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Sub-family Citharinina Taxonomy, fossil forms; Eocene. Cope, Curimatus and allied forms. TaronE. D. 1885.1, 1886.2; Woodward, A. S. omy; revision. Eigenmann, C. H. & R. S. 1896.4.
Family Gymnotidæ SUB-ORDER OSTARIOPHYSI
For a map showing the distribution of the Taronomy. -- Eventognathi (Catosto- Gumnotida, see Meek, A. 1916.1 (p. 172). mida, Cobitidæ, Cyprinidæ). Gill, T. N. Taxonomy. - Revision. Eigenmann,
1862.14. --- Cyprinoidea (Characiformes, C. H. & Ward, D. P. 1905.1. - MonoGumnotiformes, and Cypriniformes). Re- graph.' *Ellis, M. M. 1913.1. - Place in gan. C. T. 1911.5. --- Revision; African system. Fritsch, G. T. 1878.1. --: species. Boulenger, G. A. Add. 1909.1. Synopsis. Kaup, J. J. 1856.7. - Argen- Fossil forms. Woodward, A. S. 1889.2.
tine species. Lahille, F. 1910.2. -- Species
in Vienna Museum. Steindachner, F. Family Characinidæ
1868.1. - Amazonian forms. Wallace, For maps showing the geographical dis- A. R. 1853.1. tribution of the Characinidæ, see Boulenger, Phylogeny and manner of life. SchleG. A. 1904.7 (p. 576), and Meek, A. singer, G. 1910.1. 1916.1 (p. 172).
Gymnotus (Electric Eel). Natural hisTaxonomy, general treatises, reviews, and
tory, descriptions, mode of capture, etc. synopses. Kner, R. 1859.2; Müller, J. &
Bajon, - 1774.1, 1779.1;
Broussonet, P. Troschel, F. H. 1844.1, 1845.1;
M. 1782.2; Bryant, W. 1786.1; Fahlhardt, J. T. 1866.1; Steindachner, F. &
berg, S. 1801.1; Flagg, H. C. 1786.1; Kner, R. 1859.1. - Annotated list of
Fritsch, G. T. 1879.1; Garden, A. 1775.1; specimens in U.S. Nat. Mus. Eigenmann, C. H. & Ogle, F. 1907.1.
Guisan, F. L. 1797.1, 1819.1; Harting, P. - Species in
– Philad. Acad. Fowler, H. W. 1906.4.
Humboldt, F. & Bonpland, A.
1805.1, 1820.1; Hunter, J. 1775.1; Janin South American species. Eigenmann, C.
de St. Just, - 1821.1; Linden, C. 1879.1; H. 1907.1; Lütken, C. F. 1874.1, 1875.1;
Lindes, L. 1880.1;
SteinUlrey, A. B. (Brazilian) 1895.1;
1760.1; Paez, R. 1863.1; Quelch, J. J. dachner, F. (Amazonian) 1876.1, 1877.1.
1897.1; Samo, J. 1837.1; Anon. 186; -- Differential characters of Characinoids and Erythrinoids. Gill, T. N. 1896.1.
Gronovius, L. T. Add. 1758.1; Schilling, Revision of the genera Chalceus, Copeina,
G. W. Add. 1769.1, Add. 1770.2.
Natural history accounts in Pre-Linnaan Pogonocharax, and Pyrrhulina. Regan,
section. Acuña, C. 1758.1; Allamand, J. C. T. 1912.20. - Revision; African
N. 1756.1; Berkel, A. 1693.1: Richer, species. Boulenger, G. A. Add. 1909.1.
J. 1729.1; Sundius, P. 1748.1; Warren, * Fossil. - Onchosaurus of Cretaceous
G. 1667.1. considered ancestral form. Eastman, C.R.
For anatomy and functions of electrical Add. 1917.1.
organs, see under Electrical Fishes. Sub-family Erythrining
Family Cyprinidæ Taxonomy; review. Eigenmann, C. H. & R. S. 1889.9.
