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90

Leniit, et tacita refluens ita substitit unda,
Mitis ut in morem stagni placidaeque paludis
Sterneret aequor aquis, remo ut luctamen abesset.
Ergo iter inceptum celerant rumore secundo.
Labitur uncta vadis abies; mirantur et undae,
Miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe
Scuta virum fluvio pictasque innare carinas.
Olli remigio noctemque diemque fatigant,
Et longos superant flexus, variisque teguntur

95

&c. It is probably to be regarded simply some MSS. and even into Med. a m. p.: az an irregularity, quam longa est' being but even if Virg. were likely to have written as if the historic present “ lenit” introduced the name, 'secundo' would was to follow, for which · leniit' is sub- contradict v. 58. Rom. and others, instituted. “ Hiemem quam longa” 4. 193. cluding quotations in Non. and Macrob., Virg. seems to imply that the day was have peragunt' for 'celerant,' from 6. spent in preparation and the voyage begun 384, and Pierius' Medicean has celetowards night.

brant:' see on 4. 641., 5. 609. Canon. 87.] • Refluens' is to be taken in its gives celebrant clanore.' proper sense with Serv., not with Forb. 91.] From Enn. A. 14. fr. 2: “Labitur in that of“ residens,” or with Thiel in that uncta carina, volat super impetus undas :" of “fluens.” It is not meant that the Macrob. Sat. 6. 1. stream actually flows back to its source, 92.] The repetition of mirantur' serves which would be inconsistent with 'sub- instead of a repetition of 'et: see on E. stitit,' but that its onward motion was 4. 6.

• Nemus insuetum' like “ignaros checked so as to make it all but stationary, montis” E. 6. 40. which would suggest the notion of flowing 93.] The shields appear to have been back.

hung along the after part of the galley : 88.] •Placidae paludis ’ is a mere repe- comp. 1. 183, “celsis in puppibus arma tition of ‘mitis stagni :' and placidae' Caici.” For 'pictas carinas' see on 5.663. and mitis' are a part of the same meta. Heyne put a comma after "virum ;' but phor with “ leniiti'

the harsh collocation of 'que' with the 89.] “Sternitur aequor aquis” 5. 821 second word in the clause is unknown to note. The second ‘ut' is not co-ordinate Virg. with the first, but dependent on it. “Luc. 94.] Remigio noctemque diemque fatitamen,' struggle, though in connexion with gant, give neither day nor night any

abesset' it acquires the notion of cause respite : in prose, spend day and night in of struggle or impediinent. “In lento incessant rowing. Prop. 5. 11. 81, “ Sat luctantur marmore tonsae" 7. 28.

tibi sint noctes quas de me, Paulle, fa90.] : Rumore secundo ' is rightly taken tiges.” Heyne comp. also 10. 807, “diem by Cerda to mean the cheering of the exercere." “Conplexi inter se noctemque

Comp. 10. 266, “fugiuntque diemque morantur " 5. 766. (grues) notos clamore secundo,” 5. 338, 95.] •Superant: see on v. 58. • Variis ' plausuque volat fremituque secundo,” teguntur arboribus,' pass under the shade and a fragment from an old tragedy (inc. of various trees. Wagn. finds the clause inc. fr. 46 Ribbeck), “Solvere imperat otiose: but we may well fancy the attensecundo rumore adversaque avi.” Se- tion of the Trojans attracted by the vacundo rumore,” “adverso rumoreare riety of the trees. In the next clause phrases used to signify general approba- pictorial effect pleads strongly for Serv.'s tion and tbe contrary. See the com- interpretation, referring the words to sail. mentators on Hor. 1 Ep. 10. 9. Heyne, ing through the reflection of the trees on fancying with Donatus that

the water, though the thought may be too meant the noise of the waters, connected modern for Virg. Even if we take the

rumore secundo' with what follows. An clause as a mere repetition of the preabsurd reading “Rumone' (the old name ceding, we may still suppose that Virg. of the Tiber) is mentioned by Serv. with intended us to think of the reflection, by approbation, and has found its way into the juxtaposition of the words viridis

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100

Arboribus, viridisque secant placido aequore silvas.
Sol medium caeli conscenderat igneus orbem,
Cum muros arcemque procul ac rara domorum-
Tecta vident; quae nunc Romana potentia caelo
Aequavit; tum res inopes Euandrus habebat.
Ocius advertunt proras, urbique propinquant.

