Page images

B, C. cir. 741.

cir. annum

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem

Rornan., 13.

Conquest of the Assyrians


over Israel predicted. A. M. cir. 3262 witnesses to record, · Uriah the 5 The Lord spake also unto 4 M. cir. 3263. Anno Olymp. priest, and Zechariah the son of me again, saying,

Olymp. IX. 4. Jeberechiah.

6 Forasmchas this people Romuli, Regis Conditam 12.

3. And I went unto the pro- refusèth the waters of h Shiloah phetess; and she conceived, and bare a son. that go softly, and rejoice ' in Rezin and ReThen said the LORD to me, Call his name maliah's son; Maher-shalal-hash-baz.

7 Now therefore, behold, the LORD bringeth 4 . For before the child' shall have know-up upon them the waters of the river, strong ledge to cry, My father and my mother, the and many, even the king of Assyria, and all & riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria his glory: and he shall come up over all his shall be taken away before the king of Assyria. channels, and go over all his banks :

c 2 Kings xvi. 10.—d Heb.approached unto.- Le See ch. vii: riches, &c.—52 Kings xv. 29 ; xvi. 9 ; chap. xvii. 3.-— Neh. 16.- Or, he that is before the king of Assyria shall take away the | ii. 15; John ix.-7.- Chap. vii. 1, 2, 6. * Chap. x. 12.

eleventh chapter, setting forth the kingdom of Messiah, It may therefore be called here Wix On cheret enosh, is closely connected with the tenth, which foretells the a workman's instrument, to distinguish it from oon destruction of Sennacherib. So likewise the destruc- nox cheret ishshah, an instrument of the same name, tion of nations, enemies to God, in the thirty-fourth used by the women. In this manner he was to record chapter, introduces the flourishing state of the kingdom the prophecy of the destruction of Damascus and Saof Christ in the thirty-fifth. And thus the chapters maria by the Assyrians; the subject and sum of which from xl. to xlix. inclusive, plainly relating to the de- prophecy is here expressed with great brevity in four liverance from the captivity of Babylon, do in some words, ia un Shanno maher shalal hash baz ; i. e., parts plainly relate to the greater deliverance by Christ. to hasten the spoil, to take quickly the prey ; which are

afterwards applied as the name of the prophet's son, NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.

who was made a sign of the speedy completion of it ; Verse 1. Take thee a great roll—“Take unto thee Maher-shalal-hash-baz ; Haste-to-the-spoil

