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p. 204, 1. 3. “ For their merchants, they are vena porta.

Upon this phrase, writes Mr. Spedding (Works, VI. 422, note) which occurs two or three times in Bacon (see for instance the “ History of King Henry VII.,” Works, VI. 172, “ being a king that loved wealth and treasure, he could not endure to have trade sick, nor any obstruction to continue in the gate-vein which disperseth that blood) I am indebted to Mr. Ellis for the following characteristic note:

“ The metaphor," he writes, “ is historically curious ; for no one would have used it since the discovery of the circulation of the blood and of the lacteals. But in Bacon's time it was supposed that the chyle was taken up by the veins which converge to the vena porta. The latter immediately divides into branches, and ultimately into four ramifications, which are distributed throughout the substance of the liver, so that it has been compared to the trunk of a tree giving off roots at one extremity and branches at the other. Bacon's meaning therefore is, that commerce concentrates the resources of a country in order to their redistribution. The heart whirh receives blood from all parts of the body and brings it into contact with the external air, and then redistributes it everywhere, would I think have taken the place of the vena porta, after Harvey's discovery had become known; especially as the latter is a mere conduit, and not a source of motion."

Essay XX. p. 210, 1. 20. — The MS. add. " which hath tourned Metis the wife to

Metis the mistresse, that is Councells of State to which Princes are [solemly] marryed, to Councells of gracious persons recommended chiefly by [fattery and] affection.” Mr. Spedding, in his note (Works, VI. p. 555), remarks:

The word " solemly" has a line drawn through it, and the words

• tlattery and" are inserted between the lines in Bacon's hand. p. 211, l. 5.

About this time the King called unto his Privy Counsel John Morton and Richard Foxe, the one Bishop of Ely, the other Bishop of Exeter; vigilant men and secret, and such as kept watch with him almost upon all men else. History of King Henry VII. Works, VI. 40.

p. 212, 1. 12. — “ Apophthegms," 105:

Alonso of Aragon was wont to say of himself, That he was a great necromancer, for that he used to ask counsel of the dead: meaning of books.

p. 212, 1. 13. “ Books will speak plain when counsellors blanch," i.e.

flinch. This word is used in the sense to avoid or evade in Essay XXVI. p. 274, l. 2, and also in the “ History of King Henry VII.":

It seemeth the judges of that time thought it was a dangerous thing to admit Ifs and Ands to qualify words of treason; whereby every man might express his malice, and blanch his danger. – Works, VI. 151. And in the Second Book of the “ Adv. of Learning,” Works, III. 414:

The second is concerning the exposition and explication of
authors, which resteth in annotations and commentaries: wherein it
is over usual to blanch the obscure places, and discourse upon the
The word occurs in Chapman's “ Homer":-

Hector, you know, applause
Of humour hath bene farre from me; nor fits it, or in warre,
Or in affaires of Court, a man imploid in publicke care,
To blanch things further then the truth, or flatter any powre.

Iliad, XII. 220, p. 164, ed. 1611 or 1612.
Al-o blench in “ Measure for Measure," IV. 5:-

Though sometimes you do blench from this to that,
As cause doth minister.

p. 212, 1. 26. “Hoc agere.” The phrase is explained in Plutarch:

But hereby appeareth plainely, how king Numa did wisely ordaine all other ceremonies concerning devotion to the gods, and specially this custome which he established, to bring the people to religion. For when the magistrates, bishops, priestes, or other religious ministers goe about any divine service, or matter of religion, an herauld ever goeth before them, crying out aloud, lloc age : as to say, do this, or mind this. — North's Transl. Coriolanus, p. 234, ed. 1631.

p. 213, 1. 17. “ will sing him a song of placebo :" the Vesper hymn for

the dead.

Pope Sixtus's Breviary says, “Ad vesperas, absolutè incipitur ab Antiphonâ, placebo Domino in regione vivorum." — Nares. Glossary.

Essay XXI. p. 218, 1. 3. “Sibylla's offer." Compare “Adv. of Learning," II. 23,

$ 28.

Essay XXII.

p. 224, 1. 1. “cunning.”

The fact, writes Trench (“ Glossary "), that so many words implying knowledge, art, skill, obtain in course of time a secondary meaning of crooked knowledge, art which has degenerated into artifice, skill used only to circumvent, which meanings partially or altogether put out of use their primary, is a mournful witness to the way in which intellectual gifts are too commonly misapplied. Thus, there was a time when the Latin “ dolus” required the epithet “malus," as often as it signified a treacherous or fraudful device; but it was soon able to drop this as superfluous, and to stand by itself. The word “cunning” has gone the same downward course : indeed, as early as Lord Bacon, who says, We take cunning for a sinister, or crooked wisdom," it had acquired what is now its only acceptation; but not then, nor till long after, to the exclusion of its more honorable use. How honorable that use sometimes was, the following quotation will testify: –

“I believe that all these Persons (in the Godhead) are even in power and in cunning and in might, full of grace and of all goodness." — Foxe.

