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Apulia, which Hannibal had chosen for his battle-ground, the coast with the object of joining hands with his brother in central Roman legions delivered their attack. Hannibal deliberately Italy for a direct attack upon Rome. By this time the drain allowed his centre to be driven in by their superior numbers, of men and money was telling so severely upon her confederacy while Hasdrubal's cavalry wheeled round so as to take the enemy that some of her most loyal allies protested their inability to in flank and rear. The Romans, surrounded on all sides and so render further help. Yet by a supreme effort the Romans cramped that their superior numbers aggravated their plight, raised their war establishment to the highest total yet attained were practically annihilated, and the loss of citizens was perhaps and sent a strong field army against either Carthaginian leader. greater than in any other defeat that befel the Republic. The The danger to Rome was chiefly averted by the prompt insight moral effect of the battle was no less momentous. The south and enterprise of the consul C. Nero, who commanded the main Italian nations at last found courage to secede from Rome, the army in the south. Having discovered that Hannibal would leaders of ihe movement being the people of Capua, the second not advance beyond Apulia until his brother had established greatest town of Italy. Reinforcements were sent from Carthage, communications with him, Nero slipped away with part of his and several neutral powers prepared to throw their weight into troops and arrived in time to reinforce his colleague Livius, the scale on Hannibal's bchalf. At first sight it seems strange whose force had recently got into touch with Hasdrubal near that the battle of Cannae did not decide the war. But the Sena Gallica (Sinigaglia). The combined Roman army frus
rces of Rome, though terribly reduced in respect both trated an attempt of Hasdrubal to elude it and forc of men and of money, were not yet exhausted. In north and fight on the banks of the Metaurus. The battle was evenly central Italy the insurrection spread but little, and could be contested until Nero by a dexterous flanking movement cut the sufficiently guarded against with small detachments. In enemy's retreat. Hasdrubal himself fell and the bulk of his the south the Greek towns of the coast remained loyal, and the army was destroyed. numerous Latin colonies continued to render important service The campaign of 207 decided the war in Italy. Though by interrupting free communication between the rebels and Hannibal still maintained himself for some years in Calabria, detaining part of their forces. In Rome itself the quarrels this was chiefly due to the exhaustion of Rome after the probetween the nobles and commons, which had previously unsettled digious strain of past years and the consequent reduction of her her policy, gave way to a unanimity unparalleled in the annals of armaments. In 203 Italy was finally cleared of Carthaginian the Republic. The guidance of operations was henceforth left troops. Hannibal, in accordance with orders from home, sailed to the senate, which by maintaining a firm and persistent policy back to Africa, and another expedition under his brother Mago. until the conflict was brought to a successful end earned its which had sailed to Liguria in 205 and endeavoured to rouse greatest title to fame..
the slumbering discontent in Cisalpine Gaul and Etruria, was The subsequent campaigns of the Italian War assume a new driven back on the coast and withdrawn about the same time. character. Though the Romans contrived at times to raise 6. The Subsidiary Campaigns.-Concurrently with the great 200,000 men, they could only spare a moderate force for field struggle in Italy the Second Punic War was fought out on several operations. Their generals, among whom the veterans Fabius other fields. It will suffice merely to allude to the First Maceand M. Claudius Marcellus frequently held the most important donian War (214-205) which King Philip V. commenced when commands, rarely ventured to engage Hannibal in the open, the Roman power seemed to be breaking up after Cannae. and contented themselves with observing him or skirmishing The diversions which Roman, diplomacy provided for Philip against his detachments. Hannibal, whose recent accessions in Greece and the maintenance of a patrol squadron in the of strength were largely discounted by the necessity of assigning Adriatic prevented any effective co-operation on his part with troops to protect his new allies or secure their wavering loyalty, Hannibal. was still too weak to undertake a vigorous offensive. In the In view of the complete stagnation of agriculture in Italy ensuing years the war resolved itself into a multiplicity of the Romans had to look to Sardinia and Sicily for their food minor engagements which need not be followed out in detail. | supply. Sardinia was attacked by a Carthaginian .. In 216 and 215 the chief seat of war was Campania, where armament in 215, but a small Roman force sufficed and Sicily