Forte die sollemnem illo rex Arcas honorem
Amphitryoniadae magno divisque ferebat
Ante urbem in luco. Pallas huic filius una,
Una omnes iuvenum primi pauperque senatus .
Tura dabant, tepidusque cruor fumabat ad aras.
Ut celsas videre rates, atque inter opacum

105

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and placido. The whole passage is emi. the strangers, as Pallas flies to meet them nently characteristic of Virg., both in its here. It is worth while comparing the graceful feeling and in its abstinent bre. Homeric detail, groups of nine sacrificing vity. He is paying a tribute, we may nine bulls each, tasting the entrails, and remember, to the beauty of the river of burning the thighs, with Virg.'s more Rome.

general language. 97.] Hyos 80 néalos uboov oúpavdy duoi 103.] The structure of the line is nearly BeBýkel Il. 8. 68 &c. “Medium sol the same as 3. 19, “ Sacra Dionaeae matri igneus orbem Hauserat ” G. 4. 426 note. divisque ferebam Auspicibus coeptorum With this and the next line comp. gene. operum,” where see note. We may obrally 3. 521 foll.

serve that the name Hercules' is un98.] The visit to Evander is well con- mapageable in a Latin hexameter except trived to bring Aeneas to the site of Rome. in the gen. and abl., and that Virg. in “ Raris habitata mapalia tectis” G. 3. 340. consequence has to resort to a variety of

Domorum tecta,' 12. 132. The passage is expedients for expressing it. imitated by Ov. F. 5. 93, “ Hic, ubi nunc 1 04.] “Ante urbem in luco” 3. 302. Roma est, orbis caput, arbor et herbae Et Cerda shows that it was customary in paucae pecudes et casa rara fuit.”

Greece to sacrifice to Hercules without 100.] •Tum,' which serves as a con- the walls, comp. Dem. Fals. Leg. p. 368, junction, couples clauses not strictly paral. where Aeschines is reproached for having lel. See on G. 2. 208. Res inopes' induced the Athenians to break the rulo following 'quae' may also remind us of by sacrificing within the walls when they " has ... stridentia limina" 7. 611. foll. had not war as an excuse, and Plutarch With ‘res inopes' contrast“ maxuma rerum Quaest. Rom. 28, who inquires why youths Roma” 7. 602, if the gen. there is parti. wishing to swear by Hercules went into tive. •Euandrus' is the form given in the open air. The remark, he tells us, all Ribbeck's MSS. •Euander,' the form was first made by Scaliger, Poet. 3. 26, before Heins., is supported by no good referring to the present passage. “Una' MS. here or elsewhere, except in 10. 515. with dat. like “similis,” i pariter." 101. *Advertunt proras' 7. 35.

105.] •Senatus' (senes) opp. to 'iu. 102–125.] • They find Evander sacri- venum, as Serv. remarks. Iuvenum ficing to Hercules. Pallas, his son, comes primi,' 9. 785. to meet them, and, being informed of 106.] Serv. says that 'tura dabant'is their errand, bids them welcome.

from a regular sacrificial phrase, “Da, 102.7 Honorem ferebat' i. q. “sacra quod debes, de manu dextra aris :” but ferebat:" comp. vv. 61. 76 &c. 'Sollemnem the sacrificial use of “ dare” hardly requires honorem :' comp. 2. 202. The circum- illustration. “Dabimusque divis Turn stances are evidently borrowed from Od. benignis" Hor. 4 Od. 2. 51. Tepidus 3. 4 foll., where Telemachus landing at cruor,' 6. 248. Pylos finds Nestor with his son Peisistratus 107.] · Videre' is construed in the first and his people sacrificing to Poseidon on clause with acc., in the second with inf. the shore. Peisistratus rises first to greet In English we should vary the word ;

