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The treatment will bear reference to any causes which may | parts of the United States the evil qualities of " pussly" have be discovered as associated with the onset of the disease, such become proverbial. Its juice is refreshing and is used in tropical as unfavourable hygienic conditions, and nutritive defects countries as a refrigerant in sever. Some of the species of the should be rectified by suitable diet. The various preparations same genus, such as P. grandiflora and its varieties, are grown of iron seem to be the best medicinal remedies in this ailment, in gardens on rock-work owing to the great beauty and deep while more direct astringents, such as gallic acid, ergot of rye, colouring of their flowers, the short duration of individual turpentine or acetate of lead, will in addition be called for in blossoms being compensated for by the abundance with which severe cases and especially when haemorrhage occurs. Sir A. they are produced. Wright considers that in all cases of purpura the coagulation- PURSUIVANT (O. Fr. porsivant, poursivant, mod. poursuivant, time of the blood should be estimated. In such cases the time strictly an attendant, from poursuivre, to follow), the name of a taken for clotting may be increased to three times as long as member of the third and lowest rank of heraldic officers, formerly that taken by normal blood. He therefore advises calcium an attendant on the heralds. There are four pursuivants in chloride in order to increase coagulability. In severe haemor- the English Heralds' College, Rouge Croix, Bluemantle, Rouge rhages, adrenalin is often useful.

Dragon and Portcullis; three in the Court of Lyon King of Arms PURRAH, PURROH, or Poro, a secret society of Sierra Leone, (Scotland), Carrick, Unicorn and March; and four in the court West Africa. Only males are admitted to its ranks, but two of Ulster King of Arms (Ireland), Athlone and three St Patrick other affiliated and secret associations exist, the Yassi and the pursuivants. (See HERALD and HERALDRY.) Bundu, the first of which is nominally reserved for females, PURULIA, a town of British India, headquarters of Manbhum but members of the Purrah are admitted to certain ceremonies. district in Bengal, on the Sini-Asansol branch of the BengalAll the female members of the Yassi must be also members of Nagpur railway. Pop. (1901), 17,291. It is a growing centre the Bundu, which is strictly reserved to women. Of the three, of trade. the Purrah is by far the most important. The entire native PURVEYANCE (Lat. providere, to provide), in England in population is governed by its code of laws. It primarily former times the right of the sovereign when travelling through represents a type of freemasonry, a "friendly” society to which the country to receive food and drink and maintenance generally even infants are temporarily admitted, the ceremony in their from his subjects for himself and his retinue. The custom dates case consisting merely of carrying them into the Purrah “bush” from Anglo-Saxon times and is analogous to the right of fodrum, and out again. But this side of the Purrah is merged in its or annona militaris, exercised by the Frankish kings. Although larger objects as represented by its two great aspects, the in early times purveyance was reasonable and necessary, enabling religious and the civil. Under the former, boys join it at the king to make journeys for the purpose of administering puberty, while under the latter it is practically the native justice and discharging the other duties of government, it was governing body, making laws, deciding on war and peace, &c. liable to grave abuses, and under the later Plantagenet kings

The Purrah has its special ritual and language, tattooing and it became very oppressive. Provision for the royal needs was symbols, but details are unknown, as the oath of secrecy is always interpreted in the wides kept. It meets usuall. in the dry season, between the months of exercised, not only on behalf of the king, but on behalf of his October and May. The rendezvous is in “ the bush," an enclosure, separated into apartments by mats and roofed only by the over

relatives. Besides victuals it included the compulsory use of hanging trees, serving as a club-house. There are three grades, the horses and carts and even the enforcement of personal labour. first for chiefs and “big men," the second for letish-priests and the Not infrequently no payment was made; when it was it often third for the crowd. The ceremonies of the Purrah are presided

took the form of tallies, which gave the recipient the right to over by the Purrah "devil," a man in fetish dress, who addresses the meeting through a long tube of wood.

deduct the annount from any taxes he might have to pay in The Purrah can place its taboo on anything or anybody;

the future. Purveyors were appointed to requisition goods, and as no native would venture to defy its order, much trouble

and they also fixed the price. The abuses of purveyance, which has been caused where the taboo has been laid upon crops.

appear to have reached their climax during the reign of Edward I.,

frequently provoked legislation. Chapter xxviii. of Magna In 1897 the British or local government was compelled to pass a special ordinance absolutely forbidding the imposition of the

Carta is directed against them, while further attempts to curb taboo on all indigenous products. Of the affiliated societies

them were made in the Statute of Westminster of 1275 and in the

Articuli super cartas of 1300. Purveyance was entirely forbidden the Yassi appears to some extent to be an association for provid

by the ordinance of 1311, but in spite of all prohibitions its evils ing men and women, who believe themselves ill through “fetish," with medical treatment, on payment of certain fecs.

