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K. Rich. My father's death,—
Queen. Thy life hath that dishonour'd.

K. Rich. Then, by myself,

Queen. Thyfelf is felf-mif-us'd.

K. Ricb. Why then, by heaven,

Queen. Heaven's wrong is moft of all.

If thou didst fear to break an oath with heaven,

The unity, the king my husband made,
Had not been broken, nor my brother flain.
If thou hadft fear'd to break an oath by him,
The imperial metal, circling now thy head,
Had grac'd the tender temples of my child,
And both the princes had been breathing here,
Which now, two tender bed-fellows for duft,
Thy broken faith hath made a prey for worms.
What canft thou swear by now?

K. Rich. By time to come.


Queen. That thou haft wrong'd in the time o'erFor I myself have many tears to wash

Hereafter time, for time past, wrong'd by thee.
The children live, whofe parents thou haft flaugh-

Ungovern'd youth, to wail it in their age:
The parents live, whofe children thou haft but-

Old barren plants, to wail it with their age.
Swear not by time to come; for that thou haft
Mifus'd ere us'd, by times ill-us'd o'er-past.

K. Rich. As I intend to profper, and repent!
So thrive I in my dangerous attempt
Of hoftile arms! myself myself confound!
Heaven, and fortune, bar me happy hours!
Day, yield me not thy light; nor, night, thy rest !
Be oppofite all planets of good luck

To my proceeding, if, with pure heart's love,
Immaculate devotion, holy thoughts,

I tender not thy beauteous princely daughter!
In her confifts my happiness, and thine;
Without her, follows to myself, and thee,
Herfelf, the land, and many a christian soul,
Death, defolation, ruin, and decay:

Queen. I go.-Write to me very shortly,
And you fhall understand from me her mind.
K. Rich. Bear her my true love's kifs, and fo
farewel. [Killing ber. Exit Queen.

5 Relenting fool, and shallow, changing-woman!
How now? what news?

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It cannot be avoided, but by this;

It will not be avoided, but by this;
Therefore, dear mother, (I must call you fo)
Be the attorney of my love to her:


Plead what I will be, not what I have been,
Not my deserts, but what I will deferve:

Urge the neceffity and state of times,

And be not peevish found in great designs.

Queen. Shall I be tempted of the devil thus ?
K. Rich. Ay, if the devil tempt thee to do good.
Queen. Shall I forget myself, to be myself?
K. Rich. Ay, if yourself's remembrance wrong

Queen. But thou didst kill my children.

K. Rich. But in your daughter's womb I bury

Where, in that neft of spicery, they shall breed
Selves of themselves, to your recomforture.



Enter Ratcliff, and Catesby.

Rat. Moft mighty fovereign, on the weftern


Rideth a puiffant navy; to the shore

Throng many doubtful hollow-hearted friends,
Unarm'd, and unrefolv'd to beat them back:
'Tis thought, that Richmond is their admiral;
And there they hull, expecting but the aid
Of Buckingham, to welcome them afhore.
K. Rich. Some light-foot friend poft to the duke
of Norfolk ;-

Ratcliff, thyfelf,-or Catefby; where is he?
Catef. Here, my good lord.

K. Rib. Catesby, fly to the duke.

Catef. I will, my lord, with all convenient hafte.
K. Rich. Ratcliff, come hither: Post'to Salisbury;
When thou com'ft thither,--Dull unmindful villain,
[To Catesby.
Why ftay'ft thou here, and go'ft not to the duke?.
Cates. First, mighty liege, tell me your highness'

What from your grace I fhall deliver to him.
K. Rich. O, true, good Catefby;-Bid him levy

The greatest ftrength and power he can make,
And meet me fuddenly at Salisbury.

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Enter Lord Stanley.

K. Rich. My mind is chang'd.-Stanley,, what news with you?

Stanl. None good, my liege, to please you with the hearing;

Nor none fo bad, but well may be reported.

K. Rich. Heyday, a riddle! neither good, nor bad! What need'st thou run fo many miles about, When thou may'ft tell thy tale the nearest way? Once more, what news?

Stanley. Richmond is on the feas.

K. Rich, There let him fink, and be the feas
on him!

White-liver'd runagate, what doth he there?
Stanl. I know not, mighty fovereign, but by guefs.
K. Rich. Well, as you guess?
Stanl. Stirr'd up by Dorfet, Buckingham, and
He makes for England, here to claim the crown.
K. Rich. Is the chair empty? is the sword un-

Queen, Shall I go win my daughter to thy will? 60 Is the king dead? the empire unpoffefs'd?
What heir of York is there alive, but we?

