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Ante Urbem

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Desolation of the


Jews predicted. 4. M. cir

. 3262. Judah; even the king of Ais- | hiss for the fly that is in the ... cir. 326.2. Anno Olymp. syria.

uttermost part of the rivers of Anno Olymp. Nonæ 3.

-18 And it shall come to pass Egypt, and for the bee that is in Ante Urbem Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. in that day, that the LORD a shall the land of Assyria.

a Isaiah, chap. v. 26. other than the heir of the throne of David ; under in due time, fulfil the predictions of his servant, as rewhich character a great and even a Divine person had lated in the context. On Ahaz humbly refusing to ask been promised ? No one of that age answered to this any sign, it is immediately added, “ Therefore the character except Hezekiah ; but he was certainly born Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin nine or ten years before the delivery of this prophecy. shall conceive and bear a son ; and shall call his name That this was so understood at that time is collected, Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat,” &c. Both I think, with great probability, from a passage of Mi- the Divine and human nature of oùr Lord, as well as cah, a prophet contemporary with Isaiah, but who began the miraculous conception, appear to be pointed out in to prophesy after him; and who, as I have already the prophecy quoted here by the evangelist : He shall observed, imitated him, and sometimes used his ex- be called Suggy IMMANU-EL ; literally, The STRONG pressions. Micah, having delivered that remarkable God with us : similar to those words in the New prophecy which determines the place of the birth of Testament: The word which was God was made Messiah," the Ruler of God's people, whose goings flesh, and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth ; forth have been of old, from everlasting ;" that it should John i. 1, 14. And God was manifested in the flesh, be Bethlehem Ephratah ; adds immediately, that ne- 1 Tim. iii. 16. So that we are to understand God vertheless, in the mean time, God would deliver his with us to imply, God incarnatedGod in human napeople into the hands of their enemies : “He will give turė. . This seems farther evident from the words of them up, till she, who is to bear a child, shall bring the prophet, ver. 15 : Butter and honey shall he eat forth,” Mic. v. 3. This obviously and plainly refers he shall be truly man-grow up and be nourished in a to some known prophecy concerning a woman to bring human natural way ; which refers to his being with forth a child ; and seems much more properly applica- us, i. e., incarnated. To which the prophet adds, ble to this passage of Isaiah than to any others of the That he may know lo refuse the evil, and choose the same prophet

, to which some interpreters have applied good; or rather, According to his knowledge, ingots it. St. Matthew, therefore, in applying this prophecy ledato, reprobating the evil, and choosing the good ; to the birth of Christ, does it, not merely in the way of this refers to him as God, and is the same idea given accommodating the words of the prophet tó a suitable by this prophet, chap. liii. 11: By (or in) his knowcase not in the prophet's view, but takes it in its strict- ledge, inyya bedato, (the knowledge of Christ cruciest, clearest, and most important sense ; and applies it fied,) shall my righteous servant justify many; for he according to the original design and principal intention shall bear their offences. Now this union of the Di. of the prophet.—L.

vine and human nature is termed a sign or miracle, nis After all this learned criticism, I think something is oth, i. e., something which exceeds the power of nastill wanting to diffuse the proper light over this impor- ture to produce. And this miraculous union was to be tant prophecy. On Matt. i. 23 I have given what I brought about in a miraculous way: Behold, a VIRGIN judge to be the true meaning and right application of shall conceive : the word is very emphatic, na

hyn hathe whole passage, as there quoted by the evangelist, almah, THE virgin; the only one that ever was, or ever the substance of which it will be necessary to repeat shall be, a mother in this way. But the Jews, and here :