grew and flourished. During the reign of Edward III. ten The women's Bundu is in many ways a replica of the men's

statutes were directed against it, and by a law of 1362 it was Purrah, though without political power.

restricted to the personal wants of the king and queen; at the

same time the hated name of purveyor was changed to that of See T. J. Alldridge, The Sherbro and its Hinterland (1901).

buyer, and ready money was ordered to be paid for the articles PURSE (Late Lat. bursa, adapted from Gr. Búpoa, hide, skin; taken. From this time little was heard about the evils of possibly 0. Eng. pusa, bag, has influenced the change from b to p), purveyance until 1604, when the House of Cominons petitioned a small bag for holding money, originally a leather pouch tied James I., giving some striking illustrations of its hardships. at the mouth, but now of various shapes. The great seal of It was asserted that when the royal officials required 200 carts England is borne by the purse-bearer in a purse, usually styled they ordered 800 or goo to be brought, in order that they might “ burse," decorated with the arms of the kingdom, the “burse" obtain bribes from the owners. Bacon called purveyance “ the being thus one of the insignia of office of the lord chancellor of most common and general abuse of all others in the kingdom.” England. The “privy purse" is the amount of public money Twice James entered into negotiations with his parliament set apart in the civil list for the private and personal use of the for commuting his crown rights, of which purveyance sovereign (sce PRIVY PURSE).

was one, for an annual payment, but no arrangement was PURSER, the old name for the paymaster of the British and reached. In 1660, however, the right of purveyance, which had American navies still used in merchant vessels of to-day. In fallen into disuse with the execution of Charles I., was surrenthe British navy he was appointed by a warrant from the dered by Charles II. in return for the grant of an excise on beer admiralty and was paid. partly by salary and partly by a and liquors. The custom was exercised by almost all European percentage (10%) on the value of unexpended stores.

sovereigns, and in France at least was as oppressive as in PURSLANE, the common name for a small fleshy annual | England. The word purveyor now means merely a vendor, with prostrate stems, entire leaves and small yellow flowers, generally a vendor of food and drink. known botanically as Portulaca oleracea. It is a native of India, which was introduced into Europe as a salad plant, and in some | H. Hallam, Constitutional History of England (1863); and S. R.

See W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (1896), vol. ii.; countries has spread so as to become a noxious weed. In certain | Gardiner, History of England (1905), vol. i.

PUSA, a village of British India, in Darbhanga district, Bengal, I it. The sermon on The Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, near the right bank of the Burhi Gandak River; pop. (1901), in 1853, first formulated the doctrine round which almost all 4570. It was acquired as a government estate in 1796, and was the subsequent theology of his followers revolved, and which long used as a stud dépôt and afterwards as a tobacco farm. In revolutionized the practices of Anglican worship. Of his larger 1904 it was selected as the site of a college and laboratory for works the most important are his two books on the Eucharistagricultural research.

The Doctrine of the Real Presence (1855) and The Real Presence PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE (1800-1882), English divine, ...the Doctrine of the English Church (1857); Daniel the Prophet was born at Pusey near Oxford on the 22nd of August 1800. in which he endeavours to maintain the traditional date of that His father was Philip Bouverie (d. 1828), a younger son of Jacob book; The Minor Prophets, with Commentary, his chief contribuBouverie, ist Viscount Folkestone, and took the name of Pusey tion to the study of which he was the professor; and the on succeeding to the manorial estates at that place. After Eirenicon, in which he endeavoured to find a basis of union having been at Eton, he became a commoner of Christ Church, between the Church of England and the Church of Rome. Oxford, and was elected in 1824 to a fellowship at Oriel. He In private life Pusey's habits were simple almost to austerity. thus became a member of a society which already contained some He had few personal friends, and rarcly mingled in general of the ablest of his contemporaries-among them J. H. Newman

Newman society: though bitter to opponents, he w

society; though bitter to opponents, he was gentle to those who and John Keble. Between 1825 and 1827 he studied Oriental knew him, and his munificent charities gave him a warm place languages and German theology at Göttingen. His first work, in the hearts of many to whom he was personally unknown: In published in 1828, as an answer to Hugh James Rose's Cambridge his domestic life he had some severe trials; his wife died, after lectures on rationalist tendencies in German theology, showed eleven years of married life, in 1839; his only son, who was a a good deal of sympathy with the German “pietists," who had scholar like-minded with himself, who had shared many of his striven to deliver Protestantism from its decadence; this literary labours, and who had cdited an excellent edition of sympathy was misunderstood, and Puscy was himself accused St Cyril's commentary on the minor prophets, died in 1880, of holding rationalist views