The Book of Martyrs. Confession of Faith, by William Thorpe.

This Booke entituled a Collection of Entrees, contayneth the forme and maner of good pleading, which is a great part of the cunning of the Law of England. - RASTELL. Entries. To the Reader, ed. 1596.

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p. 224, l. 8.

- In the “ Promus of Formularies and Elegancies' (Works, VII. 197) is this note, descriptive of the characters of

some men:

Cunning in the humours of persons, and not in the conditions of actions.

p. 224, 1. 11. “ they are good but in their own alley.Under “ Bowl

Alley," or " Bowling-Alley," Nares ("Glossary") gives “A covered space for the game of bowls, instead of a bowlinggreen.” He quotes “ Whether it be in open wide places, or in close allies, - the chusing of the bowle is the greatest cunning."

- G. MARKHAM. Country Contentments, p. 58.

in pan.

p. 226, l. 16. “The turning of the cat in the pan.” To change sides or parties ; supposed originally to have been to turn cate or cake

Grose's “ Dictionary,” etc. ed. 1796. It appears 10 have been a common saying. — It occurs in “ Damon and Pithias":

Damon smatters as well as he, of craftie pilosophie,
And can tourne cat in the panne very pretily.

DODSLEY's Old Plays, I. 206, ed. 1825.


p. 227, 1. 16. “ walking in Paul's.” The Elizabethan literature abounds

in allusions to the common use of the nave of old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, as a constant place of resort for business ani amusement by the men about town, especially of the baser

Advertisements were posted upon the pillars, bargains made, politics discus-ed, and there serving men and retainers out of place sought new masters. A Westminster woman, a Paul's man, avd a Smithfield horse enjoyed similar reputations. DECKER'S Gull's Hornbook, 2, 95, ed. Nott, 1812. EARLE's Microcosmography, 116, ed. Bliss, 1811. Nasu's Pierce Penniless, 42, Shakespeare Society's Reprint. Ben Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour, Act III. NARES, Glossary. White's Shakespeare, VI. 533.

p. 227, 1. 23. “ resorts and falls.” Lat. periodos et pausas.

« Resort" is apparently used in the sense of a spring or fountain. The phrase “ resorts and falls" is well illustrated by the following quotation from Fuller's “ The Holy State,” II. 10, p. 83, ed. London, 1841:

Mr. Perkins was born [in] the first and died the last – year of Queen Elizabeth; so that his life streamed in equal length with her reign, and they both had their fountains and falls together. The word “ resort” appears to be used in the same sense in “ Adv. of Learning, II. 2, § 4:

But such being the workmanship of God, as He doth hang the greatest weight upon the smallest wires, Maxima è Minimis suspendens, it comes therefore to pass, that such histories do rather set forth the pomp

of business than the true and inward resorts thereof. In the corresponding passage of the "De Augmentis," II. 7, the last clause is given “ quam eorum veros fomites et texturas subtiliores.” — Works, I. 507. The true reading is probably " fontes” for “fomites.” The thought expressed in the Essay occurs again in the “ Adv. of Learning,” II. 23, $ 30:

If we observe, we shall find two differing kinds of sufficiency, in managing of business: some can make use of occasions aptly and dexterously, but plot little; some can urge and pursue their owne plots well, but cannot accommodate nor take in; either of which is very imperfect without the other.

Essay XXIII.

p. 239, 1. 1. — Comp. “ Adv. of Learning," II. 23, § 8:—

For many are wise in their own ways that are weak for government or counsel; like ants, which is a wise creature for itself, but very hurtful for the garden.


p. 239, 1. 20. “prefer before.” To make superior to, promote. The

verb to prefer was defined to mean to recommend. But it implied something more. It was rather to transfer or hand

In the Dedication of the first edition of the Essays to his brother Anthony, Baron wrote thus :

Since they (the Essays] would not stay with their master, but would needs travaile abroad, I have preferred them to you that are next my selfe, dedicating them, such as they are, to our love, etc.

His [Lord Cottingston's) mother was a Stafford, nearly allied to Sir Edward Stafford; by whom this gentleman was brought up, and by him recommended to Sir Robert Cecil, who preferred him to Sir Charles Cornewallis, when he went ambassador into Spain. — CLARENDON. History, etc. Book XIII. $ 30, vol. V. p. 171, ed. Oxford, 1819.

Essay XXIV. p. 246, 1. 19.

Whilst on the one hand innovation on settled law is to be avoided. yet those who are familiar with the manner in which the common law has been built up and declared by judicial resolutions will be aware that the mere lateness of time at which a principle has become established is not a strong argument against its soundness, if nothing has been previously decided inconsistent with it, and if it be in itself consistent with legal analogies. — Judgment in Gosling r. Veley, 7 Queen's Bench, 441 (1847). Nickells v. Atherstone, 10 Queen's Bench, 950 (1847). Nay it is even true as Lord Bacon remarks in the text that “a

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