For a map showing the geographical dis
tribution of the Cyprinidæ, see Meek, A. Sub-family Hydrocyonina
1916.1 (p. 172). " Alestes. List of species. Boulenger, G. For all hybrid forms, see under Hybrids. A. 1901.13.
Natural history. Leonhardt, E. E. Chirodon. - Taxonomic rerision of 1903.3; Neydeck, K. J. 1848.1. South American species of Chirodon and
Nomenclature. Bleeker, P. 1863.14. related forms. Eigenmann, C. H. 1915.1.
Taxonomy, affinities, and distribution. - Synopsis. Ulrey, A. B. 1895.1.
Agassiz, J. L. 1835.7,.8; Gill, T. N. Megalobrycon. Taxonomy; revision.
1907.1,.4; Heckel, J. J. 1836.1.
Taxonomy of African species; recision. Ribeiro, A. de M. 1905.1.
Boulenger, G. A. Add. 1909.1. Tetragonopterus and allied forms.
Taxonomy of Cyprinidæ in Asia. Taxonomy -- Guiana. Durbin, M. L. Ceylon. Bleeker, P. 1863.2. - China. -1909.1. - Brazil. Eigenmann, C. H. Bleeker, P. 1871.2, 1872.1. - Dutch East 1908.1, 1911.3.
Indies. *Bleeker, P. 1860.2, 1860.10, Nomenclature. Gill, T. N. 1896.6.
1862.1, 1863.30. - India. *Day, F. Sub-family Sertasalmonins
1871.1; M'Clelland, J. 1839.1,.2; Storer, Piranhas or Caribas
D. H. 1841.1. - Syria. Heckel, J. J. For Serrasalmoninae attacking men, see
1843.1. - Japan. Jordan, D.S. & Fowler, under Predatory Fishes.
H. W. 1903.4. -- Caucasia. Kamenskii, South American species. Eigenmann, S. N. 1899.1. - Persia. Keyserling, E. C. H. 1915.2. - Habits and modes of
1861.1. capturing. Paez, R. 1862.1. - Popular Taxonomy of Cyprinidæ in Europe. account. Winkler, T. C. 1858.1.
Bonaparte, C. L. 1845.1,.3; Dybowski,
B. I. 1864,1; Fitzinger, L. J. 1874.1,.2; Sub-family Distichodontine
Heckel, J. J. 1836.3. - Svitzerland. Distichodus. List of species. Boulen- Agassiz, J. L. 1834.2; Fatio, V. 1876.2, ger, G. A. 1901.14.
1877.2. - France. Quincy, C. 1910.1.
Taxonomy of Cyprinidæ in North America. Jordan, D. S. 1877.1, 1886.1. - New Jersey. Abbott, C. C. 1874.4. — Pennsylvania, Cope, E. D. 1869.4; *Fowler, H. W. 1908.3. - Researches upon the cyprinoid fishes inhabiting the fresh-water west of the Mississippi Valley. Girard, C. F. 1857.7.
Sub-family Catostomins Taxonomy, North America. Agassiz, J. L. 1855.1; Fowler, H. W.1914.6; Jordan, D. S. 1878.12, 1886.1.
Sub-family Cyprining Abramis (Bream). Natural history and occurrence. Bücker, F. 1869.1; Gunn, T. E. 1879.2; Keene, J. H. 1879.5; Lönnberg, A. J. 1903.8; Mela, A. J. 1883.3. -- in Bavaria. Surbeck, G. 1908.4. - in Austria. Rozwadowski, J. 1902.1.
Alburnus (Bleak). Natural history and occurrence. Deyrolle, T. 1871.1; Gatti, M. A. (Italy) 1897.1; Keene, J. H. 1879.5; Anon. 201. – In Caucasia. Grünberg, V. Add. 1914.1.
Taxonomy, Caucasia. Kavraiskiỉ, T. T. 1897.1.
For the use, in the manufacture of artificial pearls, of guanin from the scales of the bleak, see Economic Products, under Fisheries.
