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king triumphant, treading upon his Do not be surprised, "Sir, at my vanquished enemy's neck, and for giving this buil the title of odious. cing him to submit to the conditions You will not think it too hard, if he thinks fit to impose on him. In you will but consider, that it not the mean time, this oppressed prince only tends to smooth the way to never seems to have had any thought treachery, to facilitate perjury, but of making use of this bull

, which A even to perpetuate them. That a had been dispatched for him above pope fhould have absolved a prince years before.

from any particolar oath; under any Far from designing to break the pretence, good or bad, would not treaty, we know that, in 1362, he be very furprising. The bishops returned into England to surrender themfelves, at a certain time, ar. himself a prisoner again. This profumed to themselves the cognizance ceeding has very much puzzled the B of those cases. But that which surhistorians to account for the true prizes, is to see a pope giving to a motives of it. The most probable prince's confeffor an indeterminate that has been alledged, is, that he power to absolve him not only from had been very much offended at the the treaties which he has made, but escape of the duke of Anjou, his also which he shall make for the future. second fon, who had folen away Furthermore, he grants the fame fafrom Calais, where he had been left Ovour to all the facceflors of this upon his parole. He was one of prince, so long as the monarchy fall the hostages for the security of the fubfift'; that is to say, that the foltreaty. The king his father, there. Sowing kings shall have nothing to fore, repaffed the sea, as well to ex- do but to chuse such a confeffor as cuse this fault, as to put an end, they shall think proper, who by with the king of England, to the prescribing some fight alms to them, rest of the difficulties which retarded D or fome prayers to mutter over in the execution of the treaty of Bre- Latin, thall disengage them aftertigni. He had obtained his liberty wards from their oath. The numonly on condition of executing it ber of yeats ought not to weaken faithfully. He was resolved, there. this fine privilege, so that the bull fore, at any rate whatever, to pro. may have operated also in the tevocure the accomplishment of it. They cation of the edict of Nantes, 334 attribute to this prince, on this oc. E years after it had been dispatbed. cafion, a faying worthy of being This is anticipating the future in a transmitted to all posterity, That if manner very dangerous to morality, truth and honefty were banished from and to the publick security ; it is the rest of the world, yet they ought giving occafion, for a long series of to be found again in the mouths of ages, to treachery and perjury. kings *. It will easily be granted, I believe then, that I have prova upon these several pafiages of hi. Fed, that king John had not follicited story, that this prince was a much such a fhocking privilege as this. It honester man than the pope, and is very true, chat from Philip the that it is wronging his memory to Fair, the kings of France faw with ascribe to him ine having been pleafure, that the popes fhould have earnest to obtain this odious bull. their fee at Avignon, in order to King John had the misfortune to die have them a little better under their in England three months after his G thumb, and in their dependence. But return thither,

on this occafion the place of the

pope's This fine saying is oferibed also to Charles V. Borb of tbem may have said it ; but it is much better attributed to be king of France, sban to Ibas Emperor, wbs did not always regue leie bis cor.dult by sbat excellens mexim.



1751. Character of Pope CLEMENT VÍ. 73 pope's residence is of no service to abundance of horses, which he often excuse his bull.

rode for diversion. His manners in Another falvo may, perhaps, be general were most gentleman-like, suggested for this. Some catholick, and not at all ecclefiaftical. He took not well versed in history, will endea. great care to enrich his nephews. vour to attribute to fome anti-pope What is fingular, is, that on occa. this bull, fo infamous for his church. A fion of some croisades which he had The date from Avignon seems, at in view, he wrote a very severe letfirst sight, to favour this conje&ure. ter to the knights of Rhodes, known But were this fupposition well-ground at present by the name of knights ed, it would not remedy the bad of Malta, upbraiding them with effects of the bull, because after the the very same faults. He censures extinction of the schism it was de-them for their too great curiosity in creed in a council, that all the con- B fine horses, and in general for loving cessions of those false popes Thould expence too much. He asked them have force and vigour as before * whether that is the design of the But, Sir, if you will but consult any goods of the church, and the use History of the popes, you will see that is to be made of them? Mat. that this subterfuge cannot take thew Villani, who has given us place. Clement VI. never has been the character of this pope, in his pue in the class of anti-popes. He e History of Florence, adds, that bemust not be confounded with Cle. ing archbishop he kept no decencies ment VII., who was called Robert with the ladies ; that when he was of Geneva, the last of the male race ill, he was attended by ladies, in the of the counts of Geneva, who has same manner as relations take care of not been put in the rank of lawful