110

Adlabi nemus, et tacitis incumbere remis,
Terrentur visu subito, cunctique relictis
Consurgunt mensis. Audax quos rumpere Pallas
Sacra vetat, raptoque volat telo obvius ipse,
Et procul e tumulo : Iuvenes, quae caussa subegit
Ignotas temptare vias? quo tenditis ? inquit.
Qui genus ? unde domo ? pacemne huc fertis, an arma ?
Tum pater Aeneas puppi sic fatur ab alta,

115
Paciferaeque manu ramum praetendit olivae :
Troiugenas ac tela vides inimica Latinis,

· when they espied the ships and saw them found an old man who had been dancing approach '&c. Not unlike is the coupling without intermission, which gave occasion of a part. with an inf., as in 7. 421, 422. to a proverb, “Salva res est, saltat senex.' Some unseasonable lover of old Latin 111.] 'Ipse’ in person. inight suggest that 'celsas' has its parti 112.] He had apparently climbed a cipial force here, comparing Kéx1w,“celer," mound for the purpose of observation. “celox :" but the thought is of course only “Iuvenes’ applies to all of a military age, worth mentioning as a coincidence, and all warriors. So the Anglo-Saxon knight perhaps as a warning against similar spe. and child and the German held mean a culations. To understand ' atque-et' as youth. que-que' would be unlike Virg.

113.] Ignotas temptare vias' merely 108.] Tacitos' is the reading of Rom., expresses that he perceives them to be Med., Pal., and most of Ribbeck's MSS.; strangers. it is also found in Canon. Gud., and 114.] τίς πόθεν εις ανδρών; πόθι τοι another of Ribbeck's cursives, both cor. Tótis noè Tornes ; Od. 1. 170. .Qui rected, have tacitis,' and so Serv., whose genus' is variously corrupted by the in. comment is “otacitis incumbere remis' ferior MSS. into •quod' or 'quid genus,' pro ipsi taciti, i. e. sine celeusmate.” The 'quo genere. The construction is perhaps editors generally have supposed tacitos' from the Greek, e. g. Od. 15. 267, 5 to be an interpretation, and this on the '10 árns yévos eiui. Comp. 5. 285, “Cressa whole seems most probable. If it were genus Pholoe.” “Unde domo’is a phrase, admitted, it would simplify the construc as in Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 52, “quaere et refer, tion in v. 107, as adlabi' as well as 'in- unde domo, quis, Cuius fortunae.” So cumbere' might be referred to the crews. Plaut. Cist. 4. 2. 6, “haec cistella numBut the complexity of the sentence, 'in- quam hinc a nobis domo est,” comp. by cumbere' being said of the ships when Forb., from which we see that the abi. really it refers to the rowers, is itself means in respect of domicile.' For .doVirgilian. Whichever reading we adopt, mus' of place of extraction comp. 10. 141, the silence seems to mean not what Serv. “ Maeonia generose domo,” ib. 183, “Qui supposes, but the absence of an intimation Caerete domo." from the Trojans who they were, which 115.] · Puppi ab alta,' 5. 12. Aeneas would itself alarm the Arcadians : probably stands there, as Heyne remarks, because too we are meant to think of the calm of they had reached the land and as usual the river. Strictly of course the oars (6. 3) turned the prow to the sea, the cannot bave been noiseless. “ Incumbere stern to the land. remis” 5. 15.

116.] ‘Praetenditque' instead of “prae110.] •Mensis,' the sacrificial banquet. tendens.” • Pacifer' is quoted from no Comp. 7. 176. • Audax” refers to his author before Virg., but is frequently readiness to meet the possible danger. found in inscriptions as an epithet of the * Rumpere sacra:' the interruption of a gods: see Freund. Here it reminds us of sacrifice or religious celebration was thought pacem fertis' v. 114. For the olive ill-omened by the Romans : comp. 3. 407. branch see on 7. 154. Serv. tells a story that the games of the 117.] Comp. v. 55. •Troiugenas' 3. Circus were once interrupted by an alarm 359. He reassures Pallas about the im. that Hannibal was at the gates, and that port of the weapons, as the Sibyl reassures on returning to the Circus the people Charon 6. 400.

