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Various abuses of Speech—Swearing—De-
Wotnen more improveable than Men—On
Virgil's Allegory and Ideas of a future State
Remarks on the same—On Marriage Settle-
Trueman, a Hero in Domestic Life . . .
. On the Evils of Drinking-character or d
. Origin of Honour and Tito
Fiucation of the Jesuits—Petition of
Wicissitudes of human Life—Visit to the
Lottery office–Advertisement of a Heart
lost . -
the Indian Kings—Impertinence of Mi-
nuncio . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mischiefs arising from Passion—Story of
Mr. Eustace . . . . . . . . . . .
Errors in Education–Character of horace
Various species of nad persons—Lady Fid-
or-t and Wii Voluble - - - - - - -
O., the Life of People of Condition . . .
v ineans to be unuch wittier . . . - -
Account of a Flatterer–And a common
Joster–Case of a Widow—Petition
Linen Drapers . . . . . .
—i)eath of Mr. Partridge . . . . .
. Letters on Education
. On Parental partiality - - - - - - -
Weather—Froin a Writer of Advertise-
of the Owl, Bats, and the Sun . . ..?ddison.
liteness - Vulgari-ms . . . . . . . Strift.
tics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description of a City Shower . . . . . Stroft.
Prose part of the Paper . . . Steele.
Remarks on the Author's Enemies—The
Examiner . . . . . . . . . . .3ddison.
The Science of Physic—Quincks of the Time
On Drinking-Improp or Behaviour at Church
–On By words – Fee at St Paul's . Steele.
On Raillery aul Sature–Horace and Juvenal
Adventures of the Author when invisible iddison.
On Eloquence—Talents for Couversation—
Pedantry . . . . . . . . . . . Steele.
Advertisement of Lady Fardingale's stolen
Goods—Letter from a Black Boy . . —
On a censorions Disposition—Letters to
Defaulters—Characters of Plunibeus aud
Lewis . . . . . . . . . . . .
247. Letter from Almeira, an Edinburgh young
Lady–And Answer by Mrs Jenny |...} Steels
248). On the improvement of Beauty by Exercise
—Lazy Ladies—Very busy ones - - -
240. Adventures of a Shilling . . . . . .3ddison.
251. On Virtuous Independence—Where true
Happiuess is to be found . . . . . .
252. Defence of Sober Drinking—Letter from
Ralph and Bridget Yokos Ilow . . . . ——
253. Journal of the Court of Honour .7ddison and Steele.
254. Sir John Mandeville's account of the Freez-
ing and Thawing of several Speeches . .
255 Letter from a Chaplain–Thoughts on the
Treatment of Chaplains . . . . . .dddison.
256. Proceedings of the Court of Honour . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .'lúdison and Steele.
257. Wax work representation of the Religions
of Great Britain . . . . .
258. Letter on the use of the Phrase, North
Briton . . . . . . . Swift, Prior, Rowe.
On A Person of Quality"—A Lady invested
261. Plan for the Encouragement of Wedlock–
Instance of Public Spirit—Celamico's Will
252. Journal of the Court of Honour .3ddison and
264. On tedious Talkers and Story-tellers .
205. Journal of the Court of Honour .olddison and
267. On appointed Seasons for Devotion—Lord
Bacon's Prayer . . . . . . . . . .dddison.
268. Petition on Coffee-house Orators and News-
roaders, with the Author's Reinarks
269. Letters on Love and Friendship—Plagius
preaching Tillotson's Sermons . . .
270. Letter on the Dress of Tradesmen—Petition
of Ralph Nab, the Hatter—Of Elizabeth
Slender, Spinster—Letter to Mr. Ralph
Incense, Chaplain - - - - - - - -
271. Conclusion, Design of the work, and Ac-
knowledgement of Assistance . . . .
GENERAL INDEX . . . . . . . .
VOLUME THE FIRST.
TO MR. MAYNWARING."
SIR,-The state of conversation and business in this town having been long perplexed with Pretenders in both kinds; in order to open men's eyes against such abuses, it appeared no unprofitable undertaking to publish a Paper, which should observe upon the manners of the pleasurable, as well as the busy part of mankind. To make this generally read, it seemed the most proper method to form it by way of a letter of intelligence, consisting of such parts as might gratify the curiosity of persons of all conditions, and of each sex. But a work of this nature requiring time to grow into the notice of the world, it happened very luckily, that, a little before I had resolved upon this design, a gentleman had written predictions, and two or three other pieces in my name, which rendered it famous through all parts of Europe; and, by an inimitable spirit and humour, raised it to as high a pitch of reputation as it could possibly arrive at.