Barbus. Natural history, Occurrence (in Europe), etc. Clément, C. 1875.1; Forel, F. A. 1906.1; Günther, A. C. 1872.4; Herrmann, W. 1904.1; Hitz, 1894.1; Mourgue, M. 1901.1; Olivier, E. 1914.1; Stansch, K. 1904.1; Witthalm, L. 1880.1; Anon. 83. - In Switzerland. *Hofer, J. 1895.2. - In Silesia. Knauthe, K. 1890.2. — Alps of Dauphiné. Légar, L. 1910.4.
Carassius (Gold-fish). Natural history notes. Boeck, G. 1875.2; Bullen, G. E. 1909.1; Charvet, P. A. 1826.1; Pap, J. 1871.1; Anon. 315, 563; Le Comte, L. Pre-Linn. 1698.1; Linnæus, C. PreLinn. 1740.2. - Telescope variety. Carbonnier, P. 1872.2,.3, 1873.3.
Goldfish culture General treatises on gold fish culture in ponds and in aquaria. *Bade, E. 1900.1; Chaine, J. 1899.1; Mulertt, H. 1892.1, 1902.1; Reed, C. A. 1908.1; *Smith, H. M. 1909.2; Sauvigny, E. L. 1780.1; *Stansch, K. 1910.6; Wolff, H. T. 1909.1.
Origin of races. Tornier, G. 1908.2; Schaeck, H. E. 1893.1.
Pond culture, shorter papers. - in Japan. Kishinouye, K. 1898.2; Laackmann, H. 1912.1,.2; Leonhardt, E. E. 1906.7; Matsubara, S. 1908.1. - in China. Kreyenberg, M. 1911.1. - in Germany. Milewski, A. 1914.6; Revoil, C. 1891.1; Walter, E. 1906.1; Wagner, C. Add. 1879.1.
Culture of gold fish in aquaria, shorter pa pers. Blanchon, H. L. 1912.1, Add. 1899.1; Griese, A. 1901.1; Hennig, E. 1904.1: Heron, R. 1842.1; Kammerer, P. 1909.2; Leonhardt, E. E. 1912.1; Lloyd, S. C. 1912.1; Milewski, A. 1910.1,
1912.2,.3; Peyrl, T. 1910.1; Reitmayer, C. A. 1914.2; Ringel, E. 1901.1; Ryder, J. A. 1884.1; Schreitmüller, W. 1912.18, 1913.2; Sprenger, W. 1900.7.
Culture of Lion-head variety. Laackmann, H. 1911.1; Thumm, J. 1911.1.
Culture of Telescope variety. Carbonnier, P. 1872.2,.3, 1873.3; Delaval, A. 1899.1, 1903.1; Depp, N. 1894.1; Frank, F. 1880.1; Langer, - 1877.1; Lee, H. 1875.1; Newman, E. 1875.1; Nitsche, P. 1892.1; Noll, F. C. 1878.1; Sasse, A. 1878.1; Schreitmüller, W. 1912.14,.18, 1913.2.
Chondrostoma. Occurrence, natural history, etc. Cockerell, T. D. 1910.1. In Teramo, Italy. Gatti, M. A. 1896.1. France. La Blanchère, P. R. 1872.5, 1873.1; Pellegrin, J. (Loire R.) 1900.2; Roule, L. 1902.5; Zur Mühlen, M. 1911.10. – Austria. Heckel, J. J. 1851.1; Rozwadowski, J. 1903.1.
Fossil species. — Miocene of Baden. Winkler, T. C. 1861.1.
Cyprinus (Carp). General treatise. Supino, F. 1911.1.