after many years of suffering. From that time Pusey was seen by In the same year (1828) the duke of Wellington appointed only a few persons. His strength gradually declined, and he him to the regius professorship of Hebrew with the attached died on the 16th of September 1882, after a short illness. He canonry of Christ Church. The misunderstanding of his was buried at Oxford' in the cathedral of which he had been for position led to the publication in 1830 of a second part of Pusey's fifty-four years a canon. In his memory his friends purchased Historical Enquiry, in which he denied the charge of rationalism. his library, and bought for it a house in Oxford, known as the But in the years which immediately followed the current of his Pusey House, which they endowed with sufficient funds to thoughts began to set in another direction. The revolt against maintain three librarians, who were charged with the duty of individualism had begun, and he was attracted to its standard. endeavouring to perpetuate in the university the memory By the end of 1833 he showed a disposition to make common of the principles which he taught. cause with those who had already begun to issue the Tracts for Puscy is chiefly remembered as the eponymous representative the Times. “He was not, however, fully associated in the move- of the earlier phase of a movement which carried with it no small ment till 1835 and 1836, when he published his tract on baptism part of the religious life of England in the latter half of the 19th and started the Library of the Fathers” (Newman's Apologia, century. His own chief characteristic was an almost unbounded p. 136). He became a close student of the fathers and of that capacity for taking pains. His chief influence was that of a school of Anglican divines who had continued, or revived, in the preacher and a spiritual adviser. As a preacher he lacked all 17th century the main traditions of pre-Reformation teaching the graces of oratory, but compelled attention by his searching A sermon which he preached before the university in 1843, and practical earnestness. His correspondence as a spiritual The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, so startled the adviser was enormous; his deserved reputation for piety and for authorities by the re-statement of doctrines which, though well solidity of character made him the chosen confessor to whom known to ecclesiastical antiquaries, had faded from the common large numbers of men and women unburdened their doubts and view, that by the exercise of an authority which, however their sins. But if he be estimated apart from his position as legitimate was almost obsolete, he was suspended for two years the head of a great party, it must be considered that he was more from the function of preaching. The immediate effect of his a theological antiquary than a theologian. Pusey in fact was suspension was the sale of 18,000 copies of the condemned left behind by his followers even in his lifetime. His revival of sermon; its permanent effect was to make Pusey for the next the doctrine of the Real Presence, coinciding as it did with the quarter of a century the most influential person in the Anglican revival of a taste for medieval art, naturally led to a revival of Church, for it was one of the causes which led Newman to sever the pre-Reformation ceremonial of worship. With this revival himself from that communion. The movement, in the actual of ceremonial Pusey had little sympathy: he at first protested origination of which he had had no share, came to bear his name: against it in a university sermon in 1859); and, though he came it was popularly known as Puseyism (sometimes as Newmania) to defend those who were accused of breaking the law in their and its adherents as Puscyites. His activity, both public and practice.of it, he did so on the express ground that their practice private, as leader of the movement was enormous. He was not was alien to his own. But this revival of ceremonial in its only on the stage but also behind the scenes of every important various degrees became the chief external characteristic of the controversy, whether theological or academical. In the Gorham new movement; and “Ritualist” thrust “ Puseyite" aside as controversy of 1850, in the question of Oxford reform in 1854, the designation of those who hold the doctrines for which he in the prosecution of some of the writers of Essays and Reviews, mainly contended. On the other hand, the pivot of his teaching especially of Benjamin Jowett, in 1863, in the question as to the was the appeal to primitive antiquity; and in this respect he reform of the marriage laws from 1849 to the end of his life, in helped to start inquiry which has since gone far beyond the the Farrar controversy as to the meaning of everlasting punish- materials which were open to one of his generation. ment in 1877, he was always busy with articles, letters, treatises! See J. Rigg, Character and Life-Work of Dr Pusey (1883); B. W. and sermons. The occasions on which, in his turn, he preached Savile, Dr Puscy, an Historic Sketch, with Some Account of the before his university were all memorable; and some of the Oxford Movement (1883), and especially the Life by Canon Liddon, sernions were manifestoes which mark distinct stages in the

completed by J. C. Johnston and R. J. Wilson (5 vols., 1893-1899).

Newman's Apologia, and other literature of the Oxford Movement. history of the High Church party of which he was the leader, The practice of confession in the Church of England practically Pusey's elder brother, PHILIP PUSEY (1799-1855), was a dates from his two sermons on The Entire Absolution of the member of parliament and a friend and follower of Sir Penitent, in 1846, in which the revival of high sacramental Robert Peel. He was one of the founders of the Royal doctrine is complemented by the advocacy of a revival of the Agricultural Society, and was chairman of the implement penitential system which medieval theologians had appended to l department of the great exhibition of 1851. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, a writer on varied topics to the reviews in the southern part of Bessarabia. Pushkin took this as a and the author of the hymn “Lord of our Life and God of our premeditated insult, and sent in his resignation; and Count Salvation."

