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on Saturday. The members for this the S. of this division lie the Washes, borough in the present parliament are paffable at ebb, but overflowed by the marquis of Granby, and Sir John the tide. Here K. John lost his bagCuft, bart. It gives title of carl to gage and many of his men, by a sudthe family of Auverquerque, who den inundacion, during his war with came over with K. William III. It the barons.

Places of note are, has a fine large church, with a spire A 1. Boston, the chief town in this disteeple 280 foot high : It seems to vision, about 16 miles E. of Slea. stand awry, which is ascribed to its ford, on the river Witham, where Tenderness and great height. Bel- it is navigable by veffels, and over vour-castle, about 4 miles S. W. is which it has a high wooden bridge. a noble and magnificent seat, be- 'Tis an antient town-corporate, golonging to the duke of Rutland, and verned by a mayor, 12 aldermen,

of the finest profpe&s in En: B &c. and sends two members to pargland, over a pleasant and fruitful liament, those in the present parValley:-- 3. Folkingham, about 7 liament being John Michell, Esq; miles E. of Grantham, lies in a good and lord Vere Bertie. It is one of air, and has wholesome {prings, molt considerable towns in the county, with a small market on Thursday. rich and populous, has a good trade, 4. Bourne about 8 miles S. has a and markets on Wedneidays and market on Saturday, the ruins of a C Saturdays. Its church is large and castle, and a medicinal well.-5. beautiful, and has a lofty tower, Deeping, or Market Deeping, about which serves as a guide to mariners: 7 miles S. E. has a market on Thurs- It is reckoned the finest in England, day. It lies in the fenny country, and above 280 feet high. This from whence it has its name.-6. tower has 365 deps, and the church Stamford, about the same distance 52 windows, and 12 pillars.W. from Deeping, an antient Saxon D Dennington, about 10 miles S. W. town, named from a Ford over the has a market on Saturdays.- 3. HolWelland, over which it has a fine beach, about 11 miles S. of Bolton, stone bridge. It is large, populous has a market on Thursdays.

4. and rich, enjoys great privileges, is Spalding, about 7 miles S. W. of governed by a mayor, &c. and sends Holbeach, is well built, has a gord two members to parliament, their trade, tho' not far from the Washes, , present representatives being Robert E and a market on Thursdays.-Crow. Barbor and John Proby, jun. Esqrs. land, or Croyland, 7 miles S. W. Their chief trade is in malt, and the of Spalding, has a small market on markets are on Mondays and Satur. Saturdays. It lies among the tens, days. Here are 6 parish churches ; and is accesible only on the N. and most of the houses are built of free. E. by narrow causeys. It has 3 streels, ftone, the Itreets fair and large, and separated froin one another by waterthe whole surrounded with a strong F courses planted with willows. They

F wall. It gives title of earl to the ta- have a communicacion by a trianmily of Gray.

gular bridge, curiously contrived. III. Holland, the third and last di- The houses are built on piles of vision, is so called from its low Stua- wood. Here was formerly a famous tion, like that of the Low Countries, abbey or monastery of Benedictine and is thought to have been reco- monks, of which Ingulphus was ab. vered out of the sea, against which G bot, who wrote its history. The it is now defended by banks, and people go in little boats to. milk well improved. It gives title of earl, their cows in the field, and make jointly with that of Warwick, to a great profit of their fish and wildbranch of the family of Rich. On ducks in the Fens.

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1751.
JOURNAL of the ProCEEDINGS and DEBATES

in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from the
APPENDIX, 1750, Page 584.

to the proceedings, or the sentence 1 fall now give you a Debate qe of a court-martial, no member there. bad in our Club upon the Queslion,

of could be delired, much less reWhether the Words (or by either quired, to disclose or discover the House of Parliament) pould not be vote or opinion of any particular added at the End of the Oath of member of that court-martial ; for, Secrecy contained in the Bill against A furely, we could not defire a gentieMutiny and Defertion *; which man to make such discovery, when Question was first started by L. he is bound by his oath not to do so, Muræna, who upon this Occasion

unless we should assume to ourselves Spoke in Subji ance as follows, viz. a dispensing power, which, I hope Mr. President,

no parliament, nor any court or ina

gistrate in Great Britain ever will. SI R,

B I confess, Sir, I was always, and
THE amendment made by the ftill am, against the whole of this