Natural history notes, popular articles, etc. Cole, L. J. 1905.1, 1906.1; Dieulafé, L. & Bruyant, C. 1904.1; Distant, W. L. 1904.2; Ekström, C. U. 1838.1; Feddersen, A. F. 1898.1; Forel, F. A. 1899.1; Halkett, A. 1907.2; Hunt, W. T. 1912.1; *Hutchins, D. E. 1906.1; Keene, J. H. 1879.5; Lankester, E. R. 1870.1; La Tourrette, M. 1775.1; McGovern, H. D. 1882.1, 1883.1; Meier, H. 1864.1; Schirmer, - 1901.1; Zürn, E. S. 1900.1; Krauss, C. F. Add. 1890.1.
Natural history notes in Pre-Linnæan section. Ledel, S. 1692.1; Linnæus, C. 1744.1; Needham, W. 1720.1; Nozeman, C. 1757.1.
Value as food. Bartlett, S. P. 1901.11912.1.
Growth and size. Hessel, R. 1880.2; Heyser, E. 1883.1; Johnson, S. M. 1883.1: Mather. F. 1881.1.
Races and varieties. Hofer, B. 1898.1; Gartner, F. 1898.1; Roberts, A. W. 1880.3; Russell, A. J. 1873.1; Zentz, F. 1882.1.
Fossil in - Jurassic of Württemberg. Bronn, H. G. 1830.1. - Tertiary; taxonomy. Münster, G. 1836.1.
Diptychus. Natural history. Anikin, V. P. 1906.1.
Gobio. Natural history notes. Berg, L. S. 1907.8; Mäklin, F. W. 1871.1; Mela, A. J. G. 1886.2.
Labeo. African species with diagnostic key. Boulenger, G. A. 1903.12.
Leucaspius. Natural history and occurrence -- in Sweden. Lilljeborg, W. 1872.1. -- in Hungary. Vutskits, G. 1903.1.
Leuciscus (Rudd or Red-eye). — Popular general treatise. Fennell, J. G. 1870.1. -- Fisheries; Switzerland. Hofer, J. 1897.1.
Natural history and occurrence. Baird, S. F. 1874.17; Bonaparte, C. L. 1845.5; Chearney, R. 1875.1; Chiappi, T. 1903.1; Corbin, G. B. 1906.1; Hofer, J. 1911.5; Keene, J. H. 1879.5; Kirsch, D. W. 1880.1; Lupton, F. 1878.1; Milde, C. J. 1873.1; Solger, B, F. 1878.1; Warnimont, J. 1865.1.
Taxonomy and nomenclature. Bonaparte, C. L. 1840.1, 1844.1. — Nomenclature. Cockerell, T. D. 1909.2.
Fossil forms. - Miocene, Nevada. Lucas, F. A. 1900.1, 1901.1. - Sweden. Sernander, R. 1902.1. - Oligocene, Germany. Troschel, F. H. 1854.1. - Miocene of Baden. Winkler, T. C. 1861.1. Triassic. Zenker, - 1883.1.
Notropis (Horned Dace). Classification and nomenclature. Cockerell, T. D. & Callaway, 0. 1909.2; Fowler, H. W. 1910.8.
Natural history. Embody, G. C. Add. 1914.2.
Oreoleuciscus. Taxonomy, monograph. Varpakhovskii, N. A. 1889.2.
Pimephales. Taxonomy; review. Bicknell, E. P. & Dresslar, F. B. Add. 1885.1.
Phoxinus. Natural history accounts, descriptions, etc. Bertrand, Emile 1889.1; Blanchard, R. 1896.1; Bucek, L. 1880.1; Leydig, F. 1892.3; Troschel, F. H. 1851.1, 1872.1; *Warnimont, J. 1867.1. - Notes on Palæarctic species. Berg, L. S. 1907.7.
Rutilus. Taxonomy and nomenclature. Cockerell, T. D. 1909.2; Fowler, H. W. 1914.10.
Semotilus (Wind-fish or Fall-fish). Natural history notes. Evermann, B. W. 1905.6; Griggs, J. W. 1878.1; Robinson, R. E. 1878.1; Sicklen, G. W. 1878.1.
· -- Illustration. S. atromaculatus. Agassiz, J. L. & Baird, S. 1889.1.
