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Lora tenens tamen ; huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur
Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta..
Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant
Crinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant,
Suppliciter, tristes et tunsae pectora palmis;
Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat.
Ter circum Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros,
Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles.
Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo,
Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici,
Tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermis
Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis,

485

“ita

men

477.) Heyne justly wonders that Quinct. 484.] Exanimum' perhaps = (7.9) should raise a question whether 'ta- exanimatum,” by the dragging: see on 2.

goes with what precedes or with 273. *Auro vendebat,' 6. 621. See Madv. what follows.

rum.

$ 258. 478.] Pulvis inscribitur' like “flores 486.] ‘Currus' has been differently inscripti” E. 3. 106.

taken as the chariot of Hector or that of 479.] Non aequae,' unpropitious. Achilles. It might also be taken of that Comp. G. 2. 225, “ vacuis Clavius non of Priam, described II. 24, 266. The chaaequus Acerris.” This scene is described riot of Achilles however would be a more in Il. 6. 297 foll., which is imitated by important object in such a picture; and Virg. himself 11. 477 foll.

its presence seems to be indicated in v. 481.] •Suppliciter,' as Henry says, 483. Statius bas a parallel passage (Silv. gives the general effect, and so should be 2. 7. 55). “Ludes Hectora Thessalosque pointed off. The 'suppliant guise' is fur. currus Et supplex Priami potentis auther described in the words that follow,

482.) Hom. Il. 6. 311 has ans par' 487.] ‘Inermis,' unarmed, and so sup. evxouévn, åvéveve 8è lands 'ABývn. The pliant. The expression ‘tendere manus incontrary attitude is described in Ovid, ermis' occurs (with a variation of reading) Trist. 1. 3. 45, “ Ad vatem voltus rettulit 10. 595., 11. 414, 672. For the thing see illa (Venus) suos.” Here there is of course II. 24. 478. a confusion between the goddess and her 488.] It is perhaps a little remark:blo statue.

that Aeneas' features should have been 483.] This line suggests the mangled transmitted by fame to Carthage, so as to and pitiable state of the body as shown in be at once recognized by himself. In the the picture,-a condition such as is de other cases we may suppose that the event scribed 2, 272. The tense of raptaverat' described told its own story. But names shows that this is not a separate picture. are fouvd written over or under figures in Comp. 8. 642-4, where the tense of old sculpture or painting, and Virg. may “distulerant similarly shows that the have liad this practice in his mind, so that tearing of the limbs asunder had taken he would not seem to himself to be making place before the action represented on the a violent assumption. Principibus pershield, which is similarly marked by the mixtum,' a pouáxois uix0 évta. When Poimperfect. In Hom. Hector is chased seidon rescues Aeneas from Achilles, lie round the walls and dragged round the tells him to keep in the background tomb of Patroclus. Heyne supposes Virg. during Achilles' lifetime, but afterwards to have followed the Cyclic poets or one metà a pútoioi uáxeoda. Il. 20. 338. Wheof the tragedians, as Eur. Androm. 105 has ther this time of more extended action is τον περί τείχη Είλκυσε διφρεύων παις αλίας referred to liere we cannot say, as we do ÉTidos. The word ' raptaverat’ is appa not know how far the order of the pictures rently from Ennius, Androm. fr. 12, is chronological. Fragm. Vat. and Roin. “ Hectorem curru quadriiugo raptarier.” give ‘adgnoscit,' which Jahn adopts. This The scene is from Il. 24. 478 foll.

and the next line do not seem to represent

Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma.
Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis

490
Penthesilea furens, mediisque milibus ardet,
Aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae,
Bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo.

Haec dum Dardanio Aencae miranda videntur,
Dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno, 495
Regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido,
Incessit, magna iuvenum stipante caterva.
Qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per iuga Cynthi
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae

499 Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades; illa pharetram any particular scene, though Weidner (see pear and address her.' on v. 466) thinks otherwise. Were it so, 494.] Videntur? apparently means we should probably have had a more de- ' are seen’ rather than 'seem (comp. finite description, as Aeneas himself figures “mibi visa” v. 326 above): ‘miranda' in the action. The lines appear rather to however does not seem to be a pres. part. be a summing up of various scenes not like “volvenda," as Wagn. thinks, but radescribed in detail.