K. Rich. And be a happy mother by the deed.

Alluding to the phoenix.
U u 4


And who is England's king, but great York's heir?]
Then, tell me, what makes he upon the feas?
Stanl. Unless for that, my liege, I cannot guefs.
K. Rich. Unlefs for that he comes to be your liege,
You cannot guess wherefore the Welshman comes.
Thou wilt revolt, and fly to him, I fear. [not.

Stanl. No, mighty liege; therefore miftruft me
K. Rich. Where is thy power, then, to beat him


K. Rich. Oh, I cry you mercy:

There is my puríe, to cure that blow of thine.
Hath any well-advised friend proclaim'd
Reward to him that brings the traitor in? [liege.
3 Mef. Such proclamation hath been made, my
Enter another Messenger.

4 Mef. Sir Thomas Lovel, and lord marquis Dor-
'Tis faid, my liege, in Yorkshire are in arms. [fet,
But this good comfort bring I to your highness,➡
To The Bretagne navy is difpers'd by tempeft:
Richmond, in Dorfetfhire, fent out a boat
Unto the fhore, to ask those on the banks,
If they were his affiftants, yea, or no;
Who anfwer'd him, they came from Buckingham
Upon his party: he, mistrusting them,
Hois'd fail, and made his courfe again for Bretagne.

Where be thy tenants, and thy followers?
Are they not now upon the western shore,
Safe-conducting the rebels from their fhips?
Stanl. No, my good lord, my friends are in the
K. Rich. Cold friends to me: What do they in the 15
When they should ferve their fovereign in the weft?
Stanl. They have not been commanded, mighty

Pleafeth your majesty to give me leave,

I'll muster up my friends; and meet your grace, 20
Where, and what time, your majefty fhall pleafe.
K. Rich. Ay, ay, thou wouldst be gone to join
with Richmond:

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Your fon, George Stanley: look your heart be firm, 30]
Or elfe his head's affurance is but frail.

Stanl. So deal with him, as I prove true to you.
[Exit Stanley.

Enter a Meflenger.

Mef. My gracious fovereign, now in Devonshire, 35
As I by friends am well advertised,

Sir Edward Courtney, and the haughty prelate,
Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother,
With many more confederates are in arms.
Enter a Meffenger.

2 Mef. In Kent, my liege, the Guilfords are in
And every hour more competitors 1
Flock to the rebels, and their power grows ftrong.
Enter anaiber Meffinger.

K. Rich. March on, march on, fince we are up If not to fight with foreign enemies, [in arms; Yet to beat down these rebels here at home.

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Enter Lord Stanley, and Sir Chriftopher Urfweck.
Stanl. Sir Chriftopher 2, tell Richmond this from
That, in the ftye of this most bloody boar [me;-
My fon George Stanley is frank'd up in hold;
If I revolt, off goes young George's head;
The fear of that withholds my present aid.
40 But, tell me, where is princely Richmond now?
Chri. At Pembroke, or at Ha'rford-weft, in
Stanl. What men of name refort to him? [Wales.
Chri. Sir Walter Herbert, a renown'd foldier;
Sir Gilbert Talbot, and Sir William Stanley;
Oxford, redoubted Pembroke, Sir James Blunt,
And Rice ap Thomas, with a valiant crew;
And many other of great name and worth :
And towards London do they bend their course,
If by the way they be not fought withal. [to him;
Stani. Well, hie thee to thy lord; commend me
Tell him, the queen hath heartily confented
He fhall efpoufe Elizabeth her daughter.
Thefe letters will refolve him of my mind.

3 Mef. My lord, the army of great Bucking-45


K. Rich. Out on ye, owls! nothing but fongs of death? [He ftrikes bim. There, take thou that, 'till thou bring better news. 3 Mef. The news I have to tell your majesty, Is, that, by fudden floods and fall of waters, Buckingham's army is difpers'd and fcatter'd ; And he himself wander'd away alone, No man knows whither.



1 i. e. opponents. 2 The perfon who is called Sir Chriftopher here, appears by the Chronicles to have been Chriftopher Urfwick, a batchelor in divinity; and chaplain to the countefs of Richmond, who had intermarried with the lord Stanley. This priest, the history tells us, frequently went backwards and forwards, unfufpected, on meffages betwixt the countefs of Richmond and her husband, and the young earl of Richmond, whilft he was preparing to make his defcent on England. Dr. Johnfon has obferved, that Sir was anciently a title affumed by graduates.