Sardiola Hannibal vainly attempted to establish himself on the coast and to repel the invasion. In Sicily a more serious experienced a severe repulse at Nola. In 214 the main Cartha-conflict broke out. Some isolated attacks by Punic squadrons ginian force was transferred to Apulia in hopes of capturing | were easily frustrated by the strong Roman fleet. But in 215 Tarentum. Though Croton and Locri on the Calabrian coast internal complications arose. The death of Hiero II., Rome's had fallen into his hands, Hannibal still lacked a suitable harbour steadfast friend, left the kingdom of Syracuse to his inexpeby which he might have secured his oversea communications. Forrienced grandson Hieronymus. Flattered by the promises of two years he watched in vain for an opportunity of surprising Carthaginian emissaries the young prince abruptly broke with the town, while the Romans narrowed down the sphere of re- the Romans, but before hostilities commenced he was assasvolt in Campania and defeated other Carthaginian commanders. sinated. The Syracusan people now repudiated the monarchy In 212 the greater part of Tarentum and other cities of the and resumed their republican constitution, but they were southern seaboard at last came into Hannibal's power. But in the misled by false threats of terrible punishment at the hands of same year the Romans found themselves strong enough to place Rome to play into the hands of the Carthaginians. The attacks Capua under blockade. They severely defeated a Carthaginian of a Roman army and fleet under Marcellus which speedily aprelief force, and could not be permanently dislodged even by peared before the town were completely baffled by the mechanical Hannibal himself. In 211 Hannibal made a last effort to relieve contrivances of the Syracusan mathematician Archimedes (213). his allies by a feint upon Rome itself, but the besiegers re- Meantime the revolt against Rome spread in the interior, and fused to be drawn away from their entrenchments, and even a Carthaginian fleet established itself in the towns of the tually Capua was starved into surrender. Its fall was a sign south coast. In 212 Marcellus at last broke through the defence that no power could in the long run uphold a rival Italian of Syracuse and in spite of the arrival of a Carthaginian relief coalition against Rome. Alter a year of desultory fighting the force mastered the town by slow degrees. A guerilla warfare Romans in 200 gained a further important success by recovering succeeded in which the Carthaginians maintained the upper hand Tarentum. Though Hannibal from time to time still won until in 210 they lost their base at Agrigentum. Thereupon they isolated engagements, yet slowly but surely he was being driven were rapidly dislodged from their remaining positions, and by back into the extreme south of the peninsula.
the end of the year Sicily was wholly under the power of Rome. In 207 the arrival of a fresh invading force produced a new The conflict in Spain was second in importance to the Italian crisis. Hasdrubal, who in 200-208 had marched overland from War alone. From this country the Carthaginians drew large Spain, appeared in north Italy with a force scarcely inferior supplies of troops and money which might serve to Selo to thc army which his brother had brought in 278. After levying reinforce Hannibal; hence it was in the interest of the contingents of Gauls and Ligurians he marched down the east 1 Romans to challenge their enemy within his Spanish domain. Though the force which Rome at first spared for this war was invading Italy and using the enemy's home resources against small in numbers and rested entirely upon its own resources, him. The failure of Hannibal's brilliant endeavour to realize these the generals Publius and Gnaeus Scipio by skilful strategy and conditions was not due to any strategical mistakes on his part. diplomacy not only won over the peoples north of the Ebro It was caused by the indomitable strength of will of the Romans, and defeated the Carthaginian leader Hasdrubal Barca in his whose character during this period appears at its best, and attempts to restore communication with Italy, but carried their to the compactness of their Italian confederacy, which no arms along the east coast into the heart of the enemy's domain. shock of defeat or strain of war could entirely disintegrate. It But eventually their successes were nullified by a rash advance. is this spectacle of individual genius overborne by corporate Deserted by their native contingents and cut off by Carthaginian and persevering effort which lends to the Second Punic War its cavalry, among which the Numidian prince Massinissa rendered peculiar interest. conspicuous service, the Roman generals were slain and their The Third Punic War (149–146 B.C.)-The political power troops were destroyed in detail (212 or 211).
of Carthage henceforth remained quite insignificant, but its Disturbances in Africa prevented the Punic commanders commerce and material resources revived in the 2nd century from reaping the full fruit of their success. Before long the with such rapidity as to excite the jealousy of the growing fall of Capua enabled Rome to transfer troops from Italy to mercantile population of Rome and the alarm of its more timid Spain, and in 209 the best Roman general of the day, the young statesmen. Under the influence of these feelings the conviction son and namesake of the recently slain P. Scipio, was placed --sedulously fostered by Cato the Elder, the Censor-that in command. The new leader signalized his arrival by a bold “Carthage must be destroyed ” overbore the scruples of more and successful coup-de-nain upon the great arsenal of Carthago clear-sighted statesmen. A casus belli was readily found in a Nova. Though he failed to prevent Hasdrubal Barca from march- formal breach of the treaty, committed by the Carthaginians ing away to Italy, Scipio profited by his departure to push in 154, when they resisted Massinissa's aggressions by force of back the remaining hostile forces the more rapidly. A last ! arms. A Roman army was despatched to Africa, and although effort by the Carthaginians to retrieve their losses with a fresh | the Carthaginians consented to make reparation by giving army was frustrated by a great victory at Ilipa (near Corduba), hostages and surrendering their arms, they were goaded into and by the end of 206 they were completely driven out of the revolt by the further stipulation that they must emigrate to peninsula.