120

Quos illi bello profugos egere superbo.
Euandrum petimus. Ferte haec, et dicite lectos
Dardaniae venisse duces, socia arma rogantis.
Obstipuit tanto perculsus nomine Pallas :
Egredere o quicumque es, ait, coramque parentem
Adloquere, ac nostris succede penatibus hospes.
Excepitque manu, dextramque amplexus inhaesit.
Progressi subeunt luco, fluviumque relinquunt. 125

Tum regem Aeneas dictis adfatur amicis :
Optume Graiugenum, cui me Fortuna precari
Et vitta comptos voluit praetendere ramos,
Non equidem extimui, Danaum quod ductor et Arcas
Quodque a stirpe fores geminis coniunctus Atridis; 130

118.] 'Qaos' refers of course to • Troiu. 124.] · Excepit’ not of physically catchgenas, illi’ to Latinis,' though Virg. ing by the hand, but in its transferred has expressed himself rather ambiguously. sense of welcoming, like "gaza excipit” 5. Aeneas speaks as if the Latins had con- 40 &c. It is a translation of repoly summated their intention of expelling the notácorto Od. 3. 35. The reading before Trojans. •Superbus' and superbia' are Heins. was 'accepit.' • Inbaesit :'ěv ?. pa used much in the sense of Bpis, for out- oi xeipi Il. 6. 406. rage and tyranny, as well as pride; e. g. 125.] For “subeunt' with dat. sce on Tarquinius Superbus for Tarquin the 7. 161. Luco,' when the sacrifice was tyrant. So it is used of the tyranny of going on, v. 104. Mezentius v. 481, of that of Metabus 11. 126-151.] 'Aeneas explains to Evander 539. The Latins had violated both the that though they are Trojans and the treaty and the rights of suppliants. Arcadians Greeks, both are sprung from a

119.] · Ferte, i.q. “nuntiate.” “As- common stock and threatened by a comcanio ferat haec” 1. 645.

mon enemy, and asks for an alliance.' 120.] Some MSS. (including one of 126.] « Dictisque ita fatur amicis” 2. Ribbeck's cursives) have viros,' appa- 147. rently because it was thought that lectos' 127.] Optume Graiugenum. Serv. was superfluous with duces :' but the has a curious note: “Quantum ad Aenean chiefs had not all come. Possibly there pertinet, Graeci neque boni neque meliores may be a connexion in usage between “le- sunt. Ergo .optume Graiugenum supergere” and “legare," as between “ dicere” lativus est pro positivo: nam optumus and “ dicare." Wagn. thinks that 'viros' malorum non possumus dicere : supermay have arisen from 7. 168. With ro- lativus enim suo tantum iungitur generi. gantis,' the pres. part., comp. 1. 519., 2. Sic ergo dixit ut Homerus (Il. 11. 832) 114. “Socia arma ” 11. 161.

BikaLÓTATOS KEVT aúpwv pro díkatos.” Pre121.] Nomine’sc. “ Dardaniae.” Percari’ with dat., like “supplicare,” in the culsus' Rom., 'percussus' Med., Pal., sense of becoming a suppliant to a person. Gud. See on 1. 513.

Elsewhere the dat. is used of the person 122.] Etgredere' or 'etgradere' is the for whom good or bad is imprecated. reading of Pal. (originally), Med., and 128.] Comptos,' in the sense of “co. Rom., which seems to point to the form matos,” for “coronatos:” comp. 7. 751, • ecgredere,' restored by Ribbeck. With “ Fronde super galeam et felici comptus

quicumque es comp. the quasi-vocative oliva," Culex 217, “ Tisiphone serpentibus “quaecumque” 1. 330. Pallas had not undique compta.” For the thing see on 7. heard Aeneas' name, as Serv. and Donatus 154. observe, though he had been informed of 129.] • Extimui' is constructed with his nation. Some MSS. mentioned by 'quod-Atridis' as its object clause. Pierius have parente,' a natural error.

