and they said, Why those indeed, who, following the Jewish have we done this, that we have let Israel doctors (see Selden de Diis Syr. Syntagm. i. go from serving us ? cap. 3), imagine there was an image of Fled. Baal set up by the magicians of Egypt, by Ged., Booth.-Had fled. Pharaoh's order, near this Arabian gulf, to The word fled but ill expresses the Hebrew hinder the Israelites in their passage. And ma; which here is equivalent to the Latin Varenius doth not quite disallow this : for aufugere, and is well rendered bw by Onk. he takes Baal-zephon to have been a great and Syr. The people had gone off.-Ged. plain, into which they were to enter, by the Au. Ver.- Against the people. So Rosen. chaps of Pi-hahiroth : in which an idol was Versumque est cor Pharaonis et servorum worshipped, which, looking from the Red ejus contra populum.


pro Sea towards the north, was called the lord of s ponitur, ut Gen. iv. 8: 52.7 b, contra the north; as Baal-zephon imports. And Abelem. Vid. et Num. xxxii. 14; Jos. x. 6. Kircher seriously maintains it had a power -Rosen. of fascination, to stop the Israelites in their Ged., Booth. With regard to the people. journey: which there is no ground to believe. Au. Ver.-Israel. So the Heb. For such images made under a certain con Ged., Booth.--The children of [LXX] stellation, to avert evil things, &c., were not Israel. now in use : being no older, there are good

Ver. 6. reasons to think, than the time of Apollonius

Au. Ver.-And he made ready his chariot, Tyanæus, who was the first inventor of them. and took his people with him. 3 Au. Ver.-For Pharaoh will say of, &c.

Au. Ver.-And he. Ged., Booth.For to his people (LXX]

Ged., Booth.And Pharaoh. So LXX, will Pharaoh say of, &c.

Arab., and two Heb. MSS. Rosen.-Recte Mendeli fil. observat, quum His people. vs. 2, primum tertiis personis 13T"? 7 usus

Ged., Booth.-All (LXX, Vulg.] his esset Moses, eum pergere in secunda per- people. , e

Ver. 7. ponatis ad mare. Hinc colligit, hæc verba

e regione ejus castra , נִכְהוֹ תַּחֲנוּ עַל הַיָּם ,Sona וַיִּלַּח שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת רֶכֶב בָּחוּר וְכָל רֶכֶב

-non esse partem orationis Mosis ad Israel מִצְרָיִם וְשָׁלִשָׁם עַל־כִּלְוֹ :

itas, sed Dei ad Mosen, et postquam Deus

: dixisset: loquere ad Israelitas, ut reversi castra ponant ante Pi-hachiroth Miydolum

και λαβών εξακόσια άρματα εκλεκτά, και internet mare, nunc explicationis causa hoc πάσαν την ίππον των Αιγυπτίων, και τριστάτας subjungere: e regione Baal-Zephonis ad étrì Trávrov. mare castra ponere debetis, ut Pharao in Au. Ver.-7 And he took six hundred ducatur ad credendum, Israelitas nescios chosen chariots, and all the chariots of quo se vertant errare. Et post hæc verba, Egypt, and captains over every one of them. quasi per parenthesin interjecta, vs. 4, con Pool.- All the chariots, i.e., a great tinuari sermonem Dei medio vs. 2, abruptum. number; all that could be got together in - 4 Et obfirmabo cor Pharaonis ut per-haste, which the present service required. sequatur eos.

Over every one of them; over the men that Ver. 5.

fought out of every chariot. Or, over all of them; the command of all these chariots being

distributed to several captains or commanders. sýn-bw 47799 riya SS5 1973. Bp. Horsley.--For the second 231 [cha

riots] the LXX seem to have read did

120 Ann?" six hundred chosen chariots, and all the και ανηγγέλη τώ βασιλεί των Αιγυπτίων, cavalry.” –« Over every

one of them;" ότι πέφευγεν ο λαός. kaì Meteotpáon ý rather, —" over the whole of it.” καρδία Φαραώ, και των θεραπόντων αυτού επί Ged., Booth. And he took six hundred τον λαόν, και είπαν, κ.τ.λ.

