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evening and morning before their command fortune. It was therefore, images, saying, Ghospodi pomiloui ! while he was cardinal, well said by Lord have pity upon me! in mak- him to an Italian prince, over whom, ing the sign of the cross before and in a dispute, he had so manifestly after meals, or when passing a the advantage as to excite the ad. church ; and, lastly, in observing miration of the company, and who lent.
consequently, irritated to the greatThis last article is absolutely in est degree, exclaimed, “I wonder dispensable; a Russian peasant is at your arrogance, who are only the firmly persuaded that God would son of a swineherd !" sooner pardon murder than a viola. “ True, my lord! and if it had lation of lent. Their priests are been your misfortune to have been equally ignorant as themselves; all born the son of a swineherd, you their learning consists in knowing would have still continued in that their ritual pretty well, and being capacity." able to give a benediction, even in That he was the son of a swinethe streets, to those who ask it, herd is a fact. He was born at gratis, or for the value of a penny Montalto, in the marshes of Ancona. or halfpenny.
His parents called him Felix; but One village has sometimes more he left them, and at the age of fourthan one church, and churches are teen took the habit of St. Francis, in general very numerous in Russia, and became a friar in the convent because it is a work of great merit of Ascoli. The quickness of his to found one. The ringing of bells parts soon raised him high in the is here almost continual, as it is sodality ; though it must be observed, thought to be a part of religious that it was composed of members service. Besides churches,
who have not been recorded as the finds on the highways small cha- brightest of mankind. However, pels, images covered by little wooden they had sense enough to distinguish houses, and springs of water ac his merit, and candour enough to counted sacred or ' miraculous, acknowledge it, except in one inwhich have generally small cha- stance, when some of the younger pels in their neighbourhood. The students, girded perhaps by the sun present empress has formed a plan periority of his genius, retorted upon for gradually instructing these peo- him ironically, “ that in the astrolople, by sending schoolmasters among gical question before them they them, and priests to enlarge their inust yield to him : he certainly ideas with respect to religion. knew more of houses than they did,
his father's being 80 illustrious.”
great good nature, that “his father's For the Literary Magazine.
house was indeed illustrious, for the
Improving his talents, he took the
degree of doctor of divinity ; and, at
a public disputation in the presence THE life of this pope exhibits of cardinal Carpi, who was then one of those extraordinary instances, protector of the Franciscan order, in which genius and talents have acquitted himself so well, acquirlifted their possessors far above the disadvantages concomitant to
* This passage will be better un. humble birth and indigent circum- derstood, if we reflect that in Italy all stances, and have enabled them to the buildings of any importance are of counteract adversity, or rather to stone.
SIXTUS THE FIFTH
ed so much fame, in consequence of church, but had spread over Italy. the subtlety of his arguments and the On this occasion, the gratitude of acuteness of his wit, that prefer the citizens of Rome induced them ment followed of course. By seve. to commemorate the repose which ral gradations he arrived at the they enjoyed by several inscriptions highest dignity of the church, being in different parts of the city, by elected pope the 11th of April, 1585. statues, and other tokens of their ap
This pontiff, who seems to have probation and liberality. been a humourist as well as a man One great source of the amuseof great learning, used some artifice ment of Sixtus the Vth was the to obtain this high dignity. From perusing the memoirs of his life and the time he had been nominated car- transactions, of which he had kept dinal, he had affected the semblance a regular journal, whilst he was the of age and of ill health. When he friar Montalto, which was the name went into the conclave, he appeared given him in the convent. When so feeble, and seemed to labour so he was one day deeply engaged in much under the paroxysms of a looking over this manuscript, and confirmed asthma, that few expect. while he was probably enjoying the ed he would have lived to come out. contemplation of some of the occurHe supported himself with a staff, rences of his early years, he came and as he ascended the stairs halted to a passage that strongly attracted and coughed at every step. These his attention, as it stated nearly symptoms were excedingly in his these words: favour, and probably in a great de “ 1546. Being at Macerata, and gree influenced the election, But observing the miserable state of my even before the scrutiny was finish- shoes, the soles of which were on ed, as soon as he saw that the object the very brink of perdition, owing, of his ambition was secure, he I fear, to the flinty-hearted and imthrew away his staff, his faithful penetrable rocks and roads, over companion for fifteen years, and which we had journeyed together : erecting himself, there seemed in I therefore, resolving to use my enhis system an instant renovation of deavours to save them, repaired to youth. The cardinals murmured, but a shop that I fortunately discovered the thing could not now be helped. in the market place, to consult the The artful pontiff at
shoemaker or translator who kept it their motives ; and in order to add respecting their reformation. additional food to their meal of cogi " The shoemaker, who for his satation, he began to sing “ Te Deum gacity with regard to the cure of Laudamus" with a voice so clear soles might have been a cardinal, and melodious, and withal so after examining these wretched and strong, that the spacious hall and oppressed subjects, whom I had so vaulted roof re-echoed to the sound. often trampled upon, declared that