Vorontzov in his official report requested the government to PUSHBALL, a game played by two sides on a field usually remove the poet, “ as he was surrounded by a society of political 140 yds. long and 50 yds. wide, with a ball 6 st. in diameter and and literary fanatics, whose praises might turn his head and make 50 lb in weight. The sides usually number eleven each, there him believe thai he was a great writer, whereas he was only a being five forwards, two left-wings, two right-wings and two feeble imitator of Lord Byron, an original not much to be comgoal-keepers. The goals consist of two upright posts 18 ft. high mended.” The poet quitted Odessa in 1824, and on leaving and 20 ft. apart with a crossbar 7 ft. from the ground. The wrote a fine Ode to the Sea. Before the close of the year he had game lasts for two periods with an intermission. Pushing the returned to his father's seat at Mikhailovskoe, near Pskov, ball under the bar counts 5 points; lifting or throwing it over the where he soon involved himself in trouble on all sides. In his bar counts 8. A touchdown behind goal for safety counts 2 to retirement he devoted a great deal of time to the study of the the attacking side. The game was invented by M. G. Crane, old Russian popular poetry, the builinas, of which he became a of Newton, Massachusetts, in 1894, and was taken up at Harvard great admirer. Recollections of Byron and André Chenier University the next year, but has never attained any considerable gave the inspiration to some fine lines consecrated to the latter. vogue. In Great Britain the first regular game was played at in which Pushkin appeared more conservative than was his wont, the Crystal Palace in 1902 by teams of eight. The English rules and wrote in a spirit antagonistic to the French Revolution. are somewhat different from those obtaining in the United States. In 1825 he published his tragedy Boris Godunov, a bold effort Pushball on horseback was introduced in 1902 at Durland's to imitate the style of Shakespeare. Up to this time the tradiRiding Academy in New York, and has been played in England tions of the Russian stage, such as it was, had been French. at the Military Tournament.

In 1825 the conspiracy of the Dekabrists broke out. Many of PUSHKAR, a town of British India, in Ajmere district, the conspirators were personal friends of Pushkin, especially Rajputana, 7 m. N. of Ajmere town. Pop. (1901), 3831. It Küchelbecker and Pustchin. The poet himself was to a certain derives its name from a small lake among the hills, 2389 st. above extent compromised, but he succeeded in getting to his house the sea, in which Brahma is once said to have bathed as a pen- at Mikhailovskoe and burning all the papers which might have ance. It contains one of the very few temples, in all India, been prejudicial to him. Through influential friends he sucdedicated to Brahma. At the annual celebration (Oct.-Nov.) ceeded in making his peace with the emperor, to whom he was about 100,000 pilgrims come to bathe in the lake.

presented at Moscow soon after his coronation. The story goes PUSHKIN, ALEXANDER (1799-1837), Russian poet, was that Nicholas said to Count Bludov on the same evening, “I born at Moscow, on the 7th of June 1799. He belonged to an have just been conversing with the most witty man in Russia." ancient family of boyars; his maternal great-grandfather, a | In 1828 appeared Pollava, a spirited narrative poem, in which favourite negro ennobled by Peter the Great, bequeathed to him the expedition of Charles XII. against Peter and the treachery curly hair and a somewhat darker complexion than falls to the of the hetman Mazeppa were described. In 1829 Pushkin lot of the ordinary Russian. In 1811 the future poet entered again visited the Caucasus, on this occasion accompanying the the newly founded lyceum of Tsarskoc Selo, situated near St expedition of Prince Paskevich. He wrote a pleasing account Petersburg. On quitting the lyceum in 1817 he was attached of the tour; many of the short lyrical pieces suggested by the

of the to to the ministry of foreign affairs, and in this year he began the scenery and associations of his visit are delightful, especially composition of his Ruslan and Ly'udmila, a poem which was the lines on the Don and the Caucasus. In 1831 Pushkin married completed in 1820. Meanwhile Pushkin mixed in all the gayest Natalia Goncharov, and in the following year was again attached society of the capital, and it seemed as if he would turn out a to the ministry of foreign affairs, with a salary of 5000 roubles. mere man of fashion instead of a poet. But a very daring Ode He now busied himself with an historical account of the revolt to Liberty written by him had been circulated in manuscript in of the Cossack Pugachev, who almost overthrew the empire of St Petersburg. This production having been brought to the Catherine and was executed at Moscow in the latter part of the

ung author only escaped a journey 18th century. While engaged upon this he wrote The Captain's to Siberia by accepting an official position at Kishinev in Bess Daughter, one of the best of his prose works. In 1832 was arabia, in southern Russia. If we follow the chronological order completed the poem Eugene Onyegii, in which the author of his poems, we can trace the enthusiasm with which he greeted modelled his style upon the lighter sketches of Byron in the the ever-changing prospects of the sea and the regions of the Italian manner. Yet no one can accuse Pushkin of want of Danube and the Crimea.