ther means

are seen as marvels.' Henry 489.] The • Eoae acies' are the Indian notes the propriety of Dardanio, as Aethiopians. Hom. says nothing of them Aeneas is overwhelmed by Dardan recol. in the Iliad, but Memnon is mentioned lections. Od. 4. 187., 11. 521. Memnon had arins 495.] Comp. 7. 249, “ defixa Latinus made by Vulcan, A. 8. 384. He was pro- Obtutu tenet ora soloque inmobilis bably the hero of the Aethiopis of Arcti- haeret,” which

to show that nus, which is said to have followed immc- 'haeret' is to be separated from 'obtutu diately on the action of the Iliad (Mure, in uno’here. Hist. vol. ii. p. 282). He is called “niger' 497.] •Incessit' conveys a notion of as an Aethiopian, but the legend made him majesty, as “incedo” in v. 46. Weidner eminently beautiful, Od. 11. 521. On the supposes “invenum' to be young women, whole subject see Heyne's Excursus. which would help out the simile, but seems

490.] Penthesilea and her Amazons are otherwise quite improbable. Elsewhere again post-Homeric personages, who also we hear of no female companions of hers seem to have figured in the Aethiopis, except her sister. “Saepta armis” below another title of the poem being probably he understands of a male bodyguard folAmazovia. Priam speaks of himself as lowing her and her train. For ‘stipante' having fought against Amazons invading Rom. has 'comitante.' Phrygia, Il. 3. 188. For "lunatis peltis, 498.] This simile is translated with which were part of the national armour of minor variations from Od. 6. 102 foll. It various parts of Asia, and therefore attri- is much less appropriate to Dido walking buted to the Amazons, see Dict. A. “ pelta.' in the midst of her lords, than to Nausicaa

492.] 'Subnectens' for “subnexa ha- dancing among her bandmaidens, as was bens.” Exsertae' as in 11. 619 note (of remarked long ago by Probus ap. Gell. 9. Camilla), “ Unum exserta latus pugnae.” 9. • Per iuga Cynthi' 4. 147. Hom. See Dict. Myth. ‘Ainazons. With the specifies Taygetus (in Laconia, like Euroconstruction comp. G. 3. 166,"circlos Cer- tas) or Erymanthus. For Eurotas comp. vici subnecte."

E. 6. 83. 493.] · Bellatrix' placed as in 7. 805 : 499.] 'Exercet choros' like “exercent comp. v. 319 above. Viris concurrere palaestras” 3. 281. The first syllable of virgo’ is supposed to be a reminiscence of * Diana' is elsewhere short in Virg. Posthe epithet avrlaveipos, applied by Hom. sibly he may have preferred the long ante1. c. to the Amazons.

penult in the nom., the short in the obligne 491-519.] “As he is gazing, Dido enters the temple, where she holds a court. 500.] “Qnem circum glomerati hostes To his surprise, his missing comrades ap- hinc comminus atque hinc Proturbant,”

VOL. II.

seems

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Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnis :
Latonae tacitum pertemptant gaudia pectus :
Talis erat Dido, talem se laeta ferebat
Per medios, instans operi regnisque futuris.
Tum foribus divae, media testudine templi,

505
Saepta armis, solioque alte subnixa resedit.
Iura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborem
Partibus aequabat iustis, aut sorte trahebat:
Cum subito Aeneas concursu accedere magno

Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum, 510 9. 440. The nymphs follow her, and as was commonly approached. He also rethey throng, form a circle round her. marks the general similarity between the * Illa pharetram fert humero’ is perhaps reception of the Trojans here by Dido in a translation of loyéaipa. Comp. note on the temple of Juno and by Latinus in the v. 416. We may however be intended to temple of Faunus 7. 170 foll. My lamented think of the motion of the quiver on the friend, Professor Shirley, suggested to me shoulder, as in 4. 149, “ Tela sonant hu. that the temple may have been a hypaemeris."

thral one, which would have the 'testudo' 501.] For deas' Pal. and Rom. have over the door. Ribbeck reads ‘media e dea,' which also may have been the first testudine,' from a doubtful variety in Pal. reading of Med.

Henry prefers it, citing 506.] •Subnixa' means supported from vv. 412, 692. But the lengthening of a beneath, with the throne (solio '), not, final vowel is very unusual, though not as Heyne thinks, with a footstool. Henry unexampled (see on 3. 464), and the omis- comp. Claud. Epith. Hon. et Mar. 99, sion of the letter is easily accounted for where ‘solio subnixa' is similarly used. (see on G. 2. 219). It may be said too “Saepta armis," "satellituin scilicet, ”Serv. that deas’ is confirmed by Hom. 1. c. 507.] •Iura legesque' is the common δειά τ' αριγώτη πέλεται, καλαι δε τε expression of the whole Roman law, and naoai, though 'dea' would have a force the words are not to be pressed here. of its own. • Deae' of inferior goddesses Comp. Hor. 1 Sat. 1. 9, "juris legumque 9. 117., 10. 235.

peritus,” with Macleane's note, and Dict. 502.] A characteristically elaborated A. ‘ius.' For ‘iura dare' see on v. 293 version of the Homeric géynde de te opéva above, 5. 758. 'Operumque laborem 'foll. Antu. Virg. may have thought too of may be taken in two ways; either, that II. 18. 556.