some called Christians, who have espoused their desAt the time referred to, the kingdom of Judah, under perate cause, assert that “the word hy almah does the government of Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, not signify a VIRGIN only; for it is applied Prov. xxx. king of Israel, had slain in Judea one hundred and 19 to signify a young married woman.” I answer, twenty thousand persons in one day; and carried away that this latter text is no proof of the contrary doctrine : captives two hundred thousand, including women and the words nobya 973 777 derech geber bealmah, the children, together with much spoil. To add to their way of a man with a maid, cannot be proved to mean distress, Rezin, king of Syria, being confederate with that for which it is produced. Besides, one of De Pekah, had taken Elath, a fortified city of Judah, and Rossi's MSS. reads inbya bealmaiv, the way of a carried the inhabitants away captive to Damascus. In strong or stout man (131 geber) IN HIS YOUTH; and in this critical conjuncture, need we wonder that Ahaz this reading the Syriac, Septuagint, Vulgate, and was afraid that the enemies who were now united Arabic agree ; which are followed by the first version against him must prevail, destroy Jerusalem, end the in the English language, as it stands in a MS. in my kingdom of Judah, and annihilate the family of David ? own possession : the wese of a man in his waring To meet and remove this fear, apparently well ground-youth : so that this place, the only one that can with ed, Isaiah is sent from the Lord to Ahaz, swallowed up any probability of success be produced, were the internow both by sorrow and by unbelief, in order to assure pretation contended for correct, which I am by no him that the counsels of his enemies should not stand ; means disposed to admit, proves nothing. Besides, and that they should be utterly discomfited. To en the consent of so many versions in the opposite meancourage Ahaz, he commands him to ask a sign or mira- ing deprives it of much of its influence in this question. cle, which should be a pledge in hand, that God should, The word nohy almah, comes from aby alam, to lie Desolation of the


Jews predicted A. M. cir. 3262.

19 And they shall come, and all thorns, and upon B. C. cir. 742.

all 4. M. cir. 3262.

B. C. cir. 742. Anno Olymp. shall rest all of them in the bushes.

Anno Olymp. Sonæ 3.

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem desolate valleys, and in the 20 In the same day shall the Ante Urbemn Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. holes of the rocks, and upon Lord shave with a d razor that is Chap. ii. 19; Jer. xvi. 16. — Or, commendable trees. d 2 Kings xvi. 7,8; 2 Chron. xxviii. 20, 21; see Ezek. v. I. hid, be concealed : and we are told, that “ virgins were This is a most remarkable circumstance-the house so called, because they were concealed or closely kept of David could never fail, till a virgin should conceive up in their fathers' houses till the time of their mar- and bear a son—nor did it: but when that incredible riage.” This is not correct : see the case of Rebecca, and miraculous fact did take place, the kingdom and Gen. xxiv. 43, and my note there'; that of Rachel, house of David became extinct!. This is an irrefragaGen. xxix. 6, 9, and the note there also ;' and see the ble confutation of every argument a Jew can offer in case of Miriam, the sister of Moses, Exod. ii. 8, and vindication of his opposition to the Gospel of Christ. also the Chaldee paraphrase on Lam. i. 4, where the Either the prophecy in Isaiah has been fulfilled, or the virgins are represented as going out in the dance. And kingdom and house of David are yet standing. But the see also the whole history of Ruth. This being con- kingdom of David, we know, is destroyed : and where cealed or kept at home, on which so much stress is is the man, Jew or Gentile, that can show us a single laid, is purely fanciful; for we find that young unmar- descendant of David' on the face of the earth? The ried women drew water, kept sheep, gleaned publicly prophecy could not fail : the kingdom and house of in the fields, &c., &c., and the same works they per- David have failed; the virgin, therefore, must have form among the Turcomans to the present day. This brought forth her son, and this son is Jesus, the Christ. reason, therefore, does not account for the radical Thus Moses, Isaiah, and Matthew concur; and facts meaning of the word; and we must seek it elsewhere. the most unequivocal have confirmed the whole! BeAnother well-known and often-used root in the Hebrew hold the wisdom and providence of God ! tongue will cast light on this subject. This is ozba - Notwithstanding what has been said above, it may galah, which signifies to reveal, make manifest, or un- be asked, In what sense could this name, Immanuel, cover; and is often applied to matrimonial connections be applied to Jesus Christ, if he be not truly and proin different parts of the Mosaic law: Oby alam, there- perly GOD? Could the Spirit of truth ever design fore, may be considered as implying the concealment that Christians should receive him as an angel or a of the virgin, as such, till lawful marriage had taken mere man; and yet, in the very beginning of the Gosplace. A virgin was not called 7phy almah, because pel history, apply a character to him which belongs she was concealed by being kept at home in her father's only to the most high God ? Surely no. In what house, which is not true; but, literally and physically, sense, then, is Christ GOD with us? Jesus is called because as a woman she had not been uncovered-she Immanuel, or God with us, in his incarnation ; God had not known man. This fully applies to the blessed united to our nature ; God with man, God in man; virgin, see Luke i. 34. “How can this be, seeing I God with us, by his continual protection; God with know no man ?And this text throw's much light on us, by the influences of his Holy Spirit, in the holy the subject before us. This also is in perfect agree- sacrament, in the preaching of his word, in private ment with the ancient prophecy, " The seed of the wo- prayer. And God with us, through every action of man shall bruise the head of the serpent,” Gen. ii. 15; our life, that we begin, continue, and end in his name. for the person who was to destroy the work of the He is God with us, to comfort, enlighten, protect, and devil was to be the progeny of the woman, without any defend us, in every time of templation and trial, in concurrence of the man. And hence the text in Gene- the hour of death, in the day of judgment ; and God sis speaks as fully of the virgin state of the person from with us and in us, and we with and in him, to all whom Christ, according to the flesh, should come, as eternity. that in the prophet, or this in the evangelist. Accord- Verse 17. The Lord shall bring—" But JEHOVAH ing to the original promise there was to be a seed, a will bring”) Houbigant reads X"I" vaiyabi, from the human being, who should destroy sin : but this seed or Septuagint, aña enaFEL ó Oros, to mark the transition human being, must come from the woman ALONE ; and to a new subject. no woman ALONE could produce such a human being Even the king of Assyria.] Houbigant supposes without being a virgin. Hence, A virgin shall bear a these words to have been a marginal gloss, brought son, is the very spirit and meaning of the original text, into the text by mistake ; and so likewise Archbishop independently of the illustration given by the prophet; Secker. Besides their having no force or effect here, and the fact recorded by the evangelist is the proof they do not join well in construction with the words of the whole. But how could that be a sign to Ahaz, preceding, as may be seen by the strange manner in which was to take place so many hundreds of years which the ancient interpreters have taken them; and after? I answer, the meaning of the prophet is plain : they very inelegantly forestall the mention of the king not only Rezin and Pekah should be unsuccessful of Assyria, which comes in with great propriety in the against Jerusalem at that time, which was the fact; 20th verse. I have therefore taken the liberty of but Jerusalem, Judea, and the house of David should omitting them in the translation. be both preserved, notwithstanding their depressed Verse 18. Hiss for the fly—“Hist the fly') See state, and the multitude of their adversaries, till the note on chap. v. 26. time, should come when a VIRGIN should bear a son. Egypt, and— Assyria.] Sennacherib, Esarhaddon,