nationalism in this poem: it is Russian in every fibre. At this time Pushkin was, or affected to be, overpowered In 1837 the poet, who had been long growing in literary by the Byronic “Weltschmerz.” Having visited the baths of reputation, fell mortally wounded in a duel with Baron George the Caucasus for the re-establishment of his health in 1822, he Heckeren d'Anthès, the adopted son of the Dutch minister then felt. the inspiration of its magnificent scenery, and composed resident at the court of St Petersburg. D'Anthès, a vain and The Prisoner of the Caucasus, narrating the story of the love of a frivolous young man, had married a sister of the poet's wife. Circassian girl for a youthful Russian officer. This was followed Notwithstanding this he aroused Pushkin's jealousy by some by the Fountain of Bakhchisarai, which tells of the detention of attentions which he paid Natalia; but the grounds for the poet's a young Polish captive, a Countess Potocka, in the palace of the anger, it must be confessed, do not appear very great. Pushkin khans of the Crimea. About the same time he composed some died, after two days' suffering, on the afternoon of Friday the interesting lines on Ovid, whose place of banishment, Tomi, wasioth of February. D'Anthès was tried by court-martial and not far distant. To this period belongs also the Ode to Napoleon, expelled the country. In 1880 a statue of the poet was erected which is inferior to the fine poems of Byron and Manzoni, or at the Tver Barrier at Moscow, and fêtes were held in his honour, indeed of Lermontov, on the same subject. In the Lay concern on which occasion many interesting memorials of him were ing the Wise Oleg we see how the influence of Karamzin's exhibited to his admiring countrymen and a few foreigners who History had led the Russians to take a greater interest in the had congregated for the festivities. Pushkin left four children; early records of their country. The next long poem was the his widow was afterwards married to an officer in the army, Gipsies (Tzuigani), an Oriental tale of love and vengeance, in named Lanskoi; she died in 1863. which Pusl.kin has admirably delineated these nomads, whose Pushkin's poetical tales are spirited and full of dramatic strange mode of life fascinated him. During his stay in southern | power. The influence of Byron is undoubtedly seen in them, Russia he allowed himself to get mixed up with the secret but they are not imitations, still less is anything in them plagisocieties then rife throughout the country. He also became arized. Boris Godunov is a fine tragedy; on the whole Eugene embroiled with his chief, Count Vorontzov, who sent him to Onyegin must be considered Pushkin's masterpiece. Here we report upon the damages which had been committed by locusts I have a great variety of styles-satire, pathos and humour mixed together. The character-painting is good, and the descriptions considerable administrative independence, including the right of scenery introduced faithful to nature. The poem in many to date such a public document by the names of its own magisplaces reminds us of Byron, who himself in his mixture of the tratcs. Sulla retired to Puteoli after his resignation of the pathetic and the humorous was a disciple of the Italian school. dictatorship in 79, and ten days before his death reconciled the Pushkin also wrote a great many lyrical pieces. Interspersed disputes of the citizens by giving them a constitution. Cicero among the poet's minor works will be found many epigrams, had a house in Puteoli itself, and a villa on the edge of the but some of the best composed by him were not so fortunate as Lucrine lake (which, though nearer to Puteoli, was in the territo pass the censorship, and must be read in a supplementary tory of Cumae), and many prominent men of the republic volume published at Berlin. As a prose writer Pushkin has possessed country houses in the neighbourhood of Puteoli considerable merits. Besides his History of the Revolt of Puga-(see BAIAE; AVERNUS LACUS; LUCRINUS LACUS; MISENUM). ched, which is perhaps too much of a compilation, he published a | In the Civil War it sided with Pompey, and later on with Brutus small volume of tales under the nom de plume of Ivan Byelkin. and Cassius. Nero admitted the old inhabitants to the privileges These all show considerable dramatic power: the best are The of the colony, thus uniting in one the two previously distinct Captain's Daughter, a tale of the times of Catherine II.; The communities. In 61 St Paul landed here, and spent seven days Undertaker, a very ghostly story, which will remind the English before leaving for Rome (Acts xxviä. 13). Vespasian, as a reader of some of the tales of Edgar Poe; The Pistol Shot; and reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the The Queen of Spades.

territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there-whence The academy of St Petersburg has recently' issued a complete

it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of edition of the works of Pushkin, including his letters. See the the empire. bibliography in the editions of Gennadi (7 vols., St Petersburg, 1861) | The remains of Hadrian, who died at the neighbouring town and Annenkov (6 vols., St Petersburg, 1855). (W. R. M.)