chosen chariots, and all the cavalry of Au. Ver.—5 And it was told the king of Egypt, and captains over the whole of them. Egypt that the people fled: and the heart Gesen.-disney, a distinguished class of of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned / warriors, probably those who fought from


fuisse ; quod si per hanc vocem exprimere 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that voluissent, certe scripsissent D'VNT. Omnino they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, vero commemoratio generationis, qua ex between Migdol and the sea, over against Ægypto migrarunt Hebræi, ab hoc loco Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by aliena videtur. Tacemus hic alias istius the sea. voc, explicationes haud probabiles. Veram 3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of autem notionem vocis D'vipi? e ceteris locis, Israel, They are entangled in the land, the ubi occurrit, intelligimus. Etenim Jos. wilderness hath shut them in. i. 14; iv. 12, mulieribus et impuberibus 4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that post exercitum remanentibus opponuntur he shall follow after them, &c. Dupa qui ante fratres suos processerunt. 1 Spake. So Ged., Booth., Patrick. Et Jud. vii. 11, Gideon narratur descendisse Pool.Or rather, had spoken, to wit, arna TE DORITO TRY ad extremitatem before they came to Succoth, chap. xii. 37. των . qui in castris.

Quæ loca For what was there briefly and generally armatorum, ad prælium accinctorum, sig- expressed, is here more largely and partinificatum fere flagitant. Et is quidem cularly declared, together with the occasion firmatur eo, quod Num. xxxii. 30, 32, et of it, which was God's command. Deut. iii. 18, ubi de eadem re, de qua Jos. 2 That they turn, &c. So the Masorites i. 14; iv. 12, agitur, qui hisce locis Dinn, . LXX, kaì åtootpéYartes otpatoillis dipaham appellantur. Eo vero nomine πεδευσάτωσαν. . proprie circa lumbos accinctos (a Dizat lumbi), Bp. Horsley.-Rather, “that they sit hinc paratos, expeditos ad iter vel ad prælium down ”—“ between Migdol and the sea, denotari, non est dubium. Nec igitur re- over against Baalzephon." These words jiciendum, quod Hebræi bun ad quintam describe the situation of Pi-hahiroth. costam, circa regionem vesicæ fellis et jecoris,

Bp. Patrick.2 Encamp before Pi-hahiut R. Jochanan ait (a wipi ilia, 2 Sam. ii. 23), roth.] Before the straits of two great i.e., circa lumbos accinctos proprie sig- mountains ; full of dangerous holes : nificare dicunt, et hoc Exodi loco Israelitas many think the word hiroth imports. And dici exiisse expeditos et accinctos paratosque pi, in Hebrew, signifying a mouth, this word omnibus ad iter necessariis. Consentiunt Pi-hahiroth may properly be translated in cum hac interpretatione Onkelos et duo our language, the chaps of Hiroth. The reliqui Chaldæi paraphrastæ, Syrus, Arabs former day they had marched about eight Erpenii, nec non Aquila et Symmachus. miles; but now they doubled their pace, Bene ceterum Aben-Esra observat, innui and marched sixteen miles from Etham illa dictione, Israelitas 7 Ta

manu sub- hither. lata, i.e., accinctos et armatos, non tumul

Between Migdol and the sea.] Some take tuario modo atque confuso, non trepide, Migdol to have been a tower or fortress (for fugitivorum instar, iter suum ingressos esse. the word carries that signification in it), Ver. 19.

upon the top of one of the mountains before Au. Ver.-For he. So the Heb.

mentioned. But there was a tower called Ged., Booth.--For Joseph. So the Sam. Máydwlos, by Herodotus, and Hecatæus, Ver. 20.

and others; which Bochart probably conAu. Ver.-In the edge of, &c.

jectures was this place. Certain it is, there Booth.—Which [Sam., Syr., Chald.] is at was a city in Egypt called Migdol (Jer.

xliv. 1). "And Stephanus de Urb. expressly the extremity of, &c.

saith that Μάγδωλος was πόλις Αιγύπτου και Ver. 21.

but whether the same with this place, I Au. Ver.-To go by day and night.

cannot determine. Ged., Booth. So that they might go by

Over against Baal-zephon.] This, I doubt day or by night.

not, was the name of a town also, or city, Bp. Horsley.—That they might march as Ezekiel the tragedian expressly calls it. day and night.