, Quick-loa large mirror") The word pro'ya gillayon is not regu- the-prey. And that it might be done with the greater larly formed from 952 galal, to roll, but from 75a galah, solemnity, and to proclude all doubt of the real delivery as ir no pidyon from 700 padah, juba killayon from of the prophecy before the event, he calls witnesses to os calah, "nikkayon from opnakah, fyyy elyon attest the recording of it. from aby alah, &c., the 'yod supplying the place of the The prophet is commanded to take a great roll, radical í he. aba galah signifies to show, to reveal ; and yet your words only are to be written in it. properly, as Schroederus says, (De Vestitu Mulier. 12 un 550 179 maher shalal hash baz, Make haste to Hebr. p. 294,) to render clear and bright by rubbing; the spoil ; fall upon the prey. The great volume to polish. prosa gillayon, therefore, according to this points out the land of Judea ; and the few words the derivation, is not a roll or volume : but may very well small number of inhabitants, after the ten tribes were signify a polished tablet of metal, such as was anciently carried into captivity. used for a mirror. The Chaldee paraphrast renders The words were to be written with a man's pen ; it by his luach, a tablet, and the same word, though i. e., though the prophecy be given in the visions of somewhat differently pointed, the Chaldee paraphrast God, yet the writing must be real; the words must be and the rabbins render a mirror, chap. iii. 23. The transcribed on the great roll, that they may be read mirrors of the Israelitish women were made of brass and publicly consulted. Or, Wix on cherot enosh, finely polished, Exod. xxxviii. 8, from which place it the pen or graver of the weak miserable man, may likewise appears that what they used were little hand refer to the already condemned Assyrians, who though mirrors which they carried with them even when they they should be the instruments of chastening Damasassembled at the door of the tabernacle. I have a cus and Samaria, should themselves shortly be overmetalline mirror found in Herculaneum, which is not thrown. The four words may be considered as the above three inches square. The prophet is commanded commission given to the Assyrians to destroy and to take a mirror, or brazen polished tablet, not like these spoil the cities. Make haste to the spoil ; Fall upon little hand mirrors, but a large one ; large enough for the prey, &c. him to engrave upon it in deep and lasting characters, Verse 4. For before the child) For my father and VIX una becheret enosh, with a workman's graving my mother, one MS. and the Vulgate have his father tool, the prophecy which he was to deliver. oin che- and his mother. The prophecy was accordingly acret in this place certainly signifies an instrument to write complished within three years; when Tiglath-pileser, or engrave with : but in charit, the same word, only king of Assyria, went up against Damascus and took differing a little in the form, means something belong- it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew ing to a lady's dress, chap. iii. 22, (where however Rezin, and also took the Reubenites and the Gadites, fine MSS. leave out the 'yod, whereby only it differs and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and carried them capfrom the word in this place,) either a crisping-pin, tive to Assyria, 2 Kings xv. 29 ; xvi. 9 ; 1 Chron. v. 26. which might be not unlike a graving tool, as some will Verse 6. Forasmuch as this people refuselh—" Behave it, or a purse, as others infer from 2 Kings v. 23. I cause this people have rejected”) The gentle waters

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Exhortation to

trust in Goa. A. M. cir. 3263.

8 And he shall pass through 10 ? Take counsel together, A. M. cit. 3263. B. C. cir. 741. Olymp. IX. 4. Judah; he shall overflow and go and it shall come to naught; Olymp. IX. 4. Romuli, Regis over, ' he shall reach even to the speak the word, and it shall Romuli, Regis Roman., 13. neck; and m the stretching out not stand : sfor God is with

Roman., 13. of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy us. land, o Immanuel.

411 For the LORD spake thus to me ' with a 9 Associate yourselves, 0 ye people, P and strong hand, and instructed me that I should ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all not walk in the way of this people, saying, ye of far countries : gird yourselves, (and ye 12 Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them shall be broken in pieces ; gird yourselves, to whom this people shall-say, A confederaand ye shall be broken in pieces.

cy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. Chap. xxx. 28.-—m Heb. the fulness of the breadth of thy land 9 Job v. 12. - Chap. vii. 7. Chap. vii. 14; Acts v. 38, khall be the stretchings out of his wings. Chapter vii. 14. 39; Rom. viii. 13.- - Heb. in strength of hand. .4 Ch, vii. 2. • Joel iii. 9, 11.- Or, yet.

1 Pet. iii. 14, 15. of Shiloah, a small fountain and brook just without Je- Archbishop Secker approves this reading. We deu, rusalem, which supplied a pool within the city for the know ye this, is parallel and synonymous to J'INN use of the inhabitants, is an apt emblem of the state haazinu, give ear to it, in the next line. The Septuaof the kingdom and house of David, much reduced in gint have likewise very well paraphrased the conclu its apparent strength, yet supported by the blessing of sion of this verse : “ When ye have 'strengthened God; and is finely contrasted with the waters of the yourselves, ye shall be broken ; and though ye again Euphrates, great, rapid, and impetuous ; the image of strengthen yourselves, again shall ye be broken ;" takthe Babylonian empire, which God threatens to bring ing inn chottu as meaning the same with 1930), ye down like a mighty flood upon all these apostates of shall be broken. both kingdoms, as a punishment for their manifold ini- Verse 11. With a strong hand—“As taking me by quities, and their contemptuous disregard of his pro- the hand"] Eleven MSS., (two ancient,) of Kennicoti's, mises. The brook and the river are put for the king-thirty-four of De Rossi's, and seven editions, read spins doms to which they belong, and the different states of kechezkath; and so Symmachus, the Syriac, and 'Vul. which respectively they most aptly represent, Juve- gate. Or rather with a strong hand, that is, with a nal, inveighing against the corruption of Rome by the strong and powerful influence of the prophetic Spirit. importation of Asiatic manners, says, with great ele- Verse 12. Say ye not, A confederacy—“Say ye not, gance, that “the Orontes has been long discharging. It is holy']