of Baiae, were buried at Puteoli, and Antoninus Pius, besides PUSHTU, the language of the Pathan races of Afghanistan erecting a temple to his memory on the site of Cicero's villa, and the North-West Frontier province of India. It belongs instituted sacred games to be held in the city every five years. to the Iranian group of the Indo-European languages, but pos- | Commodus held the title of duumvir quinquennalis. It was sesses many Panjabi words. In Afghanistan it is the dominant mainly, however, as a great commercial port that Puteoli was language, but is not spoken west of the Helmund. In India it famous in ancient times. It joined with Naples to erect one of has two main dialects, the northern, hard or Pukhtu, and the the finest porticoes of Constantinople at the time of its construcsouthern, soft or Pushtu. The dividing line of the two dialects tion. A letter of Symmachus gives us interesting details as to runs eastwards from Thal through the Kohat district almost to public corn distributions of the 4th century, throwing some light the Indus, but it then turns northwards, as the speech of the on the population. Like Ostia, Puteoli was considered a special Akhora Khattaks belongs to the Pushtu or southern dialect. port of Rome, and, on account of the safety and convenience of Thus Pukhtu is spoken in Bajour, Swat and Buner, and by the its harbour, it was preferred to Ostia for the landing of the more

usufzais. Bangash, Orakzais. Afridis and Mohmands; while costly and delicate wares. As at Ostia, the various gilds were Pushtu is spoken by the Waziris, Khattaks, Marwats and various of considerable importance, but we find no centonarii or fabri, minor tribes in the south. The language division corresponds perhaps owing to its relations with the East, where these popular roughly with the tribal system of the Pathans, who are aristo- gilds were prohibited. Puteoli was preferred to Naples, (a) as cratic in the north and democratic in the south. The classical being in Roman territory, (6) because the customs duty was dialect of Pukhtu is that of the Yusufzais, in which the earliest only leviable once, not twice as it would have been at Naples works in the language were composed. The Orakzai dialect once by the local authorities, and once by the Roman authorities differs from that of the Afridis, in that it is broader but less on entrance into Roman territory. It exported iron from Elba, guttural and spoken more rapidly. The standard dialect is mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia that of Peshawar. The literature is richest in poetry, Abdur (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which Rahman, of the 17th century, being the best-known poet. Pushtu indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th cenwas spoken in the North-West Frontier province in 1901 by tury), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana 1,142,011 persons, or 54% of the population.

earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for See Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India; Roos-Keppel, Manual mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups of Pushlu (1901); Lorimer, Grammar of Waziri Pushiu (1902). I engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dves (the blue invented

PUTEAUX, a north-western suburb of Paris, on the left by one Vestorius is mentioned by Vitruvius and the purple of bank of the Seine. ad m. from the centre of the city. Pop. | Puteoli by Pliny, as being of special excellence), &c., but not (1906), 28,718. Puteaux has a church of the 16th century with agricultural products, except certain brands of Campanian good stained glass windows. There is a fort on the Seine.

wine; but its imports were considerably greater. During the PUTEOLI (mod. Pozzuoli, q.v.), an ancient town of Campania, Punic Wars it was still a naval port, but in the latter part of the Italy, on the northern shore of the Bay of Puteoli, a portion of 2nd century B.C. it became the greatest commercial harbour the Bay of Naples, from which it is 6 m. W. The statement of Italy and we find Lucilius about 125 B.C. placing it next in made by Stephanus of Byzantium and Jerome, that the importance to Delos, then the greatest harbour of the ancient city was founded under the name of Dicaearchia by a world. We note a little later the existence of merchants of colony of Samians about 520 B.C., is probably correct, for; | Puteoli in the East. Under the empire we find Eastern cults though in the territory of Cumae, it does not appear to have taking root here sooner than in Rome. The construction of been occupied previous to 20. Misenum having been the the harbour of Claudius at the mouth of the Tiber adversely original port of Cumae. On the other hand. Cumae probably affected Puteoli. Nero's scheme for the construction of a extended her supremacy over it not long after. Its history in canal from Lake Avernus to Ostia would have restored the the Samnite period is unknown; but the coins of Fistelia (or

balance in its favour (though it certainly could not have been Fistlus in Oscan) probably belong to Puteoli, as Mommsen

continuous all the way to Rome with the means of engineering thought. Nor do we know anything of its history between

then available). 334 (when it probably became a civilas sine suffragio under The corn supply of Rome came partly through Puteoli, Roman domination, shortly afterwards receiving. in 318, a partly through Ostia. Seneca (Epist. 77) describes the joy of praefectus iurc dicundo) and 215, when the Romans introduced | the inhabitants in the spring when the fleet of corn vessels from a garrison of 6000 men to protect the town from Hannibal, who Alexandria was seen approaching, and Statius tells us that the besieged it in vain for three days in 214. In 194 a Roman

crew of the ship which arrived first made libations to Minerva

cr colony of 300 men was established. The lex paridi faciundo,

"A mass of pottery débris found in 1875 gave important infor.