some inland site where they would be debarred from commerce. In 205 Scipio, who had returned to Rome to hold the consul. By a desperate effort they created a new war equipment and ship, proposed to follow up his victories by an attack upon the prepared their city for a siege (149). The Roman attack for
home territory of Carthage. Though the presence two years completely miscarried, until in 147 the command was The War in Africa of Hannibal in Italy at first deterred the senate given to a young officer who had distinguished himself in the
from sanctioning this policy, the general popularity carly operations of the war-Scipio Aemilianus, the adoptive of the scheme overbore all resistance. Scipio was granted a grandson of the former conqueror of Carthage. force which he organized and supplemented in Sicily, and in blockade stringent by walling off the isthmus on which the town 204 sailed across to Africa. He was here met by a combined | lay and by cutting off its sources of supplies from oversea. levy of Carthage and King Syphax of Numidia, and for a time His main attack was delivered on the harbour side, where he penned to the shore near Utica. But in the winter he extricated effected an entrance in the face of a determined and ingenious himself by a surprise attack upon the enemy's camp, which resistance. The struggle did not cease until he had carried resulted in the total loss of the allied force by sword or flame. house by house the streets that led up to the citadel. Of a In the campaign of 203 a new Carthaginian force was destroyed population probably exceeding half a million only 50,000 by Scipio on the Great Plains not far from Utica, their ally remained at the final surrender. The survivors were sold into Syphax was captured, and the renegade Massinissa (q.v.) rein- slavery; the city was razed to the ground and its site constated in the kingdom from which Syphax had recently expelled demned by solemn imprecations to lie desolate for ever. The him. These disasters induced the Carthaginians to sue for territory of Carthage, which had recently been much narrowed peace, but before the very moderate terms which Scipio offered by Massinissa's encroachments, was converted into a Roman could be definitely accepted a sudden reversal of opinion caused province under the name of “ Africa." them to recall Hannibal's army for a final trial of war, and to
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-I. Ancient Authorities. For the First Punic break off negotiations. In 202 Hannibal assumed command of War Polybius, bk. I, provides a trustworthy and impartial account, a composite force of citizen and mercenary levies stiffened with but owing to his conciseness leaves many problems of chronology a corps of his veteran Italian troops. After an abortive con and strategy unexplained. For the Second War bks. 2 and 3 of ference with Scipio he prepared for a decisive battle at Zama (an
Polybius present a complete and detailed record down to Cannae:
bks. 7-15 contain fragmentary notices of which the most continuous inland site not yet identified with certainty). Scipio's force was
deal with the campaigns of Scipio. Livy (bks. 23-30) gives a consmaller in numbers, but well trained throughout and greatly tinuous and detailed narrative, partly based upon Polybius and superior in cavalry. His infantry, after evading an attack by the other good authorities, partly upon untrustworthy Roman annalists.
The Third War is described in Appian's Res Libycae, chs. 67. sqq., Carthaginian elephants, cut through the first two lines of the
and the fragments of Polybius, bks. 36-39. enemy, but was unable to break the reserve corps of veterans. The subsidiary authorities are: Diodorus, bks. 20-27, 32; Appian, The battle was ultimately decided by the cavalry of the Romans Res Libycae, Hispanicae, Hannibalicae; Zonaras's epitome of Dio and their new ally Massinissa, which by a manæuvre recalling
Cassius, frs. 43, 54, 57; Plutarch's Lives of Fabius and Marcellus; the tactics of Cannae took Hannibal's line in the rear and com
Cornelius Nepos's Lives of Hamilcar and Hannibal, and short
references in Justin, Eutropius, Aurelius Victor and Orosius. The pletely destroyed it. The Carthaginians having thus lost their
sources and methods of composition of these authors have been last army again applied for peace and accepted the terms which discussed in numerous articles and dissertations, mostly German, Scipio offered. They were compelled to cede Spain and the of which the most important are mentioned in Niese's work (quoted Mediterranean islands still in their hands, to surrender their war
below). These essays have brought out few certain results, but
they tend to show that the narratives, so far as they are not based ships, to pay an indemnity of 10,000 talents (about £2,400,000)
on Polybius or earlier authorities, are of little value. within fifty years and to forfeit their independence in affairs 2. Modern Works. a. For general accounts, see the respective of war and foreign policy.
passages in the general histories of Rome, especially Mommsen The Second Punic War, by far the greatest struggle in which
(Eng. trans., 1894, vol. i.), and Ihne (Eng. trans., vol. i.); also
C. Neumann, Das Zeitalte der punischen, Kriege (Breslau, 1883). either power engaged, had thus ended in the complete triumph
wer engaged, had thus ended in the complete triumph and R. B. Smith, Rome and Carthage (London, 1881). of Rome. This triumph is not to be explained in the main.b, For the First War.-0. Meltzer, Geschichte der Karthager, by any faultiness in the Carthaginians' method of attack. The ii. 252-356 (Berlin, 1879-1886); J. Beloch, Griechische Geschichte, history of the First Punic War, and that of the Second outside | vol. ,;. pt. i. pp. 664-684 (Strassburg. 1893–1904); B. Niese,
Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen of Italy, prove that the Romans were irresistible on neutral 199 (Gotha, 1893-1903); W. W. Tarn, “ The Fleets of the First
Staaten, ii, 174or Carthaginian ground. Carthage could only hope to win by Punic War." in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1907), pp. 48-60. For the chronology, sce F. Reuss, in Philologus (1901), pp. 102-148, | permanently one who has injured it, or acting as a deterrent, and especially P. Varese, in Studi di storia antica, vol. iii. (Rome, 1902).
