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By CHARLES J. CHAMBERLAIN
Second edition, revised and much enlarged; 272 pages, with 88 Illustrations, 8vo, cloth; net $2.25,

postpaid $2.39 'HE first complete manual to be published on the subject of botanical micro

technique. It contains detailed directions for collecting and preparing plant material for microscopic investigation, setting forth the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods.

"Will no doubt find a place in every well-regu- “It is an excellent book for the individual lated library, and will be found very useful by worker and for classes in colleges." - Education. private students." - Plant World. A Laboratory Guide in Bacteriology

By PAUL G. HEINEMANN 158 pages, Interleaved, with 37 illustrations, 12mo, cloth; net $1.50, postpald $1.61 CLEAR and concise presentation of bacteriological technique, designed prinA cipally as a manual for the medical student, but highly useful also as a reference book for the biological teacher and investigator, as well as for practical workers in the fields of medicine and hygiene.

"The instruction given is clear and accurate, The directions are clear and concise, and every and the practical exercises are well selected." – stage is described so carefully that it is hard to see The Lancet (London).

how the student can go astray. Physicians who "A book such as this must facilitate very greatly

are rusty in bacteriology cannot do better than buy the practical class work, for which it is most ex

this little book. The book is beautifully printed

and bound.” – American Journal of Clinical Medicellently adapted." — American Journal of Medical

cine. Sciences.

Animal Micrology:
Practical Exercises in Microscopical Methods

By MICHAEL F. GUYER

250 pages, 8vo, cloth: net $1.75, postpaid $1.88 'HE title of this book will explain its scope. It is intended as a laboratory

manual for textbook use. Its aim is to introduce the student to the technique of microscopic anatomy and embryology, emphasizing details of procedure rather than descriptions of reagents or apparatus. Sufficient account of the theoretical side of microscopy is given to enable the student to get satisfactory results from his microscope.

The directions are simple, explicit, and com- A concise, eminently practical, and well-classiplete. — American Journal of Clinical Medicine. fied treatment. - Science.

The medical student will find it very useful as a The expositions of the methods recommended guide to microscopic work. – Journal of the Amer- are admirably clear. - Nature. ican Medical Association.

One of the best and most practical works upon This is one of the cleanest works on microscop- microscopic technique with which we are acical technique we have ever seen, and is especially quainted. — American Naturalist. suitable for the beginner. It is full of points, As a textbook it can hardly be improved. The tricks of technique not mentioned in other works, research worker will find in this book just the inand is one that every student and physician should formation he frequently needs in preparing mahave. — Medical Century

terial with which he is not familiar. — School This valuable book is strong through its rigid

Review. exclusion of the trite and the conflicting. It is It does present in very clear form a judicious lucid and helpful, because a man long practiced in selection of methods, including an excellent unpractical work has given what he believes the technical account of the microscope and its optical most expeditious and reliable method of obtaining principles, adequate for the undergraduate course a definite and comprehensive result. — Medical in histology. – Journal of Comparative Neurology Notes and Queries.

and Psychology ADDRESS DEPT. 62

Chicago

The University of Chicago Press

New York

A Monthly Journal, established in 1867, Devoted to the Advancement of the Biological Sciences

with Special Roference to the Factors of Organic Evolution and Heredity

CONTENTS OF THE MAY NUMBER

The Categories of Variation. Professor 8. J. HOLXIS

The General Entomological Ecology of the Indian Con

Plant. S. A. FORBES.

CONTENTS OF THE APRIL NUMBER
Heredity of Hair Color in Man, GERTRUDE C. DAVEN-

PORT and CHARLES C. DAVENPORT.
A Mechanism for Organic Correlation. Professor G, H.

PARKER.
Recent Advances in the Study of Vascular Anatomy.

Vascular Anatomy and the Reproductive Structures.

Professor John M, COULTER.
The Progress of Plant Anatomy During the Last

Decade. Professor EDWARD C, JEPFREY.
Shorter Articles and Correspondence: A Note on the

Degree of Accuracy of the Biometric Constants, DR.
RAYMOND PEARL Pure Strains as Artifacts of

Breeding. O. F. COOK.
Notes and Literature: Heredity-The Nature of "Upit"

Characters, Dr. W. J. SPILLMAN, Environment
DR. FRANK E. LUTZ. Erperimental Zoology-iy-
bridology and Gynandromorphism, Professor T. H.
MORGAN. Echinodermata-Red Sea Crinoids, DR.
AUSTIN HOBART CLARK,

Notes and Literature: Biometrics-Some Recent Studies

on Growth. DR. RAYMOND PEARL Firperimental
Zoology-Cuénot on the Honey Bee, Professor T. H.
MORGAN. The Upholding of Darwin-Poulton and
Plate on Evolution, V. L. K.