she divided by equity and, where that 503.] •Se ferebat,' 'advanced,' 5. 290 failed, by lot, which is the common way, &c. Even where there is no word of or, that she first divided equally and then motion in the sentence, as in 5. 372., 8. distributed the parts by lot. There is 199, it seems to indicate more than our some resemblance between the scene here word 'carriage' or 'bearing,' though that and that described Od. 11. 568 foll., though notion may be included, as here.

there the notion of administering justice 501.] • Urging on the work which was is the prominent one, here that of giving to set up her kingdom.' Non ignarus laws and apportioning work. instandum famae,” Tac. Agr. 18.

508.) · Partibus' probably instr. or 505.] The simplest way of reconciling modal abl. "Sorte trabebat' is an in'foribus' and 'media’ is to suppose that verted expression, combining the common Dido sat in the centre of the entrance; phrase "sortem trahere ” with the notion the 'testudo' (vaulted roof) extending of division. See note on v. 381, and comp. over the whole building. The idea is pro. 2. 201., 5. 534 notes. bably taken from meetings of the senate 509.] * Concursu magno,' either in or held in temples. But Henry (anticipated through the multitude crowding to the by Turneb. Adv. 10. 11) may be right in temple, or with a great crowd collecting taking 'foribus divae' of the ' cella' round them. within the temple, and supposing that 510.] 'Anthea,' v. 181, Cloanthum,' v. Dido was seated on the landing-place of 222. Sergestus is mentioned for the first the light of steps by which the cella' time.

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Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo
Dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat oras.
Obstipuit simul ipse simul perculsus Achates
Laetitiaque metuque; avidi coniungere dextras
Ardebant; sed res animos incognita turbat.
Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti,
Quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant,
Quid veniant; cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant,
Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant.

515

we

512.] Penitus,' far away. Comp. 517.] Classem quo litore linquant,' not “penitus repostas Massylum gentis,” 6.59. on what shore it will prove that they have • Alias oras,' other than where Aeneas had left their feet, as Forb. thinks, but on landed. *Advexerat' is found in some what shore they are leaving their fleet, the MSS. including a correction in Med., fleet being all the time without them. 'averterat’in fragm. Vat. and Gud. 518.] · Cuncti,' Med., Rom., Gud. cor

513.] ‘Perculsus' Med., Pal. corrected, rected, Serv., Donatus. "Cunctis,'Pal., Gud. ' percussus' fragm. Vat., Rom., Gud., Pal. originally. The MSS. however have less originally. The latter has generally been positive weight here, as it is evident that adopted since Heins. The words are fre. there has been a confusion between 'cuncquently confounded in MSS., and it is not tis' and `lecti,' some giving 'cuncti lectis' easy to establish the distinction for which (Rom.), others 'cunctis lectis ' (Gud. ori. Forb. and others contend, as though per- ginally, Pal. corrected). The sense is culsus' were too strong to be applied to strongly against 'cuncti,' whether any pleasurable emotion. Here however couple it with what follows, or, as Wagn.,

perculsus’ is used in a sense peculiar to with what precedes. The appearance of itself as a synonym of obstipuit' (was deputies from all the ships informs Aeneas struck dumb), the ablatives referring to that the whole fleet is there (“classem quo both words as if it had been prac laetitia litore linquant'); whereas it is difficult to metuque.' The words “perculsus’ and see the meaning of making him wonder

stupeo’are similarly joined in Hor. Epod. why all the deputies came together. 7. 16, “Mentesque perculsae stupent.” Strictly, no doubt,

“omnes

means all, Comp. also Tac. A. 1. 12, “ Perculsus in. distributively, and “cuncti” the whole, provisa interrogatione paullum reticuit.” as Jahn contends against the reading

Perculsus' should be restored to 8. 121, 'cunctis :' but there are repeated instances Obstipuit tanto percussus nomine Pallas,” in which “cuncti” might be replaced by where it is read by Rom. In 9. 197 'per omnes,” and even by “singuli,” G. 2. 42, cussus' would seem to be the right word, A. 3. 398. being taken closely with “amore,' as in G. 519.] 'Orantes veniam, praying for 2. 476, where however, as there, the MSS. grace; not, as Wagn. thinks, for permispresent the same variety. These passages sion to speak with the queen, but for the seem also to show that perculsus' here is favours specified in v. 525. Comp. 11. 101) not an independent verb, but a participle, foll., " Iamque oratores aderant--veniam so that it is best to remove the comma rogantes - Redderet-sineret-parceret.” aster ipse.' 'Simul-simul,' 5. 675. See also note on 2. 114. Clamore,' Forb.