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Enter the Sheriff, with Buckingham, led to execution.


In God's name, chearly on, courageous friends,
To reap the harvest of perpetual peace
By this one bloody trial of sharp war.

Oxf. Every man's confcience is a thousand swords,

ILL not king Richard let me fpeak 5 To fight against that bloody homicide.


with him?

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Buck. Why, then All-Souls' day is my body's This is the day, which, in king Edward's time, I wish'd might fall on me, when I was found Falfe to his children, or his wife's allies: This is the day, wherein I wish'd to fall By the faife faith of him whom most I trusted: This, this All-Souls' day to my fearful foul, Is the determin'd respite of my wrongs 2. That high All-feer whom I dally'd with, Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head, And given in earnest what I begg'd in jest. Thus doth he force the swords of wicked men To turn their own points on their masters' bofoms: Thus Margaret's curfe falls heavy on my neck,When be, quoth fhe, fhall split thy beart with forrow, Remember Margaret was a prophetess.

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Come, firs, convey me to the block of fhame;
Wrong hath but wrong, and blame the due of blame.
[Exeunt Buckingham, &c.35

Tamworth, on the borders of Leicestershire. A camp.
Enter Henry Earl of Richmond, Earl of Oxford, Sir
James Blunt, Sir Walter Herbert, and others, with 40

drum and colours.

Herb. I doubt not, but his friends will turn to us. Blunt. He hath no friends, but who are friends for fear;

Which, in his deareft need, will fly from him. Richm. All for our vantage. Then, in God's name march:

True hope is swift, and flies with swallow's wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures kings. [Excunt.

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Enter King Richard in arms, with the Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey, and others.

K. Rich. Here pitch our tent, even here in Bofworth Field.

My lord of Surrey, why look you so fad?
Surr. My heart is ten times lighter than my looks.
K. Rich. My lord of Norfolk,-

Nor. Here, most gracious liege.

K. Rich. Norfolk, we must have knocks; Ha! muft we not? [lord. Nor. We muft both give and take, my loving K. Rich. Up with my tent: Here will I lie tonight; [that.

But where, to-morrow?-Well, all's one for Who hath defcry'd the number of the traitors?


Nor. Six or feven thousand is their utmost power. K. Rich. Why, our battalia trebles that account: Befides, the king's name is a tower of strength, Which they upon the adverse faction want.Up with the tent.---Come, noble gentlemen, Let us furvey the vantage of the ground;--Call for fome men of found direction 4 :--Let's want no difcipline, make no delay; For, lords, to-morrow is a busy day. Enter on the other fide of the field, Richmond, Sir William Brandon, Oxford, Dorfet, &c. Ricbm. The weary fun hath made a golden fet, 45 And, by the bright track of his fiery car, Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow.--Sir William Brandon, you shall bear my standard.--Give me fome ink and paper in my tent;--I'll draw the form and model of our battle, Limit each leader to his feveral charge, And part in just proportion our small power. My lord of Oxford,---you, Sir William Brandon,--And you, Sir Walter Herbert, stay with me:--The earl of Pembroke keeps his regiment;--

Ricbm. Fellows in arms, and my most loving
Bruis'd underneath the yoke of tyranny, [friends,
Thus far into the bowels of the land
Have we march'd on without impediment;
And here receive we from our father Stanley
Lines of fair comfort and encouragement.
The wretched, bloody, and ufurping boar,
That spoil'd your fummer fields, and fruitful vines,
Swills your warm blood like wash, and makes his 50

In your embowell'd 3 bofoms,—this foul swine
Lies now even in the centre of this ifle,
Near to the town of Leicester, as we learn:

From Tamworth thither, is but one day's march.|55|Good captain Blunt, bear my good night to him,

The reafon why the duke of Buckingham folicited an interview with the king, is explained in K. Henry VIII. A& f. 2 i. e. the time to which the punishment of his wrongs was refpited. Wrongs here means wrongs done, or injurious practices. > i. e. ripped up. 4 i, e. true judgement; tried military skill


And by the fecond hour in the morning
Defire the earl to see me in my tent:

Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me;
Where is lord Stanley quarter'd, do you know?
Blunt. Unless I have mifta'en his colours much, 5
(Which, well I am affur'd, I have not done)
His regiment lies half a mile at leaft
South from the mighty power of the king.
Richm. If without peril it be poffible,
Sweet Blunt, make fome good means to speak with 10
And give him from me this most needful note.


Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it ; And fo, God give you quiet rest to-night!