Eo ut nocte dieque iter For Baal was the name of a city (1 Chron. facerent. (Houbigant.)

iv. 33), and it is likely there being more of Chap. XIV. 144.

the same name, this was called Zephon, to Au. Ver.-1 And the Lord spake unto distinguish it from some other Baal in those Moses, saying,

parts. Either, because it lay north, or had

Red Sea.

were wont to be girt when they went to fight Heb., Gesen., Rosen.-Sea of reeds. or to travel; this word may well be rendered

Bp. Patrick.—That which we call the eucwvol, "well girt,” as the LXX translate Red Sea, the Hebrews call the Sea of Suph, it (Josh. i. 14, iv. 13). Here indeed they i.e., of flags; as we translate the word Suph, translate it, Tréunion yeveự ávéßnoay, “they in the second chapter of this book, ver. 3, went up in the fifth generation ” (which St. because it was full of a certain weed (which Austin follows), taking Jacob for the first; the Latins call alga, and the Greeks puklov), Levi the second; Coath the third ; Amram which some travellers have affirmed to be of the fourth; and Moses the fifth. But as a red colour, and to make the water appear this exposition doth not agree with the as if it were red also: from whence some Hebrew word, which doth not signify the fancy it was called the Red Sea. Certain it fifth, but in fives; so it cannot be said of the · is it had the Hebrew name of Suph from children of Israel in general; for all the hence; there being such abundance of this tribes were not yet come to the fifth geneweed in that sea, that the inhabitants of the ration. Our Nic. Fuller hath a learned discoast plucking it up out of the water, and course upon this word, in his Miscellan., laying it in heaps to be dried by the sun, it lib. v., cap. 2. becomes so compact that they build houses Bp. Horsley.For oron Houbigant of it as Bochart hath observed in his Phaleg., reads D'una, and renders profecti sunt feslib. iv., cap. 29. But it is most likely to tinanter, referring the word d'un to the have had the name of the Red Sea from root un, “to hasten,” or “make haste,” this : that what the Hebrews call the Sea of and alleging Judg. xviii. 9, as an authority Suph the nearer neighbours call the Sea of for the word, and for this exposition of it. Edom, from the country which it washed, But, in that place, the word d'uno derives viz., Idumæa (1 Kings ix. 26; Numb. xxi. 4). from 09, and signifies the very reverse of From whence the Greeks, who knew not haste. But there is no necessity for any the reason of the name, called it épv@pdv alteration of the word d'un, which sigDáhaooav, the Red Sea; because Edom, in nifies "marshalled." The children of IsHebrew, signifies red, as we find Gen. rael went up out of Egypt “ in orderly Xxv. 29.

array;” not in the array of battle, but of a Harnessed.

religious procession. (See Fuller apud Pool.) Bp. Patrick.–Or, in military order : for Gesen.-D'UPT pl. adj. Exod. xiii. 18; though it is not likely the Egyptians suf- Josh. i. 14; iv. 12; Judg. vii. 11; gathered, fered them to have any arms, yet they did assembled, arrayed in order of battle, applied not go away tumultuously, like fugitives; to an army, as ogas Josh. iv. 12, comp. but marched like soldiers in good order; verse 13, Aq., évotiopevou. Vulg., armati. and, as in our margin it is translated, five in So also Symm. Onk., Syriac, Arabic. (In a rank. Which is the interpretation of the dialects, may be compared

to Theodotion anciently, and of Montanus, and others, lately. But Hottinger trans- be robust, strong; but perhaps it was a lates it, in the form of an army.

. . Arabic word chamis (from whence, it is Others, divided in lots, numbers of fifty. likely, comes the word chamushim here used), Prof. Lee.-Firm, compact, in array of signifies exercitus nevtapepns, "an army con- battle. sisting of five parts;" which are the front, Rosen.-Sed circumduxit Deus populum the main battle, the right wing and the left, viam deserti maris algosi. Ante D' subaudiri and the rear; Smegma Orient., p. 71. And potest 5, ut vertatur: ad s. so David Chytræus long before him, quinque algosum. Voc. bhon LXX ad von quinque agminibus, “in five bodies,” as we now referentes verterunt : Téutty dèyeveą ávéßnoay, speak. But the interpretation of Aben- quod sequutus Clericus: quinta ætate IsraelEzra seems to be the most proper of all itæ ex Ægypto ascenderunt.