or (2) aims at the moral regeneration of the criminal. Thus the 'c. For the period 241-238.-0. Gilbert, Rom und Karthago retributive theory of punishment with its criterion of justice as 513-536 A.U.C. (Leipzig, 1876); Meltzer, op. cit. ii. 357-456.
an end in itself gives place to a theory which regards punishment d. For the Second War.-T. Arnold, The Second Punic War |
solely as a means to an end, utilitarian or moral, according as (ed. W. T. Arnold: London, 1886); T. A. Dodge, Great Captains, | Hannibal (Boston and New York, 1889); G. Bossi, in Sludi di
the common advantage or the good of the criminal is sought. storia e dirillo, vols. x.-xiii.; P. Cantalupi, Le Legioni romane nella AUTHORITIES.-Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles guerra d'Annibale (Studi di storia antica, 1891, i. 3-48); Th. Zielinski, of Morality and Legislation: Henry Maine, Ancient Law; C. B. de Die letzten Jahre des zweiten punischen Krieges (Leipzig, 1880).
Beccaria,Crimes and Punishments; also works quoted under CRIMINOe. Special articles.-On Sicily: Niese, op. cit. ii. 505-561. On
LOGY; CAPITAL PUNISHMENT; Prison; and articles on e.g. ROMILLY, Spain : J. Frantz, Die Kriege der Scipionen in Spanien (Munich,
SIR SAMUEL and HOWARD, JOHN. 1883).
For further bibliographical references consult B. Niese, Grundriss PUNJAB, a province of British India, so named from the der römischen Geschichte, pp. 81-88, 94-108, 138-142 (Munich, " five rivers " by which it is watered: the Jhelum, Chenab, 1906). See also the articles on chief personages (especially HANNIBAL and Scipio), and under ROME: Ancient History;
| Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all tributaries of the Indus. GeographicCARTHAGE; SICILY.
(M. O. B. C.) ally the Punjab is the triangular tract of country of which
the Indus and the Sutlej to their confluence form the two sides, PUNISHMENT (from Lat. punire, to punish, from poena, the base being the lower Himalaya hills between those two punishment, Gr. Trouv), the infliction of some kind of pain or rivers; but the British province. now includes a large tract outside loss upon a person for a misdeed, i.e. the transgression of a law those boundaries. Along the northern border Himalayan or command. Punishment may take forms varying from capital ranges divide it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it is punishment, flogging and mutilation of the body to imprison- separated from the North-West Frontier province by the Indus, ment, fincs, and even deferred sentences which come into opera until that river reaches the border of Dera Ghazi Khan district, tion only if an offence is repeated within a specified time. The which is divided from Baluchistan by the Suliman range. To progress of civilization has resulted in a vast change alike in the south lie Sind and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers the theory and in the method of punishment. In primitive Jumna and Tons separate it from the United Provinces. society punishment was left to the individuals wronged or their The Punjab includes two classes of territory, that belonging families, and was vindictive or retributive: in quantity and to the British Crown, and that in possession of 34 feudatory quality it would bear no special relation to the character or chiefs, almost all of whom pay tribute. The total area,
Political gravity of the offence. Gradually there would arise the idea of the province is 133,741 sq. m., of which 97,200 sq. m. Plutste
Divisloos. of proportionate punishment, of which the characteristic type are British territory, and the remainder belongs to is the ler lalionis,' “an eye for an eye.” The second stage native states. The British territory is divided into 29 districts, was punishment by individuals under the control of the state, grouped under the five divisions of Delhi, Lahore, Jullundur, or community; in the third stage, with the growth of law, the Rawalpindi and Multan; while the native states vary in size state took over the primitive function and provided itself with from Bahawalpur, with an area of 15,000 sq. m., to the tiny the machinery of “justice” for the maintenance of public state of Darkoti, with an area of 8 sq. m. and a total populaorder. Henceforward crimes are against the state, and the tion of 518 souls. They may be grouped under three main heads: exaction of punishment by the wronged individual is illegal the Phulkian states of Patiala, Jind and Nabha and the Sikh (cf. LYNCH Law). Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive state of Kapurthala, occupying the centre of the eastern plains; character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially the Mahommedan state of Bahawalpur between the Sut after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria the Rajputana desert; and the hill states, among the Punjab and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge. Two | Himalayas held by ancient Rajput families, including Chamba, chief trains of thought have combined in the condemnation Mandi, Suket, Sirmur and the Simla states. of primitive theory and practice. On the one hand the retribus Physical Features.-The mountain regions of the Punjab tive principle itself has been very largely superseded by the fall under four separate groups. To the north-east of the proprotective and the reformative; on the other punishments vince lies the Himalayan system, with the fringing range of involving bodily pain have become objectionable to the general the Siwaliks at its foot. In the south-eastern corner the Aravalli sense of society. Consequently corporal and even capital system sends out insignificant outliers, which run across Gurgaon punishment occupy a far less prominent position, and tend and Delhi districts and strike the Jumna at Delhi. The lower everywhere to disappear. It began to be recognized also that portion of the western frontier is constituted by the great stereotyped punishments, such as belong to penal codes, fail Suliman chain; while the north-western districts of the province to take due account of the particular condition of an offence are traversed by the hill system known as the Salt range. The and the character and circumstances of the offender. A fixed mountain system of the Himalayas, so far as it concerns the fine, for example, operates very unequally on rich and poor. Punjab, consists primarily of three great ranges running in a