Tinca (Tench). Natural history. Belloc, E. 1901.1; Harting, P. 1875.3; Witthalm, L. 1880.1.
Fossil forms from Miocene - of Württemberg. Fraas, O. Add. 1870.1. - of Baden. Winkler, T. C. 1861.1.
Rhodeus (Bitterling). Natural history notes and descriptions (chiefly Swiss forms). Berg. C. 1880.1; Fatio, V. 1905.2; Fischer-Sigwart, H. 1910.1; Hofer, J. 1910.1; Richters, F. 1901.1.
Taxonomy. - Synopsis. Berg, L. S. 1907.3. - Amur basin forms. Berg, L. S. 1907.9. — Fossil forms. Winkler, T. C. 1861.1.
For incubation of eggs in gill-cavities of mussels, see Parental Care, under Reproduction.
Sub-family Cobitidina Taxonomy. Bleeker, P. 1863.23. Amur basin. Berg, L. S. 1907.11. Ceylon. Bleeker, P. 1864.2. - Japan. Jordan, D. S. & Fowler, H. W. 1903.3.
Occurrence as fossils in Idaho. Cope, E. D. 1872.10.
Cobitis (Misgurnus) (Loach). Natural history, occurrence, etc. Cederström, G. C. (Sweden) 1874.1; Du Rondeau, F. 1783.1; Faulds, H. 1878.1; Filippi, F. (Italy)
1859.1; Jeitteles, L. H. (Hungary) 1861.2; Maillard, L. 1900.1; Palmén, J. A. (Finland) 1881.2,.3; Struck, C. 1869.1; Troschel, F. H. (German mountain brooks) 1851.1, 1872.1; Anon. 336; Gronovius, J. F. Add. 1775.1, Pre-Linn. 1748.1; Mar. tini, F. H. Add. 1774.2.
For Cobitis as a weather prophet see under Behavior.
Fossil forms in Germany. - Tertiary. Meyer, C. E. H. 1851.2. - Miocene. Winkler, T. C. 1861.1.
Nemachilus. Central Asiatic forma; synopsis. Herzenstein, S. M. 1888.1.
Family Siluridæ Distribution of Siluridæ in time and space. Vaillant, L. L. 1897.2.
Natural history, popular account. Vorth America. Kendall, W. C. 1910.1.
Taxonomy. Bleeker, P. 1863.31; Carruccio, A. 1903.1. — Jara. Bleeker, P. 1846.1,.2, 1847.2,.3,.4. -- Dutch East Indies. Bleeker, P. 1858.8. 1862.1. Surinam. Bleeker, P. 1862.3, 1864.3. India and Burmah (Fresh water). Day, F. 1871.5, 1876.1. - Synopsis, United States (Fresh-water). Jordan, D. S. 1877.4. - Japan (Review). Jordan, D. S. & Fowler, H. W. 1903.6. -- Central America (Review). Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1883.24. — Brazil. Kner, R. 1858.1,.2. - South America. Lütken, C. F. 1874.1, .4. - Madagascar. Vaillant, L. L. 1894.2. -- Borneo. Vinciguerra, D. 1879.1. --- Revision, African specics. Boulenger, G. A. Add. 1909.1.
Fossil forms. Leriche, M. 1901.1, 1908.3. — Tertiary, Bohemia. Laube, G. C. 1897.1. -- In Eocene of Paris basin. Priem, F. 1904.3.
Sub-family Clariina Taxonomic revision, African species. Boulenger, G. A. 1908.9.
Sub-family Silurinæ Silurus glanis (the Wels). Natural history and occurrence in Central Europe. Feddersen, A. F. 1896.2; Fougeroux de Bondaroy, - 1784.1; Hofer, B. 1906.1; Hofer, J. 1896.2; Holm, T. 1779.1; Lubach, D. 1852.1, 1864.1; Lühe, M. 1909.1, 1912.1; Meier, H. 1865.2; Malmgren, A. J. 1888.1; Mela, A. J. 1883.2; Plant, J. 1878.1, 1879.1,.2; Reinhardt, J. T. 1865.1; Spohrer, - 1897.1; Winkler, T. C. 1871.3; Anon. 194, 627; Imhof, O. E. Add. 1892.1.