OONTENTS OF THE JUNE NUMBER
Heredity and Variation in the Simplest Organisms.

Professor H. S. JENNINGS.
The Color Sense of the Honey Bee - Is Conspicuous

ness an Advantage to Flowers? JOHN H. LOVELL. Variation in the Number of Seeds per Pod in the

Broom, Cytisus scoparius. Doctor J. ARTHUR

HARRIS.
Present Problems in Plant Ecology:

The Trend of Ecological Philosophy. Professor
HENRY C. COWLES.
The Present Problems of Physiological Plant

Ecology. DR. BURTOX LIVINGSTON,
Notes and Literature: Notes on Evolution, V. L. K.

De Vries's Species and Varieties, DR. GEORGE F
SHULL. Embryology - On the Totipotence of
the First Two Blastomeres of the Frog's Egg.
DR. J. F, NCCLENDON.

CONTENTS OF THE JULY NUMBER
Selection Index Numbers and their Use in Breeding.

Dr. RAYMOND PEARL and FRAXK M. SURFACE
A Contribution to the Theory of Orthogenesis. De

ALEXANDER G, RUTUVEN.
The "Presence and Absence" Hypothesis. Dr. GBORGE

HARRISON SHULL
Prosent Problems in Plant Ecology : Vegetation and

Altitude. Professor CHARLES H. SHAW.
Shorter Articles and Correspondence : Pleistocene

Swamp Deposits in Virginia Dr. EDWARD W.

BERRY.
Notes and Literature: Heredity-- A Case of Non-Ne-

delian Heredity. Dr. W. J. SPILLHAN.

CONTENTS OF THE AUGUST NUMBER
The New Flora of Krakatau. Professor DOUGLAS

HOUGHTOX CAMPBELL
A Male Crayfish with Some Female Organs. Professor

E, A. ANDREWS.
Present Problems in Plant Ecology :
Problems of Local Distribution on Arid Regions

Professor VOLNEY M. SPAULDING,
The Relation of the Climatic Factors to Vegetation.

Professor EDGAR N. TRANSEAU.
Notes and Literature: Recent Experiments on the In-

heritance of Coat Colors in Mice, Professor T, H,
MORGAN. Some Experiments in Breeding Slugs.
Professor T. D. A. COCKERELL.

CONTENTS OF SEPTEMBER NUMBER
On an Early Tertiary Land-connection between North

and South America, Dr. R. F. SCHARY.
Notes on the Relations of the Molluscan Faups of the

Peruvian Zoological Province. Dr. WILLIAN HE

LEY DALL
Damerbahia Develonment of Starfishes on the Northwest

American Coast : Hybridism ; Multiplicity of RETE
Teratology : Problems in Evolution ; Geographical

Distribution : Professor A, E VERRILL
Shorter Articles and Correspondence : Is there a San

tive Elimination of Ovaries in the Fruiting of the

Leguminosæ : Dr. R. HARRIS.
Notes and Literature: Ichthyology-Ichthyological Notes,

President DAVID STARR JORDAX. Parasitology
Professor H, B. WARD. Plant CytologT he Per
manence of Chromosomes in Plant Celle. Dr. BRAD
LEY M. DAVIS.

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Important New Scientific Books Botany

PUBLISHED BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

The Origin of a Land Flora. A Theory based upon the facts of Alternation.
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Cloth, gilt top, zi+727 pp., illus., index, 8vo, $5.50 net. NOTE.-A profound study in the morphology of the lowest forms of plants, with special reference to the development of their reproductive systems. The author endeavors to show that the present land fora has originated from an aquatic ancestor, and traces the methods of specialization to the land babit, and the establishment of the forms of the higher plants. A book of the highest importance not only to botanists but to biologists in general.

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THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST

Vol. XLIII

November, 1909

No. 515

THE AMERICAN TOAD (BUFO LENTIGINOSUS

AMERICANUS, LECONTE)

A STUDY IN DYNAMIC BIOLOGY

NEWTON MILLER

CLARK UNIVERSITY

INTRODUCTION

For some years it has been my desire to inaugurate a series of university theses aimed distinctively at studying important American species as forces in nature. This kind of work has seemed to me logically the next step in the advance of American natural history. In fact, it is hard to imagine any other line of real advance possible. Species are not discovered, determined, named and classified for the mere sake of making it possible for people to learn their names.

No matter how common the species, when we ask the questions: What does it do in the economy of nature? What position does it occupy in the vital organization of American natural history? What are its relations to human interests? In short, what expression have we of the species as a force in nature? When we ask these questions of the commonest animals, we find ourselves almost as near the verge of human knowledge as with an undiscovered species. No less a man than Darwin himself led off in the field of dynamic biology with his study of "Earthworms and Vegetable Mould.” A

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