Richm. Good night, good captain Blunt. Come,

Let us confult upon to-morrow's bufinefs;
In to my tent, the air is raw and cold.

[They withdraw into the tent. Enter, to his tent, King Richard, Ratcliff, Norfolk, and Catesby.

K. Rich. What is't o'clock?

Catef. It's fupper time, my lord;

It's nine o'clock.

K. Rich. I will not fup to-night.

Give me fome ink and paper.—

What, is my beaver easier than it was?-
And all my armour laid into my tent? [dinefs.
Catef. It is, my liege; and all things are in rea-
K. Rich. Good Norfolk, hie thee to thy charge;
Ufe careful watch, chufe trusty centinels.

Nor. I go, my lord.
K. Rich. Stir with the lark to-morrow, gentle
Nor. I warrant you, my lord.



K. Rich. Ratcliff,

Rat. My lord!

K. Rich. Send out a pursuivant at arms
To-Stanley's regiment; bid him bring his power
Before fun-rifing, left his fon George fall
Into the blind cave of eternal night.-

Fill me a bowl of wine :-Give me a watch:-
[To Catefey.

Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow.
Look that my staves 2 be found, and not too heavy.

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And help to arm me, Ratcliff.-Leave me, I say.
[Exit Ratcliff.

Richmond's Tent opens, and discovers bim, and bit
Officers, &c.

Enter Stanley.

Stanl. Fortune and victory fit on thy helm!
Richm. All comfort that the dark night can afford,
Be to thy person, noble father-in-law !
Tell me, how fares our loving mother?

Stanl. I, by attorney 4, blefs thee from thy mother,
Who prays continually for Richmond's good;
So much for that.-The filent hours steal on,
And flaky darkness breaks within the east.
In brief, for fo the season bids us be,
Prepare thy battle early in the morning!
And put thy fortune to the arbitrement
Of bloody ftrokes, and mortal staring war 5.
I, as I may, (that which I would, I cannot)
With best advantage will deceive the time,
And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arms:
But on thy fide I may not be too forward,
Left, being feen, thy tender brother George
Be executed in his father's fight.
Farewell: the leifure 6, and the fearful time
Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love,
And ample enterchange of fweet difcourfe,
Which fo long fundred friends should dwell upon;
God give us leifure for thefe rites of love!
Once more, adieu :--Be valiant and speed well!

Richm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment:
I'll ftrive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap;
Left leaden flumber peize 7 me down to-morrow,
When I fhould mount with wings of victory:
Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen:
[Exeunt lords, &c.
O, Thou! whofe captain I account myself,
Look on my forces with a gracious eye;
Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath,
That they may crush down with a heavy fall
The ufurping helmets of our adversaries!
Make us thy minifters of chastisement,
That we may praise thee in thy victory!
To thee I do commend my watchful foul,
Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes;
Sleeping, and waking, O defend me still! [Sleeps.
Enter the Ghoft of Prince Edward, Son to Henry the


Rat. My lord?
K. Rich. Saw'st thou the melancholy lord Nor-
Rat. Thomas the earl of Surrey and himself,
Much about cock-fhut time 3, from troop to troop,
Went through the army, cheering up the foldiers.
K. Rich. I am fatisfy'd. Give me a bowl of wine: 50
I have not that alacrity of spirit,

Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have.-
So, fet it down.-Is ink and paper ready?

Rat. It is, my lord.

K. Rich. Bid my guard watch, and leave me. About the mid of night, come to my tent

Gboft. Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow! [To K. Rich. Think how thou ftabb'ft me in the prime of youth At Tewksbury; defpair therefore, and die !— Be cheerful, Richmond; for the wronged fouls [To Richm 55 Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf: King Henry's iffue, Richmond, comforts thee.

That particular kind of candle is here meant anciently called a watch, because, being marked out into fections, each of which was a certain proportion of time in burning, it fupplied the place of the more modern inftrument by which we measure the hours. 2 Staves are the wood of the lances. As it was usual to carry more lances than one into the field, the lightness of them was an object of confequence. 3 i. e. twilight. Cockbut is faid to be a net to catch woodcocks; and as the time of taking them in this manner is in the twilight, either after fun-fet or before its rifing, cockbut light may very properly exprefs the evening or the morning twilight. 4 i. e. by deputation, or by virtue of letter of attorney. 5 By staring war is probably meant war that looks big. Leifure in this paffage ftands for want of leifure. 7 i. e. weigh me down, from pefer, French.