the seculars, He died, Dec. 6, 1352; popes. As for Clement VI. he

I find a very curious little parwas elected very regularly by a score D ticular in Ciaconius, a dominican of cardinals assembled in conclave. monk, who wrote the Lives of the

To save you the trouble of turns popes, A poet, who had some fa. ing over any author of the Lives of vour to ask of this Clement, believed, the popes, here are some particulars that to obtain what he desired, he about Clement VI. He was called ought to present him with some Peter Roger, and was the son of a

Latin verses, which should praise him

E gentleman of the Limofin. He was very much, and contain withes for made a monk in the convent of Au. his prosperity. But it was a Norvergne. He went to study at Paris, man encomium, which, in case of where he fucceeded very well. He refusal, became a satire, accompanied pafled for learned, and Petrarch, with imprecations against the Pontiff, who was his cotemporary, mentions pretty much like the play of Perhim as a very learned man. You

spective, where, according to the see plainly, this is not a means to have F different point of view, the same his bull excused; on the contrary, figure presents alternately a fine lady it is an aggravating circumstance.

and a monster. Here is the encoAlthough a man of Audy, when he

mium seen on its bright side. was raised to the pontificate, his taste

Laus tua, non cua traus, virtus non

copia rerum
was turned entirely to oftentation,

Scandere te fecit hoc decus eximium.
He maintained his houshold in a


Pauperibus tua das, nunquam ftat janua royal manner ; his tables were mag

clausa. nificently served. He had a great

Fundere res quæris, nec tua multiplicas, number of esquires and gentlemen,

Conditio tua fit ftabilies, non tempore February, 1751.

parvo Vivere te faciat hic Deus omnipotens to K

The See in tbe Spicilegium, tom. 4. P. 352. Decretum syrodi Lausanenfis, ubi rata volunt patres guda compere fobismasss afte funt, + Ciacoriss, Vira pontificum, 19. 2. F. 489.




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The poet was denied, notwith- him to practise perjury, with those standing this fine encomium ; but he of another communion, by means of revenged himself for it by giving his a dispenfation dispatched by the dafriends the key. He told them pri- tary of the Vatican. But this prevately, they were retrograde verles, 'caution would lignify nothing : The which should be read backwards, speculatist, who has pointed it out, beginning with

the latt word, in this A did not consider, that the pope would manner,

relieve such prince from his second

oath, as well as the first. I am, &c. Omnipotens Deus hic faciat te vivere

parvo Tempore, non ftabilis sit tua conditio,

Obfervations on the Height to which

Rockers afcend. By Mr. Benjamin

Robins, F. R. S. From the PhiHere is fonething of more confe. B Josephical Transactions, No. 492. quence than this joke, and which HE use of rockets is, or may I must not omit. It is a very curi. be, so considerable in deterous anecdote, which' I 'draw from