The recital of the life of this pon- they were so far gone, that it was tiff, which abounds with entertaining out of the power of man to amend passages, exhibits a character which them : in fact, that they had been was rendered remarkable by contras- upon their last feet, and had come ting it with others in the same elevat once more to an end. He therefore ed station. So strict was the imparti- added, that he could not advise me ality of his adherence to justice, and to allow them an indulgence, but so great his activity and energy of would rather wish me mind, that while he purified the ju- them entirely away, and try a netu risprudence of the holy see, he also pair. This seemed orthodox : I established a well-regulated police, therefore took his advice, kicked by which means he wholly extirpats my old shoes, as they could no lon-ed a most ferocious banditti, that ger serve me, into the street, and had not only infested the state of the installed myself in his chair. The
shoemaker brought a pair of candi. When Sixtus had read this pasdates from his shelf; he lifted up sage, it recalled the circumstance my leg, placed my foot in his lap, strongly to his mind, and withal in. but did not kiss my toe : he, howe- troduced a desire to learn if the ver, fitted me in a moment, without friendly shoemaker was living. He putting me into what is called pur. therefore dispatched his steward to gatory. But here a difficulty occur. Macerata to enquire after him, red of greater magnitude than any and, if successful, to inform him that of the mountains that I had passed. he must attend the pope directly, The shoemaker deinanded seven upon business of the utmost imporgiuliog* for the shoes, and I, alas! tance to himself. had but six in my leathern purse
The shoemaker was yet living ; which hung to my girdle, and in but the message he received from which my whole fortune was sus the steward, who gave it its full fended. What was to be force, almost frightened him to done?
death. He had heard the exaggerat" I immediately emptied my ed accounts of the severity of the purse, and dicovered the state of my pontiff that were circulated over exchequer to the shoemaker. This Italy, and he had not the least doubt man, who had none of the heresy of but he was to become the victim of John Crispint in his mind, in an in- his cruelty and the malice of his stant believed what he saw; or, enemies. The rack, or the stake, rather (if a paradox were allowed were the lightest punishment that in our system) what he did not occurred to him : of these he felt all see : so without seeming to notice the horrors already. He therefore my disqualifying bow, or the cause endeavoured to recollect what he of my confusion, so apparent in the done to merit this severity of chasemptiness of my purse, he briskly tisement. His very best friends could said, “ Haggling in this case would not accuse him of heresy; or if they be to no purpose.
It is true, I can had there was an inquisition upon the not afford to sell these shoes (look spot ; but his life had been industri. how well they are made !) for less ous and innocent, nor could he, even than seven giulios; but if you have in the moments of his deepest destaken but six out of your strong box, pondence, force his concience to rethat's a fault, as you are at a dis. proach him with any crimes which tance from home, that cannot easily merited those excruciating tortures be mended ; therefore I will take the which he knew were prepared for six upon this condition, that you will him. solemnly promise to pay me the other He more than once thought of giulio when you come to be pope. flying from Italy; but this he supe To this I readily agreed; we there. posed the steward (who was nearly fore laughed heartily, shook hands, at Rome before he set out) had taken and parted."
measures to prevent. * Three shillings and sixpence on; and, the day after his arrival,
Slowly, therefore, he journeyed sterling † John Crispin, born at Arras, a
trembling like a crimnał going to man famous for his knowledge of the execution, he, with the same reluclaw, and his proficiency in polite lite. tance, ascended the black marble rature, a short period before this time staircase that led to the pope's travelled to Rome, whence he return
closet. ed to Paris ; and becoming acquainted
When introduced into his prewith Beza, he renounced the errors
sence, Sixtus, for a moment, observ. of the Romish church, and retired to
ed him with that keenness of penetraGenera, 1547. He wrote several tion for which he was remarkable, learned works, and among the rest and then, with a stern voice, said, the French Martyrology. Balduin in “ Have you ever seen me at MaRespons. ad Calvin.
“No-0-0," returned the prostrate, swered in the affirmative. “ Then,” and almost petrified, shoemaker. said the pope," he is the very man
« What do you not remember I want : let him be immediately that about forty years since you sold called to Rome." me a pair of shoes?"
The messenger that was sent exe. 66 No!” said the poor fellow; cuted his commission with great ex" but I hope they wore well." pedition. The son arrived before
« Not remember this circum- the departure of the father. They stance !" said the pope, who could both attended the pontiff, who, after hardly maintain his gravity: “Well,! examining the young priest, prowhat am I to think of this, but that moted him to a bishoprick in the my memory is better than yours? kingdom of Naples. Rise then, and learn from me, that In a few days they returned to I well remember the purchase I the Vatican to make their acknowmade at your shop, and also that ledgements to his holiness, who reyou gave me credit for a giulio, ceived them with great benignity, which I was to repay when I came and, upon their taking leave, said to be pope. That time is now ar to the father, “ Here, my good rived." I therefore owe you a giu- friend! calculate the interest of your lio: it is debt of honour, which must giulio, and see to what it has amount. be paid with interest. This I have ed, and how it has been disposed of. calculated, and find that it amounts If I had given to you great riches to two giulios more. These my stew- and honours, they would have taken ard will pay you, and you may de- you out of a course of life that you part in peace."