In mente others, who simply expounds it, girt about habuit locum Gen. xv. 16, ubi tamen quatuor their loins, i.e., expedite or ready, as On- tantum generationes significantur. Sed vid. kelos expresses it. For the Hebrew word not. ad eum locum. Præterea nullis exchomash, signifying those parts that are emplis probari potest, dupan de quintæ under the five small ribs, about which men generationis hominibus Hebræis in

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Peritai ,הַפְרִי et הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי ,rhaeos et Chivvideos

וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם

Ken., Ged.—The Amorites, and the Periz Egypt. zites (Sam., LXX], and the Hivites. Ged., Booth.—The land of Egypt (one

Rosen.-In Cod. Sam. quinque populis, copy of LXX and Copt.]. qui hic recensentur, adduntur, inter Amor

Ver. 9. , , et Girgesæi. Sed post Jebusæos addunt

Au. Ver.--Egypt. LΧΧ, Γεργεσαίους και Φερεσαίους. Νon

Ged., Booth.The land of Egypt. Sam., opus erat, quum modo plures, modo pau

LXX, and two MSS. ciores gentium Cananæarum nomine ap

Ver. 11. pellentur. Cf. ad h. 1. quæ notavimus Gen.

Au. Ver.-And it shall be when the LORD xiii. 7, et Ex. iii. 8.

shall bring thee into the land of the CanaanVer. 8.

ites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, ?

and shall give it thee.

The Lord.

Ged., Booth.-Jehovah your God (Sam., LXX, and two MSS.).

Unto thee. και αναγγελείς τώ υιώ σου εν τη ημέρα

Ged., and Booth. omit these words on the εκείνη, λέγων. διά τούτο εποίησε κύριος ο

authority of LXX, and two MSS. θεός μοι, ώς εξεπορευόμην έξ Αιγύπτου. Au. Ver., and most commentators.-8 And

Ver. 14. thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, Au. Ver.-Egypt. So the Heb. This is done because of that which the LORD

Ged., Booth. The land of Egypt. So did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt. LXX and Vulg.

Bp. Horsley.-" It is because Jehovah did this unto me, when I came forth out of

Ver. 15. Egypt;" i.e., because Jehovah at that time Au, Ver.- Firstborn. made me do this, which I now do, i.e., he Ged., Booth.Male firstborn. made me eat unleavened bread. (See Hou

Ver. 16. bigant.) Rosen.-- Propter hoc quod fecit Jova mihi,

Au, Ver.-And it shall be for a token cum egressus sum ex Ægypto. Imperfecta upon thine hand, and for frontlets between est oratio, atque ad eam complendam istius- thine eyes : for by strength of hand the modi quiddam est addendum : hoc festum

Lord brought us forth out of Egypt. celebratur. Vulgatus : hoc est quod fecit

Ged., Booth.-Let this therefore be to mihi Dominus rel. Sed hoc Hebraice foret: you (Sam., Syr., and one MS.]. . :

Au. Ver.Brought us.

Ged., Booth.--Brought you. So Sam., mandata ejus, nempe hæc de agno paschali

, Syr., and most copies of LXX. azymis, et amaris herbis. Sequutus est

Ver. 18. Jonathanem, qui locum sic exponit: propter

el , .

ex Ægypto? verba Hebræa non tam indicant, Deum ideo admirando modo Israelitas ex Ægypto eduxisse, ut festum illud celebrarent, quam

και έκύκλωσεν ο θεός τον λαόν οδόν την εις ideo eis festium illud celebrandum injunxisse, την έρημον, εις την ερυθρών θάλασσαν. quod eos ita ex Egypto eduxerat. Ita ergo, πέμπτη δε γενεά ανέβησαν οι υιοι Ισραήλ εκ recte ait Fagius, “intelligendum est : propter vñs Alyúttov. hoc, id est, propter ea signa, quæ fecit Au. Ver.-18 But God led the people Dominus, propter occisa primogenita, cele- about, through the way of the wilderness of bramus paschæ istius festum in memoriam the Red Sea: and the children of Israel accepti beneficii.” Ellipsis relativi rin went up harnessed [or, by five in a rank] haud infrequens, ut ea in illo Ps. cxviii. 24, out of the land of Egypt. ;

Au. Ver.-But. scil. illustrem. Vid. et infra xviii. 20.

Ged., Booth.--Therefore,

בעבור שאקיים : Jarchi .זֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי ut perficerem ,מצותיו כגון פסח מצה ומרור הללו

וַיָּסֵב אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָעָם דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּר hoe mandatum fecit mihi Dominus signa et יַם־סוּף וַחֲמִשִׁים עָלֶוּ בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ miracula

cum eduxit me er figypto

מִצְרָיִם :

hic est dies quam fecit Jova , זֶה־הַיוֹם עָשָׂה יְהוָה

קָדֶשׁ־לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר פֶטֶר כָּל רֶחֶם uia qui pereuteret primogenita, והוא בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה לִי הוּא :


