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chivalry, in Edward, must be extremely pleasing to every one, as it makes that Monarch appear in his true character. If rage and indignation at the delay of the surrender of Calais to him, had not for a moment put a "violence upon his disposition, his crown of "pearls would have been for Eustache de St. Pierre, or Jean de Vienne."

EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE.

"Edward, Prince of Wales," fays Montagne, "that English Prince who governed "Guienne for so long a time, a personage whose "condition and whose fortune had always some "distinguished points of grandeur, had been "very much offended by the inhabitants of the * city of Limoges; and, taking the town by "storm, could not be wrought upon by the * * cries of the people, of the women and of the "children, who were given up to slaughter, im"ploring his mercy, and throwing themselves "at his feet, till proceeding farther in the town, "he perceived three French Gentlemen, who "with an incredible degree of courage were "alone sustaining the shock of his victorious "army. His consideration and respect of such "distinguished valour, immediately blunted the "edge of his resentment, and he began, by B 4 "granting "granting the lives of those three persons, to "spare the lives of all that were in the town."

Froissart has preserved the names of these three brave men: "They were," says he, "Messieurs Jehan de Villemur, Hugues de la "Roche, and Roger de Beaufort, son of the "Count de Beaufort, Captains of the town. ** When they saw," adds the Chronicler, "the ** misery and the destruction that was pressing ** upon themselves and their people, they said, "We shall be all dead men, if we do not defend "ourselves: let us then fell our lives dearly, as ** true Chevaliers ought to do: and these three "French Gentlemen did many feats at arms. "When the Prince in his car came to the spot "where they were, he observed them with great "pleasure, and became softened and appeased by "their extraordinary acts of valour. The "three Gentlemen, after having fought thus "valiantly, fixing their eyes upon their swords, "said with one voice to the Prince and the "Duke of Lancaster, " My Lords, we are yours; "you have conquered us; dispose of us according "to the law of arms."—" By Heaven," replied "the Duke of Lancaster, " we have no other in"tention, Messire Jehan, and we take you as our ** prisoners."—And so," adds Froissart, " these "noble Chevaliers were taken, as I have been "informed." Livre i. c. 289.

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** The most common method," says Montagne, " to soften the hearts of those whom we "have osfended, is, when they have the power "to revenge themselves in their hands, by seeing ** us at their mercy, to move them by our sub"mission to pity and commiseration. Some"times, however, bravery, constancy, and reso"lution, though directly contrary methods, have "produced the fame effect."

RICHARD THE SECOND.

JOHN WICKLIFFE.

"Wickliffe," said Luther, " attacked the ** morals and the rites of the Church of Rome. "The Monks, particularly those of the Mendi"cant Order, seem to be the great objects of his "satire. He charges, in one of his Tracts, the ** Freres, that is, the Fryars, with holding fifty "heresies, and many more, if men would seek "them well out. He opposed very much the "giving tithes, unless to those who officiated at ** the Altar. He attacked the Pope's supremacy, "and the doctrine of transubstantiation. In his « MS. Treatise, * Why Poor Priests have no

"JJenefices,' Benefices,' he fays, * And if Lords shallen "present Clerks to Benefices, they wolen have "commonly gold in great quantity; and holden "their curates in their worldly office, and fusfren "the wolves of Hell to strangle men's fouls; so "that they have much gold, and their office don "for nought, and their chapels holden up for vain "glory and hypocrisy; and yet they wolen not "present a clerk able of kunning of God's laws, "and good life and holy enfample to the people, "but a kitchen-clerk, or a penny-clerk, or wife "in building castles, or worldly doing, tho he "kanne not read well his Sauter, (Psalter,) and "knoweth not the Commandments of God, ne "Sacraments of the Church. And yet some ** Lords, to colouren their simony, wole not take "for themselves, but kerchiefs for the lady, or a "tun of wine. And when some Lords wolden "present a good man, and able for love of God "and Christian souls, then some Ladies ben means "to have a dancer, a tripper or tapits, or hun"ter or hawker, or a wild player of summer's "gamenes, for flattering and gifts going betwixte; * * and if it be for dancing in bed so much the "worse."

Wickliffe translated the Bible into English, and was so voluminous a writer, that Lubinio Lepus, Bishop of Prague, burnt two hundred

volumes volumes written by this extraordinary person, which belonged to some of the heretical Noblemen of Bohemia.

Courtenay, Bishop of London, cited Wickliffe to appear before him at Paul's, to give some account of the new opinions which he held. Wickliffe came attended by the Duke of Lancaster and the Earl Marshall. The crowd was so great, that the Lord Marshall was obliged to make use of his authority to get Wickliffe through it. The Bishop, displeased at seeing him so honourably attended, told the Lord Marshall, " that if he "had known beforehand what maestries he would "have kept in the church, he would have stopped "him out from coming there." The Duke of Lancaster, indignant at this threatening language, told the Bishop, " that he would keep such ** maestries there, though he said nay." Wickliffe, as usual, was standing before the Bishop and the rest of the Commissioners, to hear what things were laid to his charge, when the Lord Marshall desired him to sit down; telling him, that as he had many things to answer to, he had need of a soft seat to be at his ease. The Bishop replied, " that he should not sit there; for," added he, " it is neither according to law nor "reason, that he who was cited to answer before ** his Ordinary (the Lord Pope) should sit down

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