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wibole force, stores, baggage, and artillery, unknown to, and unsuspected by his adversaries. The British were so entirely deceived, that when they heard the report of the artillery at Princeton, though it was in the depth of winter, they supposed it to be thunder.

Astonished at these bold and unexpected movements of an enemy supposed to be vanquished, the British instantly retreated with their whole force, and abandoned every post they held to the southward of New York, except Brunswick and Amboy,



army, and

Operations in New Jersey, and Philadelphia.-Battle of Brandywine and Germantown-Americans retreat to Valley Forge. Their army in great distress, from the want ot necessary supplies. The victories of Trenton and Princeton had an extensive influence on the war. Philadelphia was saved for that winter, Jersey was recovered, the drooping spirits of the Americans were revived. The gloomy apprehensions which had lately prevailed, of their being engaged in a hopeless cause, yielded to a confidence in their general and their in the ultimate success of their struggles for liberty and independence. So strong an impulse was given to the recruiting service in every part of the United States, as gave good. ground to hope that the commander in chief would be enabled to take the field in the spring, with a permanent regular army, on the new terms of enlistment.

After the campaign had been thus carried into the month of January, Washington retired to Morristown, that he might afford shelter to his suffering army.

His situation there was far from being eligible. His force for some considerable time was trifling, when compared with that of the British ; but the enemy and his own countrymen believed the contrary. Their deception was cherished, and artfully continued by the parade of a large army. Washington placed his officers in positions of difficult access, and they kept up a constant communication with each other, This secured them from insuit and surprise : while they covered the country,--harassed the foraging parties of the British, and con

fined them to narrow limits. 1777. The remainder of the winter of 1777 passed

over in a light war of skirmishes. These were generally in favour of the Americans. But Washington's views were much more extensive. He hoped that his country, encouraged by the late successes at Trenton and Princeton, would have placed at his disposal a large and efficient army, equal to that op: posed to him. To obtain it he urged with great carnestness the advantage of being enabled to undertake decisive operations, before reinforcements to the British army should arrive. Congress, at his instance, passed the requisite resolutions, but these could not be carried into effect without the aid of the state legislatures. The delays incident to this slow mode of doing business, added to the reco!


lection of the sufferings of the troops in the last campaign, retarded the recruiting service. Washington, with infinite reluctance, was obliged to give up his favcurite project of an early, active campaign.

In the advance of the spring, when recruits were obtained, a difficulty arose in assembling them from the different states in which they had been enlisted. As the Britislı had possession of the ocean, they could at pleasure transfer the war to any maritime

portion of the union. Each state, anxious for its particular safety, claimed protection from the common enemy of the whole. Had they been indulged, the feeble remnant under the commander in chief would have been unequal to any great enterprise. To these partial calls Washington opposed all his authority and influence, and his pointed representations made an inipression in favour of primary objects. These were to prevent the British from getting possession of Philadelphia and the Highlands on the Hudson. Both were so nearly of equal importance to their interest, that it was impossible to ascertain which should be preferred by sir William Howe.

In this uncertainty Washington made such an arrangement of his troops as would enable him to oppose either. The eastern troops


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were divided between Tirconduaga and Pecks: kill, while those from Jersey to the south were eucamped at Middlebrook. The American force, collected at this strong and defensible encampment, was nominally between 9 and 10,000 men ; but the effective rank and file was about 6,000. More than half of these were raw recruits; and a considerable number of such as had been enlisted in the middle states were foreigners or servants. To encourage the desertion of troops so slightly attached to the American cause, general Howe offered a reward to


soldier who would come over to his


and an additional compensation to such as would bring their arms with them. To counteractthese propositions, Washington recommended to congress to give full pardon to all Americans who would relinquish the British service.

The campaign opened early in June on the part of the British, who advanced towards Philadelphia, as far as Somerset county in New Jersey, but they soon fell back to New Brunswic. After this retreat, sir William Howe endeavored to provoke Washington to an engagement, and left no manæuvre untried that was calculated to induce him to quit his position. At one time, he appeared as if he intended to push on without regarding the army opposed to him.

At another, he ac10


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