Both the reading and the itself into the Tiber :"

-sense of this word are doubtful. The Septuagint maJampridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes. nifestly read kashah; for they render it by oran

The Syriac and Chaldee render it X770 And Virgil, to express the submission of some of the merda, and 7170 merod, rebellion. How they came by Eastern countries to the Roman arms, says :

this sense of the word, or what they read in their Euphrates ibat jam mollior undis.

copies, is not so clear. · But the worst of it is, that Æn. viii. 726.

neither of these readings or renderings gives any clear

sense in this place. For why should God forbid his « The waters of the Euphrates now flowed more faithful servants to say with the unbelieving Jews, It humbly and gently."

is hard; or, There is a rebellion; or, as our translaBut the happy contrast between the brook and the tors render it, a confederacy? And how can this be river gives a peculiar beauty to this passage of the pro- called “walking in the way of this people ?” ver. 11, phet, with which the simple figure in the Roman poets, which usually means, following their example, joining however beautiful, yet uncontrasted, cannot contend. with them in religious worship. Or what confederacy

Verse 8. He shall reach even to the neck] He do they mean? The union of the kingdoms of Syria compares Jerusalem, says Kimchi, to the head of the and Israel against Judah? That was properly a league human body. As when the waters come up to a man's between two independent states, not an unlawful conneck, he is very near drowning, (for a little increase spiracy of one part against another in the same state ; of them would go over his head,) so the king of As- this is the meaning of the word op kesher. syria coming up to Jerusalem was like a flood reach-want of any satisfactory interpretation of this place ing to the neck—the whole country was overflowed, that I can meet with, I adopt a conjecture of Archand the capital was iu imminent danger. Accordingly bishop Secker, which he proposes with great diffidence, the Chaldee renders reaching to the neck by reaching and even seems immediately to give up, as being desto Jerusalem.

titute of any authority to support it. I will give it in Verse 9. Associate yourselves—“Know ye this"] his own words :-“ Videri potest ex cap. v. 16, et huGod by his prophet plainly declares to the confederate jus cap. 13, 14, 19, legendum vip vel onip kadosh, adversaries of Judah, and bids them regard and attend eadem sententia, qua wobe Eloheynu, Hos. xiv. 3. to bis declaration, that all their efforts shall be in vain. Sed nihil necesse est. Vide enim Jer, xi. 9 ; Ezek. The present reading, in rou, is subject to many diffi- xxii. 25. Optime tamen sic responderent huic versiculties ; I follow that of the Septuagint, wo deu, yvore. I culo versiculi 13, 14.” The passages of Jeremiah

.kesher קשר


pov, hard.

For Exhortation to


trust in God.

cir. annum

cir, annum

A. M. cir. 3263.

13 Sanctify the Lord of "hideth his face from the house of A. M. cir. 3263. B. C. cir. 741. Olymp. IX. 4. hosts himself; and * let him be Jacob, and I will look for him. Olymp. IX. 4 Romuli, Regis your fear, and let him be


18 . Behold, I and the children Romuli, Regis Roman., 13. dread. whom the Lord hath given me are

Roman., 13. 14 And y he shall be for a sanctuary; but for signs and for wonders in Israel from the for ? a stone of stumbling and for a rock of LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in Mount Zion. offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin 19 And when they shall say unto you, and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Seek unto them that have familiar spirits,

