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was condemned to eat his food “in the sweat of his brow." Yet still “ the eyes of all wait upon” God, that he may give them “meat in due season,” (See Psalm cxlv. 15.) and the generality of creatures “ neither sow, nor reap, nor gather into barns, yet our heavenly Father feedeth them.” (Matt. vi. 26.) Surely, then; those who assist man to sow and reap, and to gather for him into his barns, who, as it were, bear the greater part of the burden and heat of the day" for him, or afford their sustenance for him, or in any way contribute to his wellbeing and comfort, have a superior claim to be well-provided for: it is with beast, as well as with man, “the labourer is worthy of his hire." (LUKE X. 7.; 1 Tim. v. 18.)
A provision of proper and wholesome food is, therefore, the right of the beast; and, not only a bare sufficiency, but a liberal supply, - in imitation of the Great Master, who “open
eth his hand, and filleth all things living with plenteousness;” (Psalm cxlv. 16.) who giveth richly to enjoy, and hath commanded not to “muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn.” (Deut. xxv. 4.) It must, however, be administered with reason as well as with liberality, and not distributed either in such portions as may occasion surfeit and ill-health to the object, or waste of the provision: “Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost;" or rather, administer not in such pora tions as to occasion fragments, is a rule to be observed at the meal of animals, no less than at the meal of man. It is, also, to be of such kind as is suitable to the animal, and is not with-held from others for whom it would be more proper: “It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to the dogs," (Matt. xv. 26.) is a rule no less true in the letter, than in the spiritual application.
IV. On the article of rest, I have anticipated the chief of what I had to say, when speaking of the duty of rulers and magistrates to afford protection to the brute creation. The golden rule of placing ourselves in the situation of others, and asking ourselves, “Were I really in the place of this person, and he in mine, how should I wish him to behave to me?” is applicable, in its measure, likewise, to the brute creation; and, were every master to place himself in the situation of his servant, or his cattle, (his cattle, indeed, are his servants,) there would be little difficulty in determining his case: due interchanges of labour and rest would then be the portion of all under his care. But, if any be worked beyond their strength, or more than their proper time, or denied the whole of the Sabbath, then the day which God hath blessed to them, we change into a curse. I mentioned before the case of the Jews, in their neglect of the Sabbath, and their retribution by the captivity in Babylon. The weekly Sabbath of this world is a type of the everlasting Sabbath of the next: may not the violation of the earthly Sabbath exclude the breaker from the rest of heaven? And, if, in the breach of the commandments, “he who shall offend in one point, is guilty of all,” (James ii. 10.) will not he who violates one article of that command be guilty of the whole? and he who suffers his own cattle to be worked, or encourages or connives at the working of the cattle of others, does he not stand before God, the guilty Sabbath-breaker?
Let us still remember, however, that “the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath,” (Mark ii. 28.) and hath declared, that it “ was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.” (MARK ii. 27.) The cattle may be led to the water, (LUKE xiï. 15.) and, if any of them “fall into a pit,” or meet with any accident on the Sabbath, we may "pull them out,” or otherwise relieve them; (Matt. xii. 11.; Luke xiv. 5.) and, therefore, in case of great necessity, the cattle may be made the instruments of mercy and of comfort to their master, man. But, in any such case, the Sabbath should not be lost to them altogether, but deferred merely to the morrow.
V. Next to food and rest comes the preservation of their health, and timely and proper assistance under accidents.
Animals living in what is called a state of nature, seeking their own proper food, and enjoying freely the open air and exercise, rarely suffer from disease; or, if they do, the same instinct which directs them to their food, leads them to their proper medicine also. It is animals taken from their state of nature by man,