By this good fortune, the name of Isaac Bickerstaff gained an audience of all who had any taste of wit; and the addition of the ordinary occurrences of common Journals of News brought in a multitude of other readers. I could not, I confess, long keep up the opinion
of the town, that these Lucubrations were written by the same hand with the first works which were published under my name; but, before I lost the participation of that author's fame, I had already found the advantage of his authority, to which I owe the sudden acceptahce which my labours met with in the world. The general purpose of this Paper is to expose the false arts of life, to pull off the disguises of cunning, vanity, and affectation, and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, and our behaviour. No man has a better judgment for the discovery, or a nobler spirit for the contempt of all imposture, Jian yourself; which qualities render you the most proper patron for the author of these Essays. In the general, the design, however executed, has met with so great success, that there is hardly a name now eminent among us for power, wit, beauty, valour, or wisdom, which is not subscribed for the encouragement of these volumes. This is, indeed, an honour, for which it is impossible to express a suitable gratitude; and there is nothing could be an addition to the pleasure I take in it but the reflection, that it gives me the most conspicuous occasion I can ever have, of subscribing myself, Sir, Your most obliged, most obedient, and most humble servant, ISAAC BICKERSTAFF.
voluME THE SECOND.
To Edward worTLEY MONTAGUE, Esq.
*-When I send you this volume, I am other to make you a request than a Dedication.
* desire, that if you think fit to throw .* any moments on it, you would not do it
**ding those excellent pieces with which **sually conversant. The images which § oil meet with here, will be very faint, W the perusal of the Greeks and Romans, o your ordinary companions. I must
* I am obliged to you for the taste of
many of their excellences, which I had not ob. served until you pointed them to me. I am very proud that there are some things in these papers which I know you pardon ;" and it is no small pleasure to have one's labours suffered by the judgment of a man, who so well understands the true charms of eloquence and poesy. But I direct this address to you; not that I think I can entertain you with my writings, but to thank you for the new delight I
o: son of the Hon. lady Wortley Montague, to." of Edward Montague, the first Earl of
* This seems to amount to a declaration that E. Wortley Montague, Esq. was himself a writer in these papers. 7
have, from your conversation, in those of other be always what you are; and that you may ever
May you enjoy a long continuance of the true relish of the happiness heaven has bestowed upon you! I know not how to say a more affectionate thing to you, than to wish that you may
think, as I know you now do, that you have a much larger fortune than you want. I am, Sir, your most obedient, and most humble ser
vant, ISAAC BICKERSTAFF.
voluME THE THIRD.
TO THE RIGHT HON, WILLIAM LORD COWPER, BARON OF WINGHAM.
My Lord, After having long celebrated the superior graces and excellences, among men, in an imaginary character, I do myself the honour to show my veneration for transcendent merit under my own name, in this address to }. lordship. The just application of those igh accomplishments of which you are master, has been an advantage to all your fellow-subjects; and it is from the common obligation you have laid upon all the world, that I, though a private man, can pretend to be affected with, or take the liberty to acknowledge, your great talents and public virtues. It gives a pleasing prospect to your friends, that is to say, to the friends of your country, that you have passed through the highest offices, at an age when others usually do but form to themselves the hopes of them. They may expect to see you in the house of lords as many years as you were ascending to it. It is our common good, that your admirable eloquence can now no longer be employed, but in the expression of your own sentiments and judgment. The skilful pleader is now for ever changed into the just judge; which latter character your lordship exerts with so prevailing an impartiality, that you win the approbation even of those who dissent from you, and you always obtain favour, because you are never moved by it. This gives you a certain dignity peculiar to your present situation, and makes the equity, even of a lord high chancellor, appear but a degree towards the magnanimity of a peer of Great Britain. Forgive me, my lord, when I cannot conceal from you, that I shall never hereafter behold
you, but I shall behold you, as lately, defending the brave and the unfortunate.* When we attend to your lordship engaged in a discourse, we cannot but reflect upon the many requisites which the vain-glorious speakers of antiquity have demanded in a man who is to exces in oratory; I say, my lord, when we reflect upon the precepts by viewing the example, though there is no excellence proposed by those rhetoricians wanting, the whole art seems to be resolved into that one motive of speaking, sincerity in the intention. The graceful manner, the apt gesture, and the assumed concern, are impotent helps to persuasion, in comparison of the honest countenance of him who utters what he really means. From whence it is, that all the beauties which others attain with labour, are in your lordship but the natural effects of the heart that dictates. It is this noble simplicity, which makes you surpass mankind in the faculties wherein mankind are distinguished from other creatures, reason and speech. If these gifts were communicated to all men in proportion to the truth and ardour of their hearts, I should speak of you with the same force as you express yourself on any other subject. But I resist my present impulse, as agreeable as it is to me; though, indeed, had I any pretensions to a fame of this kind, I should, above all other themes, attempt a panegyric upon my lord Cowper; for the only sure way to a reputation for eloquence, in an age wherein that perfect orator lives, is to choose an argument, upon which he himself must of necessity be silent. I am, my lord, your lordship's most devoted, most obedient, and most humble scrvant, RICHARD STEELE,
* The duke of Marlborough.