15 And many among them shall 4 stumble, and unto wizards's that peep, and that mutter : and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be should not a people seek unto their God ? for taken.

the living h to the dead ? 16 Bind up the testimony, seal the law 20 i To the law and to the testimony: if among my disciples.

they speak not according to this word, it is 17 And I will wait upon the LORD, that because k there is no light in them.

w Num. xx. 12. Psa. Ixxvi. 7; Luke xii. 5. y Ezek. xi. 16.-__ Chap. xxvii. 16; Luke 11.34; Rom. ix. 33; 1 Pet. ii. 8 La Mait. xxi. 44; Luke xx. 18; Rom. ix. 32; xi. 25. Chap. liv. 8.

Hab. ii. 3; Luke ii. 25, 38.- - Heb. ii. 13. e Psa. lxxi. 7; Zech. iii. 8.-ni Sam. xxviii. 8; chap. xix. 3.—5 Chap. xxix. 4. - Psa. cvi. 28.--- - Luke xvi. 29. - Mic. iii. 6. 1 Heb. no morning.

and Ezekiel above referred to seem to me not at all to But the reading of the Vulgale is, I think, the best clear up the sense of the word op kesher in this remedy to this difficulty ; and is in some degree auplace. But the context greatly favours the conjecture thorized by ons lahem, the reading of the MS. above here given, and makes it highly probable :: “Walk not mentioned. in the way of this people'; call not their idols holy, Verse 16. Among my disciples.] '7052 belimmudai. nor fear ye the object of their fear :" (that is, the oe. The Septuagint render it to jen pabaiv. Bishop ChanBaojara, or gods of the idolaters; for so fear here aler, Defence of Christianity, p. 308, thinks they read signifies, to wit, the thing feared. So God is called 7020, that it be not understood, and approves of this " The fear of Isaac,” Gen. xxxi. 42, 53:) " but look reading.--Abp. Secker. up to Jehovah as your Holy One; and let him be your Verse 18. Lord of hosts.] One MS. reads nixay nhas fear, and let him be your dread; and he shall be a holy Elohey tsébaoth, God of hosts. Refuge unto you.” Here there is a harmony and con- Verse 19. Should not a people seek"Should they sistency running through the whole sentencë; and the seek"] After 77 yidrosh, the Septuagint, repeating latter part naturally arises out of the former, and an- the word, read 07777 hayidrosh : Ouk elvos apos O cov swers to it. Idolatry, however, is full of fears. The αυτου εκζητησουσι ; τι εκζητησουσι περι των ζωντων τους superstitious fears of the Hindoos are very numerous. vekpovs ; Should not a nation seek unto its God? Why They fear death, bad spirits generally, and hobgoblins should you seek unto the dead concerning the living ? of all descriptions. They fear also the cries of jackalls, and this repetition of the verb seems necessary to the owls, crows, cals, asses, vultures, dogs, lizards, &c. sense; and, as Procopius on the place observes, it They also dread different sights in the air, and are strongly expresses the prophet's indignation at their alarmed at various dreams. See Ward's Customs. folly.

Verse 20. To the law and to the lestimony—“Unto kadosh is chiefly in the transposition of the two last the command, and unto the testimony.") “ Is not letters, for the letters 7 resh and 7 daleth are hardly 771yn reudah here the attested prophecy, ver. 1-4 ? distinguishable in some copies, printed as well as MS. ; and perhaps 77in torah the command, ver. 11-15? so that the mistake, in respect of the letters themselves, for it means sometimes a particular, and even a human, is a very easy and a very common one.-L.