committee to the oath now oath of secrecy. It is an innovation

under our consideration, lately brought into our military law ; was an amendment which, so far as and it is an innovation which is init went, I highly approved of; and consistent with the whole tenor of I was glad to find my opinion sup. our laws, and the very spirit of our ported by some gentlemen, whose C conftitution. With us the courts of concurrence I shall always be proud justice have always been open, and of; but even then I did not think the judges thereof have delivered the amendment extensive enough. their opinions, and pafled sentence or However, I resolved not to propose judgment in the face of the world. any further extension of it at that This will always have a good effect time, because I was apprehensive left in favour of justice ; for let men be it might have defeated what I then D never fo corrupt, let them be never aimed at, and because I knew, that so abandoned, they will always have a further amendinent might be pro- fome regard for their safety, if not posed upon the report from that com- for their reputation ; and will be mittee. I shall therefore now beg cautious of letting the people know, leive to observe the impropriety of that they have been the tools of our giving a greater power to the oppression, and the dispensers of courts below, than we give to, or re- E manifest injustice. But it we once serve for, the high court of parlia- begin to have sentence passed in fement. By the oath, as it now stands, cret, and under an oath of secrecy, any member of a court-martial may be we shall soon begin to have the whole obliged by any of the courts in Welt. trial carried on in the lame manner; miniter hall, to disclose or discover the and this imells so strong of the court vote or opinion of every particular of inquifition, and of those terrible member of the court-martial, when it F reclute courts, which are in arbitr.de becomes necessary to have a proof ry governments the instruments of thereof in any trial before them. But tyranny, that it muit give a just if a question should arise in this or alarum to every gentleman, who hus the other house of parliament, relating a regard for our constitution, or the

M Efq; happiness of pofterity.
January, 1751.

B

One * See our Magazine forlaff yede; P. 313,

One of the arguments made use most readily allow, that the danger of, Sir, for this oath of secrecy, is suggested by those gentlemen, is far so far from being an argument in its from being imaginary ; but I canfavour, that it is an unanswerable not agree in the last part of their ar. argument for our returning to the gument ; for I cannot suppose, that regulation of 1713, by which it this danger will be in the least obwas provided, That no punishment A viated by the oath of secrecy proto be inflicted by the sentence of a poled. We know how little an oath court-martial should extend to life, is regarded by mankind, when it or limb ; and with reípect to com- happens to be inconsistent with their mission officers, I think, the re- intereit, and when they may break ftraint should be carried even to that it not only with impunity but adof corporal punithment ; for that of

vantage. No officer will, therefore, breaking, suspending, or tining a B notwithstanding this oath, suppose, commission officer is, I think, the that his way of voting at a courthighest punishment we ought to al- martial can be hid from the crown, low a court-martial in time of peace or the general, or minister for the to infiict ; and in time of war we time being; consequently, the memhave no occasion for a mutiny bill, bers of a court-martial will still conbecause his majetty's prerogative then tinue to be under the same influence takes place, by which he may not C they are now. Nay, I think, they will only appoint courts martial, but be more so ; because, as their way may furnish them with such powers of voting will by this oath be kept as he thinks necessary.

hid from the world, they will with When I thus talk of the argu- the more freedom abandon them. ment brought in favour of this oath, felves to that influence, and miniI believe, every gentleman will sup- flers, or generals, will with the less pole, I mean that by which it is D reftraint make use of it. At prelaid, that as officers depend for their sent, or at leait before this oath was preterment, as well as for their con- introduced, a man's way of voting cinuence in commission, upon the ar- court martial was publickly bitrary will of the crown, or rather known, and if any one voted against of the prime minister, or general what was supposed to be the inclina. for the time being, they may, when cion of the minister, or general, upon a court-martial, be determined E and was afterwards dismissed the by the influence of that minister, or service, or disappointed in his pregeneral to acquit, or condemn and

ferment, the world of course suppunish, not according to justice, but poled, that it was on account of his according to his will and pleasure. having voted according to consciThis they allow to be a danger that ence, which was an imputation that ought to be apprehended, and this a wise minister, or general, would danger they pretend to obviate, by F chuse to avoid ; but no minister, or obliging every officer, upon oath, general, can now be in danger of not to disclose the vote or opinion of any such impucation, and, therefore, any particular member of the court

they will with the more freedom martial.

dismiss, or disappoint, any officer In the first part of this argument, who dares to vote at a court-marSir, I most heartily agree with thote tial contrary to their direction. gentlemen : We know how liable G This argument is, therefore, Sir, our common-law judges were to ini- what may be called argumentum ad nisterial influence, when their com- homin-m, for reltraining courts-marmillions depended upon ministerial tial, in time of peace, from inflicting pleasure ; and, therefore, i tall

any punishment extending to life, or

at a

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