130.] A stirpe Pal., Rom., Gud., 'ab 123.] “ Tectis succedite nostris" 1. 627. stirpe. Med. It seems simply a question For ac' the first reading of Med. has et.' of external authority, so I have followed

135

Sed mea me virtus et sancta oracula divom,
Cognatique patres, tua terris didita fama,
Coniunxere tibi, et fatis egere volentem.
Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor,
Electra, ut Graii perhibent, Atlantide cretus,
Advehitur Teucros; Electram maxumus Atlas
Edidit, aetherios humero qui sustinet orbis.
Vobis Mercurius pater est, quem candida Maia
Cyllenae gelido conceptum vertice fudit;
At Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus, Atlas,
Idem Atlas generat, caeli qui sidera tollit.

140

Ribbeck in reading “a.' 'Fores' seems to Cic. de Div. 1. 2, "huius urbis parens be used on the analogy of those cases Romulus," Forb. Ov. M. 15. 862, "geni. where 'quod' with the subj. gives a reason torque Quirine Urbis." which the speaker denies to be the true 135.] "Ut perhibent” 4. 179. The apone (Madv. $ 357 b), though what is denied peal to Grecian legend comes in strangely, here is not the reason but the fact which as Wagn. remarks. It may be meant as the reason might have justified. Geminis an argumentum ad hominem to Evander, Atridis' 2. 500.

but it looks rather as if Virg. were 131.] This self-praise is quite consonant speaking in his own person. to the heroic age, Il. 4. 505, Od. 9. 19. 136.] *Advebitur Teucros,' like “urbem Comp. also 1. 378, 9. Oracula,' given by adferimur” 7. 217. The mention of Atlas the Tiber, and by the Sibyl 6. 96. Sed' after 'Atlantide' is accounted for by is put as though “ Atridis quidem con Aeneas' natural wish to be explicit on a iunctus es or something similar had pre- point which is the turning point of his ceded. Virg. was thinking of Lucr. 1. genealogical statement: but we may still 140, “Sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata wonder why Virg. should not have chosen voluptas” &c.

some other epithet in v. 135. “ Maxumus 132.] The asyndeton in'tua terris didita Atlas” 1. 741. fama' is rather harsh, so that we need 137.] · Aetherios orbis' of the heavenly not wonder that it should have been pro- bodies, like “ astris aetheriis ” 5. 514 &c. posed to transpose the latter halves of this 138.] •Candida, fair, as in 5. 571 of and the preceding line, “ Sed mea me virtus, Dido, not, as Serv. thinks, of Maia's tua terris didita fama, Cognatique patres brightness as a star. et sancta oracula divom," though the 139.] •Conceptum fudit' seems i. q. change could not be allowed in a text so concepit et fudit,” both conception and well supported as Virg.'s. Didita' 7. 144. birth being supposed to have taken place

133.] The Homeric ékův åékovti ye on Mount Cyllene. It is not clear why Quuoo is compared by Heyne : but there is Virg. has added 'gelido,' which to modern probably no such contrast between con notions seems incongruous. • Fudit' of sent and reluctance here. • Volentem’ is production G. 1. 13.

Whether it was the emphatic word, and the sense is,' and commonly used of human births does not I have willingly obeyed the call of fate.' appear. In Cic. Pis. ad init., “Quae te The expression however is somewhat per- beluain ex utero non hominem fudit,” it plexed, inasmuch as 'sancta oracula di- has something of contempt, as is remarked vom' alone accords with 'fatis egere,' by Serv., who thinks the word is chosen while the rest gives the reason of vo- here to express easy parturition. Pal. lentem.' •Coniunxere' is doubtless used originally had 'fundit,' which would agree to suggest the notion of rival claims to with generat.' those expressed by coniunctus' v. 130. 140.] Rom. has 'cuiquam :' see on G. The fates are here made the instruments, 4. 447. Pal. and the first reading of Gud. as in 7. 239 the agents, agreeably to have creditis,' which may either be an Virg.'s habit of treating them sometimes accommodation to vobis,' or a mere error as persons, sometimes as things.

arising froin 'auditis.' 134.] “Pater urbis :' Gossrau comp. 141.] Of the two presents 'generat' is

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