Enter the Ghoft of Henry the Sixth. Gbuft. When I was mortal, my anointed body [To K. Rich. By thee was punched full of deadly holes : Think on the Tower and me; despair and die; Henry the fixth bids thee despair and die !—

Virtuous and holy, be thou conqueror! [To Richm. Harry, that prophesy'd thou shouldst be king, Doth comfort thee in thy fleep; live, and flourish. Enter the Ghuft of Clarence.

Ghoft. Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow! [To K. Rich.

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5 The laft was I, that felt thy tyranny:
O, in the battle think on Buckingham,
And die in terror of thy guiltiness!
Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death;
Fainting, defpair: defpairing, yield thy breath!
I dy'd for hope 1, ere I could lend thee aid:
[To Richm.
But cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay'd:
God and good angels fight on Richmond's fide;
And Richard falls in height of all his pride.

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I, that was wash'd to death with fulfome wine,
Poor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death!
To-morrow in the battle think on me,
And fall thy edgeless sword; despair, and die !—
Thou offspring of the houfe of Lancaster,
[To Richm.
The wronged heirs of York do pray for thee;
Good angels guard thy battle! Live, and flourish!
Enter the Ghefts of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan.
Riv. Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow!
[To K. Ricb.
Rivers, that dy'd at Pomfret? despair, and die!
Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy foul defpair! 25
[To K. Rich.

Vaugh. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty| fear,

Let fall thy lance! despair, and die!

[To K. Rich. All. Awake! and think, our wrongs in Richard's bofom

Will conquer him;-awake, and win the day!

[The Ghefts vanifb. [K. Richard starts out of bis dream. K. Rich. Give me another horse,bind up my wounds,

Have mercy, Jefu!-Soft; I did but dream.—
200 coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me !-
The lights burn blue.-Is it not dead midnight?
Cold fearful drops ftand on my trembling flesh.
What do I fear? myself? there's none else by:
Richard loves Richard: that is, I am I.

Is there a murd'rer here? No;-Yes; I am:
Then fly,--What, from myself? Great reafon: Why?
Left I revenge. What? Myfelf on myself?
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good,
That I myself have done unto myself?

300, no; alas, I rather hate myself,

[To Ricbm.

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Enter the Ghoft of Lord Haftings. Gheft. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake;

[To K. Ricb.


And in a bloody battle end thy days!
Think on lord Haftings; and despair, and die !—
Quiet untroubled foul, awake, awake! [To Ricbm. 40
Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's fake !
Enter the Gbofts of the two young Princes.
Ghefts. Dream on thy coufins fmother'd in the

Let us be lead within thy bofom, Richard,


[To K. Rich. And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death! Thy nephews' fouls bid thee despair, and die.— Sleep, Richmond, fleep in peace, and wake in [To Rickm. 50

Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy!
Live, and beget a happy race of kings!
Edward's unhappy fons do bid thee flourish.

Enter the Gheft of Lady Anne.

Gbft. Richard, thy wife, that wretched Anne 55 thy wife,

[To K. Rich.

That never flept a quiet hour with thee,

Now fills thy fleep with perturbations:
To-morrow in the battle think on me,
And fall thy edgeless fword; defpair, and die! 60
Thou, quiet foul, fleep thou a quiet fleep;
[To Richm.

Dream of fuccefs and happy victory;


For hateful deeds committed by myself.

I am a villain: Yet I lye, I am not.

Fool, of thyfelf fpeak well :-Fool, do not flatter.
My confcience hath a thousand several tongues,
And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every tale condemns me for a villain.
Perjury, perjury, in the highest degree,
Murder, ftern murder, in the dir'ft degree;
All feveral fins, all us'd in each degree,
Throng to the bar, crying all,-Guilty! guilty!
I fhall defpair,-There is no creature loves me;
And, if I die, no foul shall pity me :-

Nay, wherefore should they? fince that I myself
Find in myself no pity to myself. -

Methought, the fouls of all that I had murder'd
Came to my tent; and every one did threat
To-morrow's vengeance on the head of Richard.
Enter Ratcliff.

Rat. My lord,

K. Rich. Who's there?

Rat. My lord, 'tis I: The early village cock Hath twice done falutation to the morn Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour. K. Rich. O Ratcliff, I have dream'd a fearful dream!

What thinkeft thou? will our friends prove all true? Rat. No doubt, my lord.

K. Rich. Ratcliff, I fear, I fear,

Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of shadows. K. Rich. By the apostle Paul, shadows to-night Have ftruck more terror to the foul of Richard, Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers, Armed in proof, and led by shallow Richmond,

i. e. I died for wifhing well to you.


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