mation as to the local manufacture. Some fragments came from an interesting inscription of 105 B.C. relating to some building Arretium, others, not quite so good, were of local work, but of the works in front of the temple of Serapis, shows that Puteoli bad same style.

when passing the promontory which bore her name (the Punta | ranean, one of which, bringing water from springs in the immediate

neighbourhood, is still in use, while the other is a branch of the Campanella at Sorrento). It is uncertain what official had the

Serino aqueduct, which was probably taken to Misenum by Agrippa. charge of the corn supply at Puteoli under the Republic, but in |

Several remains of reservoirs exist; one very large one is now called the time of Antoninus Pius we find an Aug(usti) dis(pensator) Piscina di Cardito. a frumento Puteolis et Ostis dependent no doubt on a procuralor

I Among the inscriptions one of the most interesting is the letter

of the Tyrian merchants resident at Puteoli to the senate of Tyre, annonae of the two ports.

written in 174, asking the latter to undertake the payment of the rent Claudius established here, as at Ostia, a cohort of vigiles as a

of their factory, and the reply of the senatc promising to do so. fire-brigade. Brundusium was similarly protected. There was (This is the interpretation adopted by Dubois, pp. 86, 92, following also a station of the imperial post, sailors of the imperial fleet at

Dittenberger.) We find other Eastern merchants resident here

merchants from Heliopolis, Berytus (Beirut), Nabataea, Palestine, Misenum being apparently employed as couriers. The artificial

and from Asia Minor, Greece, &c. We find far less trace of commermole was probably of earlier date than the reign of Augustus | cial relations with the West, though there was considerable importa. (possibly and century B.c.); and by that time at any rate there tion of commodities from southern Spain--wine, oil, metals, salt were docks large enough to contain the vessels employed in fish, &c., while a good deal of pottery was exported to Spain and

southern Gaul. We find, indeed, two cases of men who held muni. bringing the obelisks from Egypt. Remains of the piles of the

cipal honours at Puteoli and in the Rhone valley. Puteoli was mole still exist, and are popularly known as Caligula's Bridge,

reached direct by a road from Capua traversing the hills to the from the mistaken idea that they belong to the temporary north by a cutting (the Montagna Spaccata), which went on to structure which that emperor flung across the bay from the Neapolis, and by the Via Domitiana from Rome and Cumae. There mole at Puteoli to the shore at Baiae. Inscriptions record

was also a short cut from Puteoli to Neapolis by the tunnel of

Pausilipon, made under Augustus. It is not possible to trace the repairs to the breakwater by Antoninus Pius in 139 in fulfilment

episcopal see of Puteoli with any certainty further back than the of a promise made by Hadrian before his death. Alaric (410), beginning of the 4th century. In 305, S. Januarius (S. Gennaro, the Genseric (455) and Totila (545) successively laid Puteoli in ruins. patron saint of Naples), bishop of Beneventum, S. Proculus, patron The restoration effected by the Byzantines was partial and short

of Putcoli, and others, sufiered martyrdom at Puteoli.

See the careful study by C. Dubois, Pouzzoles antique (Paris, 1907) lived.

(Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Romc, fasc. 98). The original town of Puteoli was situated on the narrow hill of the

(T. As.) Castello. Scanty traces of fortifications of the Roman period secm to have come to light in recent tunnelling operations. The streets

PUTLITZ, GUSTAV HEINRICH GANS, EDLER ZU (1821of the old town probably, as at Naples, preserve the ancient align- | 1890), German author, was born at Retzien near Perleberg in ment. There are also traces of the division of the lands in the

West Prignitz, on the 20th of March 1821. He studied law at immediate vicinity of the town into squares by parallel paths

Berlin and Heidelberg, and was attached to the provincial (decumani and cardines) at regular intervals of uni Roman feet, postulating as the basis of the division a square with a side of 10,000 government at Magdeburg from 1846-1848. In 1853 he married Roman feet, divided into 81 smaller squaresman arrangement which | Gräfin Elisabeth von Königsmark, and lived on his estate until could not have existed at Puteoli, and must have arisen elsewhere. 1863, when he became director of the Court theatre at Schwerin. It is remarkable as being contrary to Roman surveyors' practice,

This post he left in 1867, was for a short time chamberlain to the according to which the basis of division is the intersection at right angles of the cardo and decumanus, which would give an even (not

crown prince of Prussia, afterwards the emperor Frederick, ler squares. The size of the ancient town at and from 1873 to 1889 successfully directed the Court theatre at its largest can be roughly fixed by its tombs. Inscriptions show Karlsruhe. He died at Retzien on the 5th of September 1890. that it was divided into regiones. The market hall (macellum)