514.] · Avidi’ should be taken closely says, “non suo sed multitudinis.” Why, it with ardebant,' as if it were 'avide.' is difficult to see. They would naturally

515.] ‘Res incognita' is explained by clamour when in danger of having their the qnestions in vv. 517 foll.

fleet burnt; and there seems to be a poeti516.] • Dissimulant,' they repress their cal contrast between the calmness of the emotions. This use of dissimulo' abso- aged Ilioneus (v. 521) and the excitement lutely is not common. •Cava,' enshroud of the rest. ing Comp. 2. 360, “nox atra cava cir 520-560.] *llioneus, as their spokescumvolat umbra." "Speculantur,' look out man, tells his tale, and begs for permission on what was passing, as from a

for them to refit their ships, that they may place of observation.

be able to sail either to Italy or Sicily.'

secure

520

525

Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi,
Maxŭmus Iliopeus plăcido sic pectore coepit:
O Regina, novam cui condere Iuppiter urbem
Iustitiaque dedit gentis frenare superbas,
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti,
Oramus, prohibe infandos a navibus ignis,
Parce pio generi, et propius res aspice nostras,
Non nos aut ferro Libycos populare Penatis
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas;
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta superbia victis.
Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt,
Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glaebae ;
Oenotri coluere viri; nunc fama, minores

530

520.] Repeated 11. 248.

526.] Heyne takes 'propius' as more 521.j • Maxumus.' Comp. Livy 29. 17, closely ; do not judge us by appearances. of the Locrian embassy, “senatu dato, But it seems rather to mean, as Taubmann maxumus vatu ex iis ” (then follows the understood it, “praesentius,” incline thy speech). There is an aged Ilionens in Q. ear to hear our case. Comp. 8. 78, "proSmyrn. 13. 181 foll. killed by Diomed. pius tua numina firmes.” The Trojans Ilioneus is employed as spokesman again in are called “pii” 3. 266., 7. 21. the parallel passage, 7. 212 foll. Weidner 527.] · Venimus populare, vertere, like connects the calmness of Ilioneus with his “parasitus modo venerat aurum petere," age, comparing 7.194, to which add 12. 18. Plaut. Bacch. 4. 3. 18, an instance which

522.] The appeal is to one, to whom may show that the construction is not heaven has granted what they are seeking, merely a poetical Grecism, though the to pity those whose case resembles her own, supine is undoubtedly more usual than the and to one who has founded civilization in inf. • Populare' seems here to refer to the midst of barbarism, to put a stop to slaughter, as distinguished from pillage barbarous outrage. • Novam urbem : see ('ad litora vertere praedas '). This is a on v. 298.

sense however derived from the context, 523.] 'Gentis superbas,'i.e. the Africans, not, as Wagn. thinks, inherent in the word. not the Carthaginians, to whom 'gentis' Attius (Astyanax fragm. 1) has “Qui noswould not be applicable. See 4. 41 tra per vim patria populavit bona.” (where possibly “infreni” may illustrate 528.] · Vertere.' Comp. note, on . frenare 'here), 320. It must be admitted, tit,” v. 472, and on “vertuntur,” v. 158. however, that so far as “frenare' goes, it 529.] Such violence belongs not to our would point rather to Dido's government nature (“pio generi,” v. 526), nor such of her own people. Henry thinks Ilioneus daring to our vanquished condition. Comp. speaks of the two operations in which he the legal sense of vis.' Not very unlike has seen Dido engaged, directing the is “vim crescere victis," 12. 799. building of the city and legislating (vv. 530.] This line is imitated from Enn. A. 507, 508).

1. fr. 21 (quoted by Serv. and Macrob., 524.] · Maria omnia vecti :' this accus. Sat. 6. 1), “ Est locus, Hesperiam quam of the thing along or over which motion mortales perhibebant." For the constructakes place is a Grecism, Jelf, Gr. Gr. tion comp. v. 12 above. 558. 1. Comp. 5. 627, “freta ... terras 531.] · Terra antiqua,' a land old in ... ferimur.” Ilioneus speaks similarly of story. For 'potens armis atque ubere the wanderings of the Trojans, 7. 228. glaebae' (where 'potens' seems to belong

525.) • Infandos, unspeakable, and so, more naturally to the first), comp. G. 2. horrible; not, as Heyne thinks, lawless, a

173, “

· Magna parens frugum, Saturnia sense which the word does not appear to tellus, Magna virum.” “Ubere glaebae :' bear. The Carthaginians were treating oodap å poúpns, II. 6. 141. the Trojans as pirates. “ Prohibent a ma 532.] Oenotrii’ Med., 'Oenotri’ Rom. tribus haedos," G. 3. 398.

rightly. The Greek is Oivwtpoi,

aver

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