Modern theories date írom the 18th century, when the humani- generally north-westerly direction from the head-wa tarian movement began to teach the dignity of the individual Sutlej to the Indus: the western Himalayas or Zanskar or Bara and to emphasize his rationality and responsibility. The Lacha range, the mid-Himalayas or Pir Panjal range, and the result was the reduction of punishment both in quantity and in outer or sub-Himalayas. From these three great ranges spring severity, the improvement of the prison system, and the first numerous minor ranges, as ribs from a backbone, the whole attempts to study the psychology of crime and to distinguish forming a confused system of mountain chains and valleys, between classes of criminals with a view to their improvement (see the breadth of which is some 90 m. at its eastern extremity from CRIME; PRISON; CHILDREN'S COURTS; JUVENILE OFFENDERS). Lahul to the Siwaliks of Hoshiarpur, and some 150 m. measured These latter problems are the province of criminal anthropology at its western extremity across Kashmir. and criminal sociology, sciences so called because they view The “ five rivers" of the Punjab are each of large volume; crime as the outcome of anthropological and social conditions. but, on account of the great width of sandy channel in their The man who breaks the law is himself a product of social passage through the plains, their changing courses,
The Five evolution and cannot be regarded as solely responsible for his and shifting shoals, they are of no value for steam Rivers. disposition to transgress. Habitual crime is thus to be treated navigation, though they all support a considerable as a disease. Punishment can, therefore, be justified only in boat-traffic. Of recent years most of them have been utilized so far as it (1) protects society by removing temporarily or for purposes of irrigation, and have turned the sandy desert of
1 Talio, in juridical Latin, the abstract noun from talis, such, ? This idea combined with the retributive is found as early as alike, hence "retaliation.", See Exod. xxi. 24; Lev. xxiv. 20; Deut. xix. 20, " And those which remain shall hear and fear, and Deut. xix. 21
I shall henceforth commit no more any such evil."
the Punjab into one of the great wheat fields of the British by Mahommedan tribes, and it is in this tract that irrigation has Empire.
worked such great changes. The Chenab and Jhelum Canal colonies
are already pronounced successes, and it is hoped that in process While the general name Punjab is applied to the whole
of time the Lower Bari Doab and the Sind-Sagar Doab will be country of the “five rivers," there are distinct names for each similarly fertilized. The submontane tract, skirting the foot of of the doabs (do, two; ab, water) or tracts between two adjoining the hills, has an area of 10,000 sq. m., consisting of some of the most rivers. The country between the Sutlej and the Beas is called
fertile and thickly populated portions of the province. Its popula
tion comes midway between the peoples of the hills and of the plains the Jullundur Doab; it includes the districts of Jullundur
in race, religion and language, Mahommedanism being less prevalent, and Hoshiarpur. The long strip between the Beas and the | Hindi more generally spoken, and Rajputs and hill menials more Ravi, containing the greater part of Gurdaspur, Amritsar, common than in the plains. The Gujars form a special feature of Lahore, Montgomery, and Multan districts, is called the Bari
this zone. Its only large town is Sialkot. The Salt range tract
includes the districts of Rawalpindi and Jhelum and a small portion Doab. Rechna Doab is the tract between the Ravi and the
of Shahpur district, and consists of some 9000 sq. m. of broken Chenab, embracing Sialkot and Gujranwala districts, with the
and confused country. trans-Ravi portions of the districts of the Bari Doab. Chai Geology.--By far the greater part of the Punjab is covered by or Jech is the doab between the Chenab and the Jhelum (Gujrat
alluvial and wind-blown deposits of the plain of the Indus. The and Shahpur districts and part of Jhang), and Sind Sagar
Salt range hills form a plateau with a steeply scarped face to the
south, along which there is an axis of abrupt folding, accompanied is the name of the large doab between the Jhelum and the
by faulting. The rocks found in the Salt range belong to the Indus, including Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Muzaffargarh dis Cambrian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic systems, tricts, with parts of Shahpur, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan. while Tertiary beds cover the plateau behind. The extensive and
valuable deposits of salt, from which the range takes its name, The higher and dryer parts of the doabs are called bar. They
occur near the base of the Cambrian beds. Gypsum, kieserite and are waste, but not barren, scantily covered with low shrubs, Lother salts are also found
other salts are also found. Between the Cambrian and the Carboni
R and capable, when watered, of being well cultivated. The bar ferous beds there is an unconformity, which, however, is not very is the great camel-grazing land. Large areas of Muzaffargarh strongly marked, in spite of the lapse of time which it indicates. and Multan districts are thal, barren tracts of shifting sand.