mining the position of diftant places the same spring as the bull' of Cle- to each other, and in giving fignals ment VI. I mean from the late bilhop for naval or military purposes, that of Salisbury, Dr. Burnet. This pre. I thought it worth while to examine late then told us also at his table, C what height they usually rise to, the that about the end of the last century, better to determine the extent of the K. William, and the elector of Bran- country, thro' which they can be denburgh, Frederick William, mect- feen. "I therefore, at the exhibition ing together to confer about the fi. of the late fire-works *, desired a tuation of the affairs of Europe, friend of mine, who I knew intend Jamented the little dependence they ed to be only a distant spectator, to could have on treaties, and their not D observe the angle of elevation to knowing how to trust the catholick which the greatest part of them princes. Thereupon the elector said rose, and likewise the angle made to the king, that he would commu- by the rocker or rockets, which nicate to him a remark he had made ; nould rise the highest of all. which was, that in the treaties with My friend was provided with an the princes of the Roman church, inftrument, whose radius was 38 it is better to keep to their single pro. E inches ; and, to avoid all uncertainmise than to let an aith intervene ; ty in its motion, it was fixed in an because, in the first case, they some invariable position ; and its field, times pique themselves upon their which took in ten degrees of altihonour, and are defrous of pafling 'tude, was divided by horizontal for honeft men : But if an oath is threads. The station my friend added to it, the ecclesiasticks imme- chose was on the top of Dr. Nir. diately take cognizance of it, and F bere's house in King street, near do not fail to absolve the fovereign Cheapfide, where lie had a fair from it. The bilhop'of Salisbury view of the upper part of the had this anecdote from K. William's building erected in the Green Park. own mouth.

There he observed, that the single A politician has propofed an ex- rockets which rose the most erect, pedient to give a firmness to the were usually elevated at their greattreaties concluded with the catholick G est height about 60 & above his le. princes; which is, to have the first . vel ; and that amongst these there oath backed with another, where- were 3 which tose to 7° 1 ; and in such soverzign should renounce that in the lad great flight of rock. the privilege which his religion gives ets, said to be of 6000, the crest of

tbe • Sue sur Magazine for 1949, p. 191, &

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below the chefts,
whence the great thip


, bound from New.

the new

1751. Polarity of the Compass destroy'd by Lightning. 75 the arch, formed by their general Nor is this merely matter of spefigure, was eleyated about 80. l. culation ; for I lately saw a dozen From the care and dexterity of my of four pound rockets fired; the friend, and the nature of the instru, greatest part of which took up near ment, I doubt not but these obser- 14". in their ascent, and were total. vations are true within a few mi-ly obscured in a cloud near 9 or 10'

À of the time ; so that the moment of The distance of this station from their bursting was only observable the building in the Green Park is by a sudden glimmering thro' the 4000 yards, according to the last clouds : And as these rockets, dar

, great map of London : And hence ing the time they were visible, were it appears, that the customary far from moving with a languid moheight, to which the fingle, or ho- tion, I cannot but conceive, that norary rockets, as they are filed, B the extraordinary time of their af

B ascended, was near 440 yards : cent must have been attended by a That three of these rose 526 yards; very unusual rise. (See London and that the greatest height of any Magazine for 1749, p. 212.) of those fired in the grand girandole, was about 615 yards : All reckoned A Letter from Captain John Wadabove the level of the place of ob

dell, to Mr. Naphthali Franks, fervation, which I efteem to be near C Merchant, concerning the Efe&ts of 25 yards higher than the Green Lightning in defiroying the Polari. Park, and little less than 15 yards ty of a Mariners Compass. ,

N Jan. 9, , flight of rockets was discharged.

. It seems then, there are rockets York to London, being then in lat. which rise 600 yards from the place 47° 30' north, and longitude 220 whence they are discharged : And D 15' weit, from London, met with a this being more than a third


of very hard form of wind, attended a mile, it follows, that if their

with thunder and lightning, as usulight be fufficiently strong, and the al, most part of the evening, and air be not hazy, they may be seen fundry very large comazants (as we in a level country at above so miles call them) over-head, some of distance.

which fettled on the spintles at the The observations on the single e top.mast heads, which burnt like rockets are sufficiently consonant to very large torches ; and at 9 p. m. fome experiments I made myself : a single loud clap of thunder' with For I found that several fingle pound lightning ftruck the ship in a violent rockets went to various heights be- manner, which disabled myself, and tween 450 and 500 yards, the alti- great part of the ship's company, in tude of the highest being extremely the eyes and limbs ; it struck the near this last number, and the time f main-maft about up almost half of their ascent usually short of 7". thro', and fove the upper deck one