VOLUME THE FOURTH.
TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE CHARLES, LORD HALIFAX.
From the Horel at Hamptonurick, April 7, 1711. My Lorn,-When I first resolved upon do. ing myself this honour, I could not but indulge
a certain vanity, in dating from this little covert, where I have frequently had the honour of your lordship's company, and received from you very many obligations. The elegant solitude of this
place, and the greatest pleasures of it, I owe to its being so near those beautiful manors wherein you sometimes reside. It is not retiring from the world, but enjoying its most valuable blessings, when a man is permitted to share in your lordship's conversations in the country. All the bright images which the wits of past ages have left behind them in their writings, the noble plans which the greatest statesmen have laid down for administration of affairs, are equally the familiar objects of your knowledge. But what is peculiar to your lordship above all the illustrious personages that have appeared in any age, is, that wit and learning have from your example fallen into a new aera. Your patronage has produced those arts, which before shunned the commerce of the world, into the service of life; and it is to you we owe, that the man of wit has turned himself to be a man of business. The false delicacy of men of genius, and the objections which others were apt to insinuate against their abilities for entering into affairs have equally vanished. And experience has shown, that men of letters are not only qualified with a greater capacity, but also a
greater integrity in the despatch of business. Your own studies have been diverted from being the highest ornament, to the highest use to man. kind; and the capacities which would have rendered you the greatest poet of your age, have, to the advantage of Great Britain, been employed in pursuits which have made you tho most able and unbiassed patriot. A vigorous imagination, an extensive apprehension, and a ready judginent, have distinguished you in all the illustrious parts of administration, in a reign attended with such difficulties, that the same talents, without the same quickness in the possession of them, would have been incapable of conquering. The natural success of such abilities, has advanced you to a seat in that illustrious house, where you were received by a crowd of your relations. Great as you are in your honours, and personal qualities, I know you will forgive an humble neighbour the vanity of pretending to a place in i. friendship, and subscribing himself, my ord, your lordship's most obliged, and most devoted servant, RICHARD STEELE.
PREFACE TO THE OCTAVO EDITION, 1710.
Is the last Tatler I promised some explanation of passages and persons mentioned in this work, as well as some account of the assistances I have had in the performance. I shall do this in very few words; for when a man has no design but to speak plain truth, he may say a great deal in a very narrow compass. I have, in the dedication of the first volume, made my acknowledgments to Dr. Swift, whose pleasant writings, in the name of Bickerstaff, created an inclination in the town towards any thing that could appear in the same disguise. I must acknowledge also, that, at my first entering upon this work, a certain uncommon way of thinking, and a turn in conversation peculiar to that agreeable gentleman, rendered his company very advantageous to one whose imagination was to be continually employed upon obvious and common subjects, though, at the same time, obliged to treat of them in a new and unbeaten method. His verses on the “Shower in Town,' and the “Description of the Morning,” are instances of the happiness of that genius, which could raise such pleasing ideas upon occasions so barren to an ordinary invention.
When I am upon the house of Bickerstaff. I must not forget that genealogy of the family sent to me by the post, and written, as I since understand, by Mr. Twisden, who died at the battle of Mons, and has a monument in WestIninster abbey, suitable to the respect which is due to his wit and his valour. There are through the course of the work, very many incidents which were written by unknown correspondents. Of this kind is the tale in the second Tatler, and the epistle from Mr. Downes the prompter, with others which were very well re
ceived by the public. But I have only one gentleman, who will be nameless, to thank for any frequent assistance to me, which indeed it would have been barbarous in him to have denied to one with whom he has lived in an intimacy from childhood, considering the great ease with which he is able to despatch the most entertaining pieces of this nature. This good office he performed with such force of genius, humour, wit, and learning, that I fared like a distressed prince, who calls in a powerful neighbour to his aid; I was undone by my auxiliary; when I had once called him in, I could not subsist without dependence on him. w The same hand writ the distinguishing characters of men and women under the names of “Musical Instruments,’ ‘The Distress of the News-writers,’ ‘The Inventory of the Playhouse, and “The description of the Thermometer,' which I cannot but look upon as the greatest embellishments of this work. Thus far I thought necessary to say relating to the great hands which have been concerned in these volumes, with relation to the spirit and genius of the work ; and am far from pretending to modesty in making this acknowledgment. What a man obtains from the good opinion and friendship of worthy men, is a much greater honour than he can possibly reap from any accomplishments of his own. But all the credit of wit which was given me by the gentlemen above-mentioned, with whom I have now accounted, has not been able to atone for the exceptions made against me for some raillery in behalf of that learned advocate for the episcopacy of the church, and the liberty of the people, Mr. Hoadly. I mentioned this only to de