Rosen.—51 Haud improbabilis est Aben-| initium, exordium, et quod in unaquaque re Esræ sententia hunc versum jungendum primum. Unde primogenitus, qui initium esse versui primo capitis proximi, ut dicatur, roboris patris sui dicitur Gen. xlix. 3; in ipsa nocte exitus, qua Deus Ægyptiorum Deut. xxi. 17; et Ps. lxxviii. 51, appellari primogenitos interfecit, dedisse eum man- potuit op, initium, et om app, initium vulvæ, datum de primogenitis Israelitarum sibi id est, fætus, quem vulva primum efformavit, consecrandis.

atque in lucem edidit." Ceterum Om Aben

Esra ait pronunciari cum duplici Segol, Ver. 2.

contra usum communem linguæ, quo literæ gutturales per duplex Patach (om]) efferenda

1907 ?, Mihi est, mihi adquisivi.

Nam quia quum αγίασόν μοι πάν πρωτότοκον πρωτογενές Egyptiorum, servaverat primogenita Ηeδιανοίγον πάσαν μήτραν εν τοις υιούς Ισραήλ breorum, ideo ei obligata erant. Primoαπό ανθρώπου έως κτήνους, εμοί εστιν. Au. Ver.—2 Sanctify unto me all the Indi Deo consecrare solent; vid. d. a. u. n.

genita et hominum et caprarum hodienum first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb Morgenl. I., p. 305. among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast : it is mine.

Ver. 3, 4, 5. All the first-born, viz., if they be males, Au. Ver.-3 And Moses said unto the as it is limited, ver. 12.-Pool.

people, Remember this day, in which ye Rosen.-Sanctifica mihi omnem primoge- came out from Egypt, out of the house of nitum, i.e., præcipe Israelitis ut mihi con- bondage (Heb., servants); for by strength secrent, separatum mihi habeant meoque of hand the Lord brought you out from this usui destinatum

primogenitum. place : there shall no leavened bread be Formam Piel constat haud raro significare eaten. judicium de re quapiam, aut ejus declara 4 This day came ye out in the month tionem, ut ne?, Lev. xiii. 3, immundum esse Abib. pronunciavit, et ibid. vs. 6, 17, 23, 28. TO, 5 And it shall be when the LORD shall mundum declaravit. Ceterum hominum bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, primogeniti Deo consecrabantur eo, quod and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the ejus sacerdotes fiebant; animalium, eo quod Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware ad sacrificia destinabantur. Quod tamen unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing attinet hominum primogenitos, postea ea with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep facta est mutatio, ut certa tribus, Levi, ad this service in this month. sacerdotium destinaretur. Pro iach, LXX 3 Egypt. So the Heb. habent παν πρωτότοκον πρωτογένες. Sed Ged., Booth.The land of Egypt. So quum utraque vox Græca primogenitum Sam., LXX, Syr. significet, vix dubitamus, quin duplici hic 3,4 There shall no leavened bread, &c. Abib. (ut alias haud raro) coëunte interpretatione Ged., Booth.Let nothing, therefore, alterutra harum vocum redundet. 70p leavened be eaten on this day on which ye DTS?, fere vertunt quod aperit omnem came out, in the month of Abib. vulvam, ab aperiendi significatu, quo 907 Bp. Horsley.-3, 4 “No leavened bread pollere volunt Ps. xxii. 8; Prov. xvii. 14. shall be eaten," upon the day when ye came Ιta jam LΧΧ, διανοίγον πάσαν μήτραν. Cui out, in “the month Abib. 5 Therefore it interpretationi tamen Bochartus Hieroz., shall be—" Or thus, according to the Sat. i., p. 298, duo opponit, unum, quod, si maritan copy. “3. No unleavened bread 102 sit apertio, Ex. xxxiv. 19. Ting Tiwi pe, shall be eaten

4. this day. 'Twas in the foret apertio bovis et ovis, et statim vs. 20. month Abib ye came out. 5. Therefore it Tina 77, apertio asini, quæ sunt duriora, shall be—". The two i's, Onna and 777 nisi suppleatur vox vulvæ. Alterum, quod have the force of “twas” and “therefore." verbo ne aperiendi significatio sine idonea 5 The Lord. ratione tribuitur. “Fortasse igitur," inquit, Ged.The Lord your God. So Sam., “ ad Arabismum pertinet, quod primogenitus LXX, Targ., and three MSS. no vocatur. Nam Arabice 2D est incepit, Au, Ver.--The Amorites and the Hivites. auspicatus fuit, primum fecit quid, et 100% So the Heb., Rosen.

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