command; see Prov. vi. 20, and vii. 1, 2, where it is Verse 14. And he shall be for a sanctuary—And ordered to be hid, that is, secretly kept."-Abp. Secker. he shall be unto you à sanctuary”] The word oos So Deschamps, in his translation, or rather paraphrase, lachem, unto you; absolutely necessary, as I conceive, understands it: “Tenons nous à l'instrument authento the sense, is lost in this place : it is preserved by tique mis en dépôt par ordre du Seigneur," " Let us the Vulgate, et erit vobis in sanctificationem." The stick to the authentic instrument, laid up by the comSeptuagint have it in the singular number : coral ool mand of the Lord.” If this be right, the sixteenth Elç dylaqulov, it shall be to THEE. Or else, instead of verse must be understood in the same manner. oop? mikdash, a sanctuary, we must read upin mokesh, Because there is no light in them—"In which there a snare, which would then be repeated without any is no obscurity.”) onu shachor, as an adjective, frepropriety or elegance, at the end of the verse. The quently signifies dark, obscure ; and the noun 170 shaChaldee reads instead of it obv, mishpat, judgment ; char signifies darkness, gloominess, Joel ii. 2, if we for he renders it by jy no purean, which word frequently may judge by the context : answers to oun mishpat in his paraphrase. One MS.


“A day of darkness and obscurity ; lahem leeben, which clears the sense and construction, Of cloud, and of thick vapour ;

קדש kesher and קשר Observe that the difference between

להם לאבן ,mikdash sleeben כקדש ולאבן has instead of

Exhortation to


trust in God.

A. M. cir. 3263. B. C. cir. 741. 21 And they shall pass through and their God, and look upward. 4. M. cir

. 3263. Olymp. IX. 4. it, hardly bestead and hungry : 22 And n they shall look unto Olymp. IX. 4. Romuli, Regis and it shall come to pass, that the earth; and behold trouble Romuli, Regis Roman., 13. when they shall be hungry, they and darkness, •dimness of an

Roman., 13. shall fret themselves, and curse their king guish; and they shall be driven to darkness. m Rev. xvi. 11.

n Chap. y. 30. • Chap. ix. I. As the gloom spread upon the mountains : eth, by it thundereth, from Schultens, Orig. Ling. A people mighty' and numerous.”

Hebr. Lib. i. cap. 2, of the justness of which renderWhere the gloom, no shachar, seems to be the same ing I much doubt. This brings the image of Isaiah with the cloud and thick vapour mentioned in the line more near in onę circumstance to that of Mohammed preceding. See Lam. iv. 8, and Job xxx. 30. Sce than it appears to be in my translation :this meaning of the word nw shachar well supported Labid, contemporary with Mohammed, the last of the in Christ. Muller. Sat. Observat. Phil. p. 53, Lugd. seven Arabian poets who had the honour of having their Bat. 1752. The morning seems to have been an idea poems, one of each, hung up in the entrance of the wholly incongruous in the passage of Joel ; and in this temple of Mecca, struck with the sublimity of a passage of Isaiah the words in which there is no morning (for in the Koran, became a convert to Mohammedism; for so it ought to be rendered if nnu shachar in this place he concluded that no man could write in such a mansignifies, according to its usual sense, morning) seem ner unless he were Divinely inspired. to give no meaning at all. “It is because there is no “ One must have a curiosity to examine a passage light in them,” says our translation. If there be any which had so great an effect upon Labid. It is, I must sense in these words, it is not the sense of the original ; own, the finest that I know in the whole Koran: but which cannot justly be so translated. Qui n'a rien I do not think it will have a second time the like effect, d'obscur," which has no obscurity.”Deschamps. The so as to tempt any one of my readers to submit to cirreading of the Septuagint and Syriac, The shochad, cumcision. It is in the second chapter, where he is gift, affords no assistance towards the clearing up of speaking of certain apostates from the faith. any of this difficult place. R. D. Kimchi says this are like,' saith he, 'to a man who kindles a light. As was the forn of an oath : “By the law and by the soon as it begins to shine, God takes from them the testimony such and such things are so." Now if they light, and leaves them in darkness that they see nothing. had sworn this falsely, it is because there is no light, They are deaf, dumb, and blind; and return not into no illumination, 10 shachar, no scruple of conscience, the right way. Or they fare as when a cloud, full of in them.