At the bottom of the Carboniferous series there is usually a boulder
bed, the boulders in which have been brought from a distance and The middle part of the Bari Doab, in Amritsar district bears
are scratched and striated as if by ice. It is generally admitted the distinctive name of Manjha (middle) as the centi, and that this deposit, together with contemporaneous boulder beds in headquarters of the Sikh nation, containing their two sacred the peninsula of India, in Australia and in South Africa, indicate tanks of Amritsar and Taran Taran. The Malwa Sikhs,
a southern glacial period in late Carboniferous times. Above the again, are those of the cis-Sutlei country.
sandstone series at the base of which the boulder bed lies, come
the Productus and Ceratite limestones. The former is believed to South of the Himalayas stretch the great plains, which belong to the Upper Carboniferous and Permian, the latter to the constitute by far the larger proportion of the province. With Trias. Jurassic beds are found only in the western portion of the exception of the Himalayan and Salt range
the range. The Punjab tracts the Punjab presents, from the Jumna on the
Climate.-Owing to its sub-tropical position, scanty rainfall Plalas.
and cloudless skies, and the wide expanse of untilled plains, the east to the Sulimans in the west, one vast level, climate of the Punjab presents greater extremes of both heat and unbroken save by the wide eroded channels within which the cold than any other part of India. From the middle of April to great rivers ever shift their beds, by the insignificant spurs of
the middle of September it is extremely hot, while from the begin
ning of October to the end of March there is a magnificent cool the Aravalli range in the south-eastern corner, and the low
season, resembling that of the Riviera, with warm bright days hills of Chiniot and Kirana in Jhang. The whole of these vast and cool nights. Frosts are frequent in January. In the first plains is of alluvial formation. Stones are unknown save at three months of the hot season, from April till the end of June, the immediate foot of the hills; micaceous river sand is to be a dry, heat is experienced, with a temperature rising to 120° F. in
| the shade. At the end of June the monsoon arrives, the rains found everywhere at varying depths; and the only mineral is
break, and though the heat is less intense the air is moist, nodular accretions of limestone, called kankar, which is used and from the middle of August the temperature gradu for the construction of roads. The soil is a singularly uniform This is the most unhealthy period of the year, being exceedingly loam, the quality being determined by the greater or smaller
malarious. The Punjab enjoys two well-marked seasons of rain.
fall; the monsoon period, lasting from the middle of June till the proportion of sand present. In the local hollows and drainage
end of September, on which the autumn crops and spring sowings lines the constant deposit of argillaceous particles has produced depend; and the winter rains, which fall early in January, and though a stiff tenacious soil, especially adapted to rice cultivation, often insignificant in amount materially affect the prosperity of while in the beds of the great rivers, and on the wind-fretted
the spring harvest. Excepting in the Himalayas the rainfall is
greatest in the east of the province, as the Bombay monsoon is water-sheds pure sand is commonly found. Where neither
exhausted in its passage over the great plains of Sind and Raj. sand nor the saline efflorescence called reh is present, the soil
putana, while the west winds from Baluchistan pass over an arid is uniformly fertile, if only the rainfall be sufficient or means tract and leave such moisture as they may have collected on the of irrigation be available. Throughout the greater part of the western slopes of the Suliman range; so that th
for its rain very largely on the south-east winds from the Bay of western plains, however, the insufficiency of rainfall is a
Bengal. The submontane tract has an annual average of 36 to permanent condition; and until recently the uniform aspect 32 in., the eastern plains vary from 20 to 14 in., and the western of the country was that of wide steppes of intrinsically fertile plains from 10 to 5 in. soil, useful, however, only as grazing grounds for herds of
I Minerals.-Besides rock-salt, the mineral products of the Punjab camels or cattle.