Parasilurus (the Glanis of the Greeks and Romans). Natural history. Apostolidès, N. C. 1883.1, 1892.1; Bleeker, P. 1862.6; Gill, T. N. 1906.4; Houghton, W. 1873.1; Garman, S. Add. 1891.3; Manardi, G. Pre-Linn. 1560.1.
Sub-family Bagrinse Arius. Fossil forms in Tertiary of Siwaliks. Günther, A. C. 1881.3. - in Eocene of France. Priem, F. 1904.3. — ir Eocene of Belgium. Smets, G. Add. 1886.1.
Amiurus (Bull-head). Natural history. Berthier, V. 1905.1; Dean, B. 1891.1; Good, A. 1902.1; Lamarche, C. 1904.1; Leonhardt, E. E. 1905.25.
Ictalurus (Spotted Cat-fish). Natural history. Jordan, D. S. 1885.3.
Liocassis. Taxonomy; synopsis. Regan, C. T. 1913.22.
Noturus (Stone Cat-fish). Taxonomy; review. Swain, J. & Kalb, G. B. 1882.1.
Pimelodus. Taxonomy; synopsis. Gill, T. N. 1862.23.
Sub-family Doradina Taxonomy. - African species. Boulenger, G. A. 1900.14. – Brazilian species. Ribeiro, A. 1912.1; Steindachner, F. 1875.4.
Exostoma. Taxonomy; synopsis. Regan, C. T. 1905.17.
Synodontis. Taronomy; monograph. *Vaillant, L. L. 1895.1.
Sub-family Malopterurinæ Malopterurus (Electric Cat-fish). Natural history. Forbes, H. 0. 1897.3; Kammerer, P. 1906.1; Panceri, P. 1858.1; Peters, W. C. 1868.2; Rudolphi, C. A. 1824.1; Waddell, H. M. 1858.1; Broussonet, P. M. Add. 1787.1; Patterson, W. Add. 1786.1; Adanson, M. Pre-Linn. 1749.1; Ludolf, H. Pre-Linn. 1681.1.
History of discorery. Du Bois-Reymond, E. H. 1859.2.
Nomenclature. Gill, T. N. 1903.9.
For anatomy and functions of electrical organs, see under Electrical Fishes.
Sub-family Callichthyinæ Taronomy. Ellis, M. L. 1913.1. - Brazil. Ribeiro, A. de M. 1912.1.
Corydoras. Taxonomy; rerision. Regan, C. T. 1912.21.
Sub-family Trichomycterina Taxonomy; Brazil. Ribeiro, A. de M. 1912.1.
For parasitic habits of fishes of this subfamily, see under Parasitic Fishes.
Stegophilus. Natural history and systematic position. Rachow, A. 1913.5; *Reinhardt, J. T. 1859.1.
Vandellia (“* Candiru ''). Taxonomy; revision. Pellegrin, J. 1909.12.
Family Loricariidæ Natural history. Weyenbergh, H. 1878.3.
Taxonomy. Eigenmann, C. H. 1905.3. - Rerision. Kner, R. 1854.1,.2. — Monographic rerision. *Regan, C. T. 1904.6. - Brazilian forms. Ribeiro, A. de M. 1912.1.
Acanthicus. Natural history. Berg, C. 1901.1; Hagmann, G. 1901.1, 1902.1.
Arges. Natural history of the “ volcano fish” formerly called Cyclopium cyclopium, Eremophilus mutisii, and Pimelodus cyclopum. Boussingault, J. B. 1864.1; Day, F. 1891.1; *Evermann, B. W. & Kendall, W.C. 1905.1: Girard, C. F. 1889.1, Add. 1889.2: * Humboldt, F. & Bonpland, A. 1805.1; Orton, J. 1871.1; Putnam, F.