darkness, thunder, and lightning, covers the heaven. Verse 21. Hardly bestead—“Distressed”] Instead When it bursteth, they stop their ears with their fingers, of nop) niksheh, distressed, the Vulgate, Chaldee, and with deadly fear; and God hath the unbelievers in his Symmachus manifestly read Svoj nichshal, stumbling, power. The lightning almost robbeth them of their tottering through weakness, ready to fall; a sense which eyes : as often as it flasheth they go on by its light ; suits very well with the place.

and when it vanisheth in darkness, they stand still. And look upward—“And he shall cast his eyes up- If God pleased, they would retain neither hearing nor ward.”] The learned professor Michaelis, treating of sight.' That the thought is beautiful, no one will deny; this place (Not. in de Sacr. Poës. Hebr. Præl. ix.) refers and Labid, who had probably a mind to flatter Mohamto a passage in the Koran which is similar to it. As med, was lucky in finding a passage in the Koran so it is a very celebrated passage, and on many accounts little abounding in poetical beauties, to which his conremarkable, I shall give it here at large, with the same version might with any propriety be ascribed. It was author's farther remarks upon it in another place of his well that he went no farther ; otherwise his taste for writings. It must be noted here that the learned pro- poetry might have made him again an infidel.” Mifessor renders (3) nibbat, w'an hibbit, in this and the chaelis, Erpenii Arabische Grammatik abgekurzt, Vorparallel place, chap. v. 30, which I translate he look- rede, s. 32.

• They


This chapter contains an illustrious prophecy of the Messiah. He is represented under the glorious figure

of the sun, or light, rising on a benighted world, and diffusing joy and gladness wherever he sheds his beams, 1-3. His conquests are astonishing and miraculous, as in the day of Midian ; and the peace which they procure is to be permanent, as denoted by the burning of all the implements of war, 4, 5. The person and character of this great Deliverer are then set forth in the most magnificent terms which the language of mankind could furnish, 6. The exlent of his kingdom is declared to be universal, and the duration of it eternal, 7. The prophet foretells most awful calamities which were ready to fall upon the Israelites on account of their manifold impieties, 8–21.

cir. annum

Roman, 14.

Roman., 14.

A prediction of


the coming of Christ. 1. M. Cor.904

. NEVERTHELESS • the dim-| 3 Thou hast multiplied the 4. M. cite Olymp. X. 1. ness shall not be such as nation, and not increased the Olymp. X. I Romuli, Regis was in her vexation, when at the joy: they joy before thee accord- Romuli, Regis

b first he lightly afflicted the land ing to the joy in harvest, and as of Zebulan, and the land of Naphtali, and men rejoice 8 when they divide the spoil. © afterward did more grievously afflict her by 4 For thou hast broken the yoke of his the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod d of the nations.

of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian. 2 • The people that walked in darkness have 5 'For every battle of the warrior is with seen a great light: they that dwell in the land confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; of the shadow of death, upon them hath them but this shall be with burning and fuel light shined.

of fire.


among them.

Chap. viii. 22.-b2 Kings xv. 29; 2 Chron. xvi. 4. - Lev. Or, When thou brakest. Chap. a. 5; xiv. 5.