are not many. Limestone, good for building, is obtained at
Chiniot on the Chenab and at a few other places. There are exThe Punjab may be divided into four great natural divisions : tensive alum-beds at Kalabagh on the Indus. A small quantity the Himalayan tract, the submontane tract, the eastern and of coal is found in the Salt range in disconnected beds, the Dandot
western plains and the Salt range tract, which have colliery in the Jhelum district being worked by the North-Western Natural
characteristics widely different from each other. The railway. Petroleum is found in small quantities at a number of Divisioas. Hi
vas. Himalayan tract, which includes the Punjab hill states, places in Rawalpindi, being gathered from the surface of pools consists of 20,000 sq. m. of sparsely inhabited mountain, with tiny or collected in shallow pits. In almost all parts of the Punjab hamlets perched on the hill-sides or nestling in the valleys The there is kankar, rough nodular limestone, commonly found in thick people consist chiefly of Rajputs, Kanets, Ghiraths, Brahmaos and beds, a few feet below the surface of the ground, used for road Dagis or menials. The castern and western plains, which are divided metal and burned for lime. from each other by a line passing through Lahore, are dissimilar Agriculture. -As in other parts of India, there are commonly in character. The eastern are arable plains of moderate rainfall two harvests in the year. The spring crops are wheat, barley. and almost without rivers, except along their northern and eastern gram, various vegetables, oil-seeds, tobacco and a little poppy: edges. They are inhabited by the Hindu races of India, and contain the autumn crops are rice, millets, maize, pulses, cotton, indigo the great cities of Delhi, Amritsar and Lahore. They formed, and sugar-cane. Wheat has become the most important export until the recent spread of irrigation, the most fertile, wealthy and of the province. In the spring of 1906 an area of 84 million acres populous portion of the province. The western plains, except was harvested, producing 3 million tons. Tea is cultivated in where canal irrigation has been introduced, consist of arid pastures Kangra district. Flax has been produced successfully, but the with scanty rainfall, traversed by the five great rivers, of which the cultivation has not been extended. Hops have been grown exbroad valleys alone are cultivable. They are inhabited largely perimentally, for the Murree brewery, on neighbouring hills; the
cultivation in Kashmir has been more encouraging. Potatoes and thence to the sea at Karachi; while a third runs along the are grown extensively on cleared areas on the hills. The Punjab | left bank of the Indus, from Attock southwards. From Delhi to produces freely many of the Indian fruits. Grapes are grown in Umballa there are two lines, one of the North-Western through many of the Himalayan valleys where the rain is not excessive; Meerut and Saharanpur in the United Provinces, and a more but they are inferior to those brought from Kabul.
direct one, which is continued to Kalka, at the foot of the hills, Foresis. The forest area of the Punjab consists of 9278 sq. m., | whence a further continuation to Simla has been opened. The of which 1916 sq. m. are reserved and 4909 sq. m. protected. The south-east of the province is served by two branches of the Rajputana wasteful destruction of trees is checked in the hill forests rented from system, which have their termini at Delhi and Ferozepore; and also native states by the British government. The principal reserved | by the Southern Punjab, which runs from Delhi to Bahawalpur. forests are the deodar (Cedrus Deodara) and chil (Pinus longifolia) tracts in the hills, the plantations of shisham (Dalbergia Šissu) Population. The total population of the Punjab (including and sal (Shorea robusta) in the plains, and the fuel rakhs or preserves
native states) according to the census of 1901 was 24,754,737, (Acacia, Prosopis, &c.). Manufactures.-Most of the native manufactures of the Punjab
showing an increase of 6.4% in the decade. The Jats, who are those common to other parts of India, such as the ordinary
number some five millions, form the backbone of the cultivating cotton fabrics, plain woollen blankets, unglazed pottery, ropes and community. Large numbers of them have become Sikhs cord, grass matting, paper, leather-work, brass vessels, simple or Mahommedans in the tracts where those religions predomiagricultural implements and the tools used in trades. Other manu
nate. The Rajputs, with a total of over a million and threefactures, not so general, yet not peculiar to the Punjab, are woollen fabrics, carpets and shawls, silk cloths and embroidery, jewelry
quarters, comprise tribes of different religions, races and social and ornamental metal-work, wood and ivory carving, turned and systems. By religion they are mostly Mahommedan, only lacquered woodwork, glazed pottery, arms and armour and musical about one-fourth being Hindus, while a very few are Sikhs. instruments. But some of these classes of manufacture are repre
By race they include the ancient ruling tribes of the Jumna sented by work of special kinds or special excellence in particular parts of the Punjab, notably the silk fabrics of Multan and Bahawal.
valley, the Tomar and Chauhan, which gave Delhi its most pur: the carpets of Lahore and Amritsar; the kashi or glazed tile famous Hindu dynasties; the Bhattis of the south and work (an ancient art still practised in a few places); kofl-kari, centre, which have migrated from Bikanir and Jeysulmere into inlaid metal-work (gold wire on steel), chiefly made at Gujrat and
their present seats; the Sials of Jhang; and the Punwars of Sialkot; shawls and other fine woollen fabrics, made by Kashmiri work-people at Ludhiana and Nurpur, as well as in Kashmir; silk
the south-west. In the northern or submontane districts the embroidery for shawls, scarfs and turbans, at Delhi, Lahore and Rajputs also represent the old ruling tribes, such as the Chibbs Multan; embroidery on cloth for elephant-trappings, bed and of Gujrat, the Janjuas of the Salt range and others, while in table covers, &c., at Lahore and Multan; enamelled ornaments,
Kangra district they preserve a very old type of Hindu aristoin Kangra and Multan; quill embroidery on leacher, in Kangra and Simla; lacquered wood work, at Pak Pattan. Cotton-weaving
cracy. The Gujars are an important agricultural and pastoral gives employment to about a million persons, but the most flourish | tribe. They are most numerous in the eastern half of the ing industry is the woollen factories of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and province and in the districts of the extreme north-west, especielsewhere. Injury has been done to some of the native aris of the
ally in Gujrat, to which they have given their name. Baluchis Punjab, as of other parts of India, by unwise copying of European patterns. The Lahore School of Art attempts to correct this and
| and Pathans are strongly represented in the south-west. The promote the study and execution of native forms and designs. distinctive religion of the Punjab is Sikhism (9.0.), though Sikhs The Lahore Museum contains illustrations of the arts and manu-l form only 8.5% of the total population. Of the rest, Mahomfactures, as well as raw products, of the Punjab; and also a large
medans are more numerous than Hindus. collection of the sculptures, mostly Buddhist, and many of Greek workmanship, found in the north-west of the province.