W. 1871.3; Spicer, W. W. 1871.2; Wagner, M. 1870.2; Winkler, T. (. 1857.2; Humboldt, A. Add. 1823.1; Whymper, E. Add. 1892.1.
Taxonomy; rerision. Evermann, B. W. & Kendall, W. C. 1905.1; Regan, C. T. 1905.18.
Family Aspredinidæ Taxonomy and relationships. Gill, T. N. 1891.3.
Group Nematognathi This group. formerly given ordinal rank, embraces the Silurida, Loricariidæ, and Aspredinidæ.
Taxonomy and relationships. Agassiz, J. L. R. 1868.1; Regan, C. T. 1911.6; Gill, T. N. Add. 1898.1. - South American forms. Eigenmann, C. H. & R. S. 1888.4,.5, 1889.3, 1890.3; Ihering, R. (Brazil) 1907.1; Kindle, E. M. (in Cornell Museum) 1895.1.
Erolution. Eigenmann, C. H. 1890.4.
Fossil forms from Eocene. Newton, E. T. 1889.1. — Egypt. Stromer, E. 1904.3. ,
SUB-ORDER SYMBRANCHII For a map showing the geographical distribution of the Symbranchii, see Meek, A. 1916.1 (p. 166).
Taxonomy. Regan, C. T. 1912.1; Boulenger, G. A. (Revision, African species) Add. 1909.1.
Family Symbranchidæ Taxonomy, Indian Archipelago. Bleeker, P. 1853.4, 1862.1. ---- General account. Dareste, C. 1873.1, 2.
Monopterus. Taxonomy; review, Japan. Jordan, D. S. & Snyder, J. 0. 1901.7.
SUB-ORDER APODES Taxonomy: general works. Gill, T. N. 1910.1; Kaup, J. J. 1856.1; Regan, C. T. 1912.15. - Review; America and Europe. Jordan, D. S. & Davis, B. M. 1892.1. - Review; Japan. Jordan, D. S. & Snyder, J. (. 1901.7. -- Indian forms. M'Clelland, J. 1815.1. -- African species. Boulenger, G. A. Add. 1909.1. - Fossil forms. Woodward, A. S. 1889.2. FAMILY ANGUILLIDA
ANGUILLA The Common or Fresh-water Eel Including an account of the recent discoveries in its life history and reproduction.
The literature on the eel is relatively enormous, and the present account attempts to suggest the more important references, rather than to attempt to analyze them in detail,
“The problem of the propagation and breeding places of the Common or Freshwater Eel is one of great antiquity; from the days of Aristotle naturalists have occupied themselves therewith, and in certain regions of Europe it has exercised popular imagination to a remarkable degree. It is only during the last three decades, however, that any real results have been attained." J. Schmidt in
“ The Breeding Places of the Eel," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 1922, ser. B., vol. 211, p. 179.
Principal literature Our knowledge of the life history of the eel is largely due to the brilliant and extended researches of Dr. Johannes Schmidt of the Carlsberg Laboratory of Copenhagen (cited as Schmidt, E. J. 1906.11914.2). These papers are chiefly in English and have been embellished with excellent illustrations of all stages of development. These researches have been summarized in two general papers one of which is cited as Schmidt, E. J. 1906.1, and the other is the very recent paper, quoted above.
For a map showing the geographical distribution of the genus Anguilla, see Meek, A. 1916.1 (p. 158).
Life history of the Eel Because of the very lateness of these discoveries, which have not yet entered fully into general ichthyological literature, we feel justified in giving the following somewhat extensive summary, compiled chiefly from the papers just mentioned (especially Schmidt, 1906.1).
The first Leptocephalus to come to the attention of naturalists seems to be the specimen taken by William Morris near Holyhead, England in 1763 and subsequently described by Gmelin (J. F. 1788.1, p. 1150) as Leptocephalus morrisii.