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem

Desolation of the


Jews predicted. 8. M. cörr. 3282. hired, namely, by them beyond that every place shall be, where A. M. cir. 3262. Anno Olymp.

the river, by the king of Assyria; there were a thousand vines Anno Olymp. Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem the head, and the hair of the at a thousand, silverlings, sit Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. feet: and it shall also con- shall even be for briers and sume the beard.

thorns. 21 And it shall come to pass in that day, 24 With arrows and with bows shall men that a man shall nourish a young cow, and come thither; because all the land shall betwo sheep :

come briers and thorns. 22 And it shall come to pass, for the abun- 25 And on all hills that shall be digged with dance of milk that they shall give that he shall the mattock, there shall not come thither the eat butter : for butter and honey shall every fear of briers and thorns : but it shall be for one eat that is left f in the land.

the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading 23 And it shall come to pass in that day, of lesser cattle.'

e Deut. xxxii. 14.-Heb: in the midst of the land.

& Chap. v. 6. -h Jer, I. 14.

Pharao-necho, and Nebuchadnezzar, who one after an- than suffer his surgeon to take off his beard. Memoires, other desolated Judea.

tom. iii.; p. 214. See also Niebuhr, Arabie, p. 61. Verse 19. Holes of the rocks—“Caverns"] So the The remaining verses of this chapter, 21-25, conSeptuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, whence Houbigant tain an elegant and very expressive description of a supposes the true reading to be dobbnin hannachalo-country depopulated, and left to run wild, from its adlim. One of my oldest MSS. reads Dobosnian hanna- juncts and circumstances : the vineyards and cornfields, chalolim.

before well cultivated, now overrun with briers and Verse 20. The river] That is, the Euphrates : 7730 thorns ; much grass, so that the few cattle that are hanahar. So read the Septuagint and two MSS. left, a young cow and two sheep, have their full range,

Shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired and abundant pasture, so as to yield milk in plenty to " Jehovah shall shave by the hired razor!') To shave the scanty family of the owner; the thinly scattered with the hired razor the head, the feet; and the beard, people living, not on corn, wine, and oil, the produce is an expression highly parabolical, to denote the utter of cultivation ; but on milk and honey, the gifts of nadevastation of the country from one end to the other ; ture; and the whole Tand given up to the wild beasts, and the plundering of the people, from the highest to so that the miserable inhabitants are forced to go out the lowest, by the Assyrians, whom God employed as armed with bows and arrows, either to defend themhis instrument to punish the Jews. Ahaz himself, in selves against the wild beasts, or to supply themselves the first place, hired the king of Assyria to come to with necessary food by hunting · help him against the Syrians, by a present made to him of all the treasures of the temple, as well as his A VERY judicious friend has sent me the following own. And God himself considered the great nations, observations on the preceding prophecy, which I think whom he thus employed as his mercenaries ;, and worthy of being laid before the reader; though they paid them their wages. Thus he paid Nebuchadnez- are in some respects different from my own view of zar for his services against Tyre, by the conquest of the subject. Egypt, Ezek. xxix. 18–20. The hairs of the head “ To establish the primary and literal meaning of a are those of the highest order in the state ; those of passage of Scripture is evidently laying the true foundathe feet, or the lower parts, are the common people ; tion for any subsequent views or improvements from it. the beard is the king, the high priest, the very su- “ The kingdom of Judah, under the government of preme in dignity and majesty. The Eastern people Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, king of Israel, have always held the beard in the highest veneration, had slain in Judea one hundred and twenty thousand and have been extremely jealous of its honour. To in one day; and carried away captive two hundred pluck a man's beard is an instance of the greatest in- thousand, including women and children, with much dignity that can be offered. See Isa. I. 6. The king spoil. To add to this distress, Rezin, king of Syria, of the Ammonites, to show the utmost contempt of being confederate with Pekah, had taken Elath, a forDavid, “cut off half the beards of his servants, and the tified city of Judah, and carried the inhabitants to Damen were greatly ashamed ; and David bade them mascus. I think it may also be gathered from the tarry at Jericho till their beards were grown,” 2 Sam. sixth verse of chap. viii., that the kings of Syria and X. 4, 5. Niebuhr, Arabię, p. 275, gives a modern Israel had a considerable party in the land of Judea, instance of the very same kind of insult. “The who, regardless of the Divine appointment and proTurks,” says Thevenot, greatly esteem a man who mises, were disposed to favour the elevation of Tabeal, has a fine beard; it is a very great affront to take a a stranger, to the throne of David. man by his beard, unless it be to kiss it; they swear “ In this critical conjuncture of affairs, Isaiah was by the beard.” Voyages, i., p. 57. D'Arvieux gives sent with a message of mercy, and a promise of dea remarkable instance of an Arab, who, having receiv- liverance, to Ahaz. He was commanded to take with ed a wound in his jaw, chose to hazard his life, rather | him Shearjashub, his son, whose name contained a pro


Observations on the


preceding chapter. mise respecting the captives lately made by Pekah, | comforts with the assurance (ver. 10) that they shall whose return from Samaria, effected by the expostula- prove the fulfilment of the promise contained in the tion of the prophet Oded and the concurrence of the name Immanuel. princes of Ephraim, was now promised as a pledge of But it may still be objected, that according to this the Divine interposition offered to Ahaz in favour of the interpretation of the fourteenth verse of chap. vii. nohouse of David. And as a farther token of this pre- thing miraculous occurs, which is readily admitted; but servation, notwithstanding the incredulity of Ahaz, the objection rests upon the supposition that something Isaiah was directed to predict the birth of another son miraculous was intended ;- whereas the word nix oth, which should be born to him within the space of a year, sign,' does by no means generally imply a miracle, and to be named Immanuel, signifying thereby the pro- but most commonly an emblematic representation, (see tection of God to the land of Judah and family of Da. Ezek. iv. 3–12 ; xi; xx. 20 ; Zech. vi. 14,) either by vid at this present conjuncture, with reference to the actions or names, of some future event either promised promise of the Messiah who was to spring from that or threatened. Exod. iii. 12; 1 Sam. ii. 34 ; 2 Kings family, and be born in that land. Compare chap. viii. 8. xix. 29; Jer. xliv. 29, 30, are all examples of a future Hence Isaiah testifies, chap, viii. 18: Behold, I and event given as a sign or token of something else which the children whom the Lord hath given me are for is also future. The birth of Isaiah's son was indeed signs and for types în Israel. Compare Zech. iii. 8: typical of him whose name he was, at first, appointed * Thy companions are men of sign and type :' see Dr. to bear, viz., Immanuel, even as Oshea the son of Nun Lowth on this verse. The message of Divine displea- had his name changed to Jehoshua, the same with Jesure against Israel is in like manner expressed by the sus, of whom he was an eminent type. Hence the names the prophet Hosea was directed to give his prophet, in the ninth chapter, breaks forth into a strain children ; see Hos. i. and ii.