Language.-Of the 24,754,737 people in the Punjab about Trade.---The trade of the Punjab is almost wholly dependent 18,000,000 speak the provincial language, Punjabi, which varies upon agriculture. In a normal year the principal feature of the in character in different parts of the province. About 4,000,000 trade is the movement of wheat to Karachi, which is the chief speak Hindustani (see HINDOSTANI), this number including those port for the province. But in a bad season, when the rains fail, this movement is at once checked, the wheat is held up in reserve
whose ordinary vernacular is Hindi, but who understand and are and an eastward movement in cheaper grains begins. In 1904
gradually adopting the more comprehensive Hindustani. These 32 million maunds of wheat were exported, but 1905 was a bad two languages are the most generally used throughout the season and the amount fell to 21 million maunds. The other
province, but not equally in all parts. The other languages in chief articles of export are pulse and raw cotton. The chief imports are European cotton and woollen piece-goods and yarn, Indian
use are more or less local. The hill dialects, known as Pahari, are piece-goods, sugar, metals and jute goods. The through trade in | akin to the language spoken in Rajputana; and so also is the the main staples of grain and piece-goods is in the hands of large speech of the Gujars. Hindustani is the language of the law European and native firms. In addition to the foreign trade there courts and of all ordinary officials and other communications is a considerable provincial trade with the United Provinces, and a trans-frontier trade with Kashmir, Ladakh, Yarkand and Tibet
with chiefs and people. on the north, and with Alghanistan on the west.
Administralion. The administration is conducted by a Irrigation.-Irrigation for large areas is from canals and from lieutenant-governor, who is appointed by the governor-general, reservoirs, and for smaller areas from wells. The canals are of subject to the approval of the Crown. Two commissioners two kinds: those carrying a permanent stream throughout the take the place of the board of revenue in most other provinces. year, and those which hill only on the periodical rising of the rivers, the latter being known as "inundation canals."
A survival of the “non-regulation " system is to be found in the
There are only a few parts of the country presenting facilities for forming reservoirs,
title of deputy-commissioner for the district officer elsewhere by closing the narrow outlets of small valleys and storing the ac called collector. The highest judicial authority is styled the cumulated rainfall. The old canals made by the Mahommedan chief court, consisting of five judges, which corresponds to the rulers, of which the principal are Feroz's Canal from the Jumna and the Hasli Canal from the Ravi, have been improved or re
high court elsewhere. A legislative council, first created in constructed by the British government. The principal new canals
1897, was enlarged in 1909 to 26 members, of whom ten are are the Sirhind, drawn from the Sutlej near Rupar, which irrigates officials and five are elected. The province is distributed into parts of the native states of Patiala, Nabha and Jhind, as well as five divisions or commissionerships. Most of the commissioners British territory; the Bari Doab Canal from the Ravi; the Chenab Canal from the Chenab, irrigating the prosperous Chenab colony;
also exercise political functions over the native states within and the Jhelum Canal irrigating the Jhelum colony. The total
their jurisdiction. area irrigated by the canals of the province in 1905-1906 was Education.--The Punjab University, which was founded in 6,914,500 acres, the eight major works, the Western Jumna, Bari. 1882, differs from other Indian universities in being more than a Doab, Sirhind, Lower Chenab, Lower Jhelum, Upper Sutlej,
merely examining body. It is responsible for the management Sidh nai and Indus accounting for all but 751,000 acres. The ravages of the boll-worm in the cotton crop made 1906 an unfavourable
of the Oriental College at Lahore, and takes a part in the improveyear; but in spite of that the Lower Chenab Canal paid nearly 21% ment of vernacular literature. It also conducts Oriental examion the capital invested, the Bari Doab 11 % and the Western nations side by side with those in English, and has been the first Jumna nearly 10%
to introduce a series of examinations in science from matriculaRailways.The Punjab is well supplied with railways, which tion to the degree, as well as a final school examination in clerical have their central terminus at Delhi. One main line of the NorthWestern runs from Umballa through Lahore and Rawalpindi and commercial subjects. The higher and special educational towards Peshawar; another main line runs from Lahore to Multan, I institutions are the Labore Government College, the Cambridge