But tho’ from all these trials it carling, and quick-work; part of should seem as if good rockets of all which lightning_got in between fizes had their heights limited be. decks, started off the bulk. head, tween '400 and 600 yards ; yet I drove down all the cabbins on one am disposed to believe, that they fide of the steerage, ftove the lower may be made to reach much greater G deck, and one of the lower deck distances. This I in some degree main lodging-knees. collect from the nature of their Another part of it went thro' che composition, and the usual imper. Atarboard fide, without any hurt to fect manner of forming them. the ceiling (or inside plank); and



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Aarted off from the timbers four outside planks, being the whale up

Some Account of the Remains of John wards ; one of which planks, being

Tradescant's Garden at Lambeth. the second from the whale, was

By Mr. W. Watson, F.R. S. broke quite afunder, and let in, in TPON a visit made to Mr. John,

9 water in the ship.

Ą Lambeth, May 21, 1749, by Dr. It also drew the virtue of the Mitchell and myself, were observed loadstone from all the compasses, the under mentioned exotick plants. being four in number, all in good This garden was planted by the order before, one in a brass and above-mentioned gentleman' about three in wooden boxes. The hang- 120 years since, and was, except ing compass in the cabbin was not that of Mr. John Gerard, the author quite so much disabled as the rest ; B of the Herbal, probably the firft bothey were at firf very near reversed, tanical garden in England. The the north to the south ; and after a founder, after many years spent in little while rambled about so as to the service of the lord treasurer Salir. be of no service. The storm - lasted bury, lord Wotton, &c. travelled five days, we lost our main-maft and several years, and procured a great mizen-mast, and almost all our fails; variety of plants and seeds, before arrived at Cowes, Jan. 21, in a very not known in England ; to several shattered condition.

of which at this time the gardners

give his name, as a mark of distinc Mr. Gowin Knight, having made tion; as, Tradescant's spiderwort, some remarks on one of these com- Tradescant's alter, Tradescant's daf. passes, which was shewn to the fodil. He first planted here the Royal Society, concludes thus Ciprefis Americanus acacia foliis deFrom what has been said it appears, D viduis, which has been since so much that this form of needles is very im esteemed, and is now one of the great proper, and ought to be changed for, ornaments of the duke of Argyll's that of one strait piece of steel ; garden at Witton. and then if a needle should be in. Mr. Tradescant's garden has now verted, it might fill be used. It been many years totally neglected, also shews the absurdity of permit., and the house belonging to it empty ting iron of any kind about the E and ruined ; and tho' the garden is compass-box, or the binacle. Who. quite covered with weeds, there re. ever considers the whole description main among them manifest footof this compass, I am persuaded, he steps of its founder. We found there will esteem it a molt despicable in.. the Berrago latifolia fempervirens of strument : How then must any one C. B. Polygonatum vulgare latifolium be shocked to hear, that almost all C. B. Aristolochia clematitis recta the compafies, made use of by our F C. B. and Dracontium Dod." There trading velitels, are of the same fort!

are yet remaining two trees of the the boxes all joined with iron wire, Arbutus, the largest I have seen ; and the same degree of accuracy which, from their being so long used observed throughout the whole ! to our winters, did not suffer by

This I am credibly informed, is the severe colds of 1729 and 1740, the cale ; and that for no other rea- when most of their kind were killed fon, but that one of this fort may be G throughout England. In the orpurchased for 55. and it will cost about chard there is a tree of the Rham25. 6d. more to buy a tolerable good' ous carharticus, about 20 feet high, one. So that the lives and fortunes and near a foot in diameter, by much of thousands are every day hazarded the greatest I ever faw. for luch a wifling confideration.


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