Subsequently numerous other specimens of these small, translucent or glassy, ribbon-like creatures, brought to the surface by the whirlpools in the Straits of Messina, came into the hands of naturalists and were known under the family name of Leptocephalidæ (Bonaparte).
Carus (J. V. 1861.2), in considering these fishes, recognized their true nature as larval forms, and assumed that they were probably the larval form of the ribbon fishes (Trachypteridæ). This conclusion was shown to be erroneous by Peters (W. 1869.2), who demonstrated that larval ribbon fishes were quite different.
Gill (T. N. 1865.9) had just expressed the view that the Leptocephali are the larvæ of eels (“ Congers”), and that Leptocephalus morrisii is the young of the conger eel. This conclusion was also reached independently by Dareste (C. 1873.3). Günther (A. 1859.1, vol. viii, 1870, 1880.4) accepted Gill's view, but thought that they were abnormally developed conger larvæ, which view was likewise accepted by Bellotti (C. Add. 1883.1).
The actual proof of Gill's view was first made by Delage (M. Y. 1886.1) who kept a specimen of L. morrisii in the aquarium of the Roscoff laboratory and observed its transformation into a small conger, 9.3 cm. in length.
The way was now paved for the discovery of the larval form of the common eel. Kaup (J. J. 1860.4) had previously described one of the Mediterranean Lep
tocephali as Leptocephalus brerirostris. In 1893, the epoch-making discovery that this form is the larval form of the common eel, Anguilla vulgaris, was announced by Grassi and Calandruccio (1892.1-1903.1), who had found the necessary transitional stages.
Not until 1904 had any Leptocephali of the common eel been observed outside of the Mediterranean. In this year Schmidt (1904.1) took a Leptocephalus of the European eel west of the Faroe Islands. A second specimen was taken on the west coast of Ireland in 1904 by Farran (Holt, E. W. 1909.1). Subsequently numerous larvæ were found in the northeastern Atlantic. Jacoby (L. 1867.1-1882.1) believed the breeding ground to be off the coast in deep water. Schmidt (E. J. 1909.5) found the south Atlantic to be devoid of Leptocephali. Hjort (J. 1910.1) and Lea (E. 1913.2) suggested that the breeding grounds would be found in the central Atlantic between the Azores and the Bermudas. Schmidt, from investigations in the open Atlantic in the schooner “Margrethe," 1913, and with over 500 gatherings made for him on board various cooperating Danish ships, found that the Leptocephali increased in number but decreased in size as he went from Europe toward the West Indies. Small sizes were found concentrated in a comparatively small area, extending from 220 N. to 30° N. and from 40° W. to 65° W.; the central portion lying about latitude 26° N. or approximately equidistant from the Leeward Isles and from Bermuda. This is the breeding place of the eel. At this point the smallest larvæ were found concentrated in considerable numbers. In his most recent paper (“ The Breeding Places of the Eel," etc. p. 206), Schmidt has summarized the breeding habits of the eel as follows:
"Spawning commences in early spring, lasting to well on in summer. The tiny larvæ, 7-15 mm. long, float in water-layers about 200-300 metres from the surface, in a temperature of about 20° C. The larve grow rapidly during their first months, and in their first summer average about 25 mm. in length. They now move up into the uppermost water-layers, the great majority being found between 50 and 25 metres, or at times even at the surface itself. Then they commence their journey towards the shores of Europe, aided by the eastward move ment of the surface-water itself. During their first summer, they are to be found in the western Atlantic (west of 50° long. W.). By their second summer they have attained an average length of 50-55 mm., and the bulk are now in the central Atlantic. By the third summer, they have arrived off the coastal banks of Europe and are now full-grown, averaging about 75 mm, in length, but still retaining the compressed lealshaped larval form. In the course of the autumn and winter, they undergo the retrograde metamorphosis which gives them their shape as eels and brings them to the elver stage, in which they move in to the shores and make their way up rivers and watercourses everywhere. ... The eels utilise their sojourn in fresh water to feed and grow big, but the duration of their