Putlitz made his debut as a writer with a volume of romantic (compare the similar buildings at Pompeii and elsewhere), generally known as the temple of Serapis, from a statue of that deity found stories, Was sich der Wald erzähll (1850), which attained great there, was excavated in 1750. It consisted of a rectangular court popularity (fifty editions) and found many imitators; but he surrounded by chambers on the outside and with a colonnade of was most successful in his comedies, notably Badekuren (1859); thirty-six columns of cipollino (Carystian) marble and grey granite. | Das Hcrz vergessen (1853); and Spielt nicht mit dem Feuer! The three columns still standing, some 39 ft. high, belong to a facade of four still higher columns erected in front of the absidal (1887), while of his narratives Die Alpenbraut (1870) and Walcella or sanctuary, with three niches for statues no doubt of the purgis (1870) are distinguished by refined terseness of style and protecting deities. The borings of marine shellfish visible in these delicacy of portraiture. columns between 11 and 19 st. from the ground, and the various levels of pavement in the macellum help to indicate, according to

A selection of his works, Ausgewählte Werke, was published in Günther's researches (Archaeologia, lvii. 499; Earth Movements in

6 vols. in Berlin (1872-1877), and a supplementary volume in 1888: the Bay of Naples, 1903), that the level of the shore fell very slightly

his comedies, Lustspiele, appeared in two series of 4 vols. each during the Roman period, when it was some 20 ft. higher than at

(1851-1860 and 1869-1872). See E. zu Putlitz, Gustav su Pullit:. present; that it fell more rapidly during the middle ages, was then

Ein Lebensbild aus Briefen (3 vols., 1894-1895). raised again early in the 16th century (before the upheaval of the PUTNAM, ISRAEL (1718–1790), American soldier, was born Monte Nuovo in 1538) and has since been sinking gradually. In the centre was a round colonnade with sixteen columns of Numidian mar

in Salem Village (now Danvers), Massachussetts, on the 7th of ble (giallo antico) now in the theatre of the palace at Caserta. Dubois January 1718. His first American ancestor (of the same family (op. cit., 286 sqq.) reproduces important drawings and a description as George Puttenham), came from Aston Abbotts, Bucks, and made by the architect Caristie in 1820. The well-preserved amphi

was one of the first settlers of Salem Village. In 1740 he removed theatre, the subterranean parts of which below the arena are intact, with a main passage down. the centre, a curved passage all round

to a farm in the present townships of Pomfret and Brooklyn, with holes for trap doors in its roof, and numerous small chambers. | Connecticut. Here in the winter of 1742-1743 he went down also with trap doors in their vaulted roofs for admitting the wild into a wolf den (still shown in Pomfret) and at close quarters beasts, whose cages were on the other side of the curved passage, to killed a huge wolf. Putnam took an active part in the French the arena, are especially interesting. There were also arrangements for flooding the arena, but these can only have been in usc before the

and Indian War, enlisting as a private in 1755 and rising to the construction of the greater part of the subterrancan portion with its rank of major in March 1758. He was conspicuous for personal cages, &c. The whole amphitheatre measures 489 by 381 ft., and the courage and for skill in Indian wariare, and was the hero of arena 245 by 138 st. Of the upper portion the interior is well numerous exploits. In 1764, during Pontiac's conspiracy, he preserved, but very little of the external arcades remains. It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record

commanded the Connecticut troops (five companies) in the exthat it was built by the Colonia Flavia. There was, however, an pedition under Colonel John Bradstreet for the relief of Detroit. amphitheatre in the reign of Nero, who himself fought in games | He was a prominent member of the Sons of Liberty and a given there, and the glass cup of Odemira shows two. A ruin still in the opposition to the Stamp Act; was elected to the general exists which may be doubtfully attributed to the latter (Dubois, p. 192). Remains of thermiae also exist in various places, the mineral

| assembly of Connecticut in 1766 and 1767; and increased his springs having been much used in Roman times. The cathedral of political influence by opening a tavern, “ The General Wolfe," S. Proculus (containing the tomb of the musician Pergolesi, d. 1736) in Brooklyn, Conn. In August 1774, as chairman of the is built into a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, 6

committee of correspondence for Brooklyn parish, he went columns of which, with their Corinthian capitals, still exist. Other ruins-of a circus, of tombs, &c., exist, and there are also considerable

with the committee's message and contributions to the Boston remains of villas in the neighbourhood.

Patriots; and in October became lieutenant-colonel of the sith Puteoli was supplied with water by two aqueducts, both subter- regiment of Connecticut militia. News of the fighting at

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