have been long used to, and, in all When the shoemaker left the clo- probability, by placing you in a more set of the pope, how different were elevated sphere, have rendered you his sensations from those with which unhappy. The education of your he entered it. He seemed in Ely- son has fitted him for his present sium. Dungeons, racks, and tor- station. I am pleased with his chatures had vanished from his mind; racter, with which I am well acor if they for a moment recurred, quainted, and have a good opinion it was only to induce him to won- of his talents. May he become at der how he ever could have feared once an ornament and support to the them. He received his three giu. church! He knows his duty too lios, and returned to his inn; but in well not to consider himself as a this short walk his sensations un- steward to his father, and, now he derwent another transition. When has largely the means, support your when he reflected upon the slender age, as you, my worthy friend, from remuneration he had obtained, he a very slender and precarious incould not help considering Sixtus the come, have supported his youth." Vth as the meanest of mortals. He therefore, while he told the story, murmured exceedingly, that he should bring him from his native For the Literary Magazinę. place, so far distant, and only give him three giulios (eighteen pence
ON EDUCATION. sterling) to defray the expences of a journey which had cost him twenty
To the Editor, &c. Crowns.
SIR, This discontent of the shoemaker AS all the governments which the spies who were purposely plant- have hitherto existed have been ed around him communicated to the founded, either entirely or in part, pontiff, who accordingly sent for upon false principles, it is not to be him again, and asked him if he had wondered at that the knowledge not a son who was a priest of the which pertains to legislation and order of the Servi. To this he an. the human mind is yet in its infant VOL, VIII. NO. XLVII.
state. It is the interest of despotic Helvetius, in his Treatise on Man, and corrupt governments to keep proves (at least to my understandmankind in as profound an ignorance ing) that every person is capable as possible of the nature and extent of acquiring an equal degree of of their faculties, and of the mode of knowledge, unless there be a mateimproving them. Within this last rial defect in some of his senses. century, however, several illustrious For example, a child born 'blind sages have arisen who have deeply cannot comprehend any thing that investigated these subjects, and takes in the idea of light and coplaced them in new points of view. lours; nor a child born deaf any They may very properly be termed thing that takes in the idea of sound. the first rays of that sun of happi- Every man, therefore, is by nature ness and liberty which now dawns endowed with an ability to equal upon us, and which will ere long Newton or Milton. How is it then blaze out in perfect day.
that these men remain unrivalled ? Until the time of Locke mankind Because nobody has had the same were divided between these opi. education as they have*. When an nions, 1st; That man is naturally object strikes us with particular virtuous ; 2dly, That he is naturally force, we apply our whole faculties vicious. Both these doctrines were to it, we are not dismayed by difficompletely destroyed by that pro- culties; and the pleasure we derive found philosopher : he proved that from the overcoming of one diffi. man is born without an idea of any culty encourages us to encounter kind, therefore without a knowledge another. A man possessed of emucf, and consequently without an in. lation will always excel in whatever clination for either vice or virtue. he undertakes; a man devoid of 'The mind of an infant is like a emulation will always remain ignoblank sheet of paper, uncoloured by rant, any impression, but capable of re Objects frequently strike the ceiving every impression. As the minds of children with peculiar senses are the only inlets of know. force; they turn their attention to a ledge, the only channel by which particular study, and improve ra. we receive our ideas, it is impossi. pidly in it. We attribute this to a ble that we can have ideas before genius implanted in them by nature. we come into the world. While in It is no such thing; it is the effect the womb the child has no idea of of something that has excited a light, colours, sounds, tastes, smells. It may have the idea of pain ; a * Sir Isaac Newton never disco. blow given to the mother may com vered any extraordinary genius for municate pain to the child ; but un- astronomy till one day, sitting under til it has felt pain it has no idea of an apple-tree, an apple was blown off it: the idea of pain, therefore, is and struck him on the head. He not innate. Ideas of justice and mo- took it up, and was surprised that so rality are much more complex. If small a body should strike so severe a innate they would be as perfect in blow; curiosity excited him to investhe child as the man, in one man
tigate the reason of it, and the result as in another, the same all over the
of his research was the discovery of globe: a position which is contra
gravitation. Urged by an insatiable dicted by the experience of every cuted the study of astronomy with in
thirst of knowledge, he now prose: day. If born without ideas, how do we trifling accident is owing all the great
defatigable perseverance; and to this acquire them?
By education ; discoveries that he made. Had the which, in the large sense of the apple fallen on Milton's head it would word, includes not only the precepts probably have made a philosopher of of our instructors, but likewise con
he would have anticipated versation, exainple, and every ob- Newton, and the world would have ject that strikes anyone of our senses. been deprived of his Paradise Lost.