Jurig, vu. xxvi. 24 ; 2 Kings xvii. 5, 6; 1 Chron. v. 26.- +Or, popis 22 ; Psa. lxxxu. 9; chap. x. 26.-Or, When the whole battle of the lous. - Matt. iv. 16; Eph. v.8, 14.-Or, lo him. - Judg. warrior was, &c. Chap. Ixvi. 15, 16. — Or, and it was, &c. V. 30

• Heb. ment. NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

to the god supposed to be the giver of victory, was a Verse 1. Dimness—“ Accumulated darkness”) custom that prevailed among some heathen nations ; Either 78739. menuddechah, fem. to agree with box and the Romans used it as an emblem of peace, which aphelah; or noen box aphel hammenuddach, allud- perfectly well suits with the design of the prophet in ing perhaps to the palpable Egyptian darkness, Exod. this place. A medal struck by Vespasian on finishing X. 21.

his wars both at home and abroad represents the godThe land of Zebulun] Zebulun, Naphtali, Manas- dess Peace holding an olive branch in one hand, and, seh, that is, the country of Galilee all round the sea of with a lighted torch in the other, setting fire to a heap Gennesareth, were the parts that principally suffered of armour. Virgil mentions the custom :in the first Assyrian invasion under Tiglath-pileser ;

“ –Cum primam aciem Præneste sub ipsa see 2 Kings xv. 29; 1 Chron. v. 26. And they were

Stravi, scutorumque incendi victor acervos." the first that enjoyed the blessings of Christ's preach

Æn. lib. viii., ver. 561. ing the Gospel, and exhibiting his miraculous works

“Would heaven, (said he,) my strength and youth See Mede's Works, p. 101, and 457.

recall, This, which makes the twenty-third verse of chap. viii.

Such as I was beneath Præneste's wallin the Hebrew, is the first verse in chap. ix. in our

Then when I made the foremost foes retire, authorized version. Bishop Lowth follows the division in the Hebrew.

And set whole heaps of conquered shields on fire."

Dryden. Verse 3. And not increased the joy——“ Thou hast increased their joy”] Eleven MSS. of Kennicott's and See Addison on Medals, Series ii. 18. And there are six of De Rossi's, two ancient, rcad is lo, it, according notices of some such practice among the Israelites, and to the Masoretical correction, instead of x's lo, not.


other nations of the most early times. God promises the same purpose the Targum and Syriac.

to Joshua victory over the kings of Canaan. “ ToThe joy in harvest] pa nopea kesimchath bak- morrow I will deliver them up all slain before Israel : katsir. For 73p3 bakkatsir one MS. of Kennicott's and thou shalt hough their horses, and burn their chariots one of De Rossi's have ryp katsir, and another

with fire,” Josh. xi. 6. See also Nahum ü. 13. And hakkatsir," the harvest ;" one of which seems to be the the psalmist employs this image to express complete true reading, as the noun preceding is in regimine.

victory, and the perfect establishment of peace :Verse 5. Every battle of the warrior—" The greaves

“ He maketh wars to cease, even to the end of the of the armed warrior”) XD jix) seon soen.


land : word, occurring only in this place, is of very doubtful

He breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in signification. Schindler fairly tells us that we may

sunder; guess at it by the context. The Jews have explained

And burneth the chariots in the fire.”—Psa. xlvi. 9. it, by guess I believe, as signifying battle, conflict : mibay agaloth, properly plaustra, impedimenta, the bag. the Vulgate renders it violenta prædatio. But it seems gage-wagons : which however the Septuagint and Vulas if something was rather meant which was capable gale render scuta,“shields ;" and the Chaldee, round of becoming fuel for the fire, together with the gar- shields," to show the propriety of that sense of the ments mentioned in the same sentence. In Syriac word from the etymology ; which, if admitted, makes the word, as a noun, signifies a shoe, or a sandal, as a the image the same with that used by the Romans. learned friend suggested to me some years ago. See Ezekiel, chap. xxxix. 8-10, in his bold manner, has Luke xv. 22 ; Acts xii. 8. I take it, therefore, to carried this image to a degree of amplification which I mean that part of the armour which covered the legs think hardly any other of the Hebrew poets would have and feet; and I would render the two words in Latin attempted. He describes the burning of the arms of the by caliga caligati. The burning of heaps of armour, enemy, in consequence of the complete victory to be gathered from the field of battle, as an offering made l obtained by the Israelites over Gog and Magog :

( 5* )


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