of exultation : "To us a child is born ;' after which fol“Concerning this child, who was to be named Im- low denunciations against Rezin and the kingdom of manuel, the prophet was commissioned to declare, that Israel, which are succeeded by declarations, that when notwithstanding the present scarcity prevailing in the Assyria had completed the appointed chastisement upon land from its being harassed by war, yet within the Judah and Jerusalem, that empire should be destroyed. space of time wherein this child should be of age to The whole of the tenth chapter is a very remarkable discern good and evil, both these hostile kings, viz., prophecy, and was probably delivered about the time of Israel and Syria, should be cut off; and the coun- of Sennacherib's invasion. try enjoy such plenty, that butter and honey, food ac- “ But still it will be urged, that St. Matthew, when counted of peculiar delicacy, should be a common re- relating the miraculous conception of our Lord, says, past. See Harmer's Observations, vol. p. 299. • Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which

“ To this it may be objected that Isaiah's son was was spoken of the Lord by the prophet,' &c. To this not named Immanuel, but Maher-shalal-hash-baz; the it may readily be answered, that what was spoken by signification of which bore a threatening aspect, instead the prophet was indeed now fulfilled in a higher, more of a consolatory one. To this I ihink a satisfactory important, and also in a more literal sense, than the answer may be given. Ahaz, by his unbelief and dis- primary fulfilment could afford, which derived all its regard of the message of mercy sent to him from God, value from its connection with this event, to which it (for instead of depending upon it he sent and made a ultimately referred. treaty with the king of Assyria,) drew upon himself “In like manner the prophecy of Isaiah, contained the Divine displeasure, which was expressed by the in the second chapter, received a complete fulfilment change of the child's name, and the declaration that in our Saviour's honouring Capernaum with his resithough Damascus and Samaria should, according to dence, and preaching throughout Galilee; though there the former prediction, fall before the king of Assyria, appears reason to interpret the passage as having a priyet that this very power, i. e., Assyria, in whom Ahaz mary respect to the reformation wrought by Hezekiah, trusted for deliverance, (see 2 Kings xvi. 7, &c.,) and which, at the eve of the dissolution of the kingshould afterwards come against Judah, and "fill the dom of Israel by the captivity of the ten tribes, exbreadth of the land,' which was accomplished in the tended to the tribes of Asher and Zebulun, and many following reign, when Jerusalem was so endangered as of the inhabitants of Ephraim and Manasseh, who were to be delivered only by miracle. The sixth and seventh hereby stirred up to destroy idolatry in their country. verses of chap. viii. indicate, I think, as I before ob- See 2 Chron. xxxi. 1. And without doubt the great served, that the kings of Syria and Israel had many deliverance wrought afterwards for Judah by the miadherents in Judah, who are said to refuse the peace- raculous destruction of Sennacherib's army, and the ful waters of Shiloh or Siloam, him that is to be sent, recovery of Hezekiah in so critical a conjuncture from who ought to have been their confidence, typified by a sickness which had been declared to be unto death, the fountain at the foot of Mount Zion, whose stream contributed not a little to revive the fear of God in that watered the city of Jerusalem; and therefore, since part of Israel which, through their defection from the the splendour of victory, rather than the blessings of house of David, had grievously departed from the empeace, was the object of their admiration, compared to ple and worship of the true God; and as Galilee lay a swelling river which overflowed its banks, God contiguous to countries inhabited by Gentiles, they had threatens to chastise them by the victorious armies probably sunk deeper into idolatry than the southern of Ashur. The prophet at the same time addresses part of Israel. words of consolation to such of the people who yet “In several passages of St. Matthew's Gospel, our feared and trusted in Jehovah, whom he instructs and translation conveys the idea of things being done in

Isaiah prophesies

against Israel. order to fulfil certain prophecies; but I apprehend that those predictions of the prophets which indicate the if the words iva kai otus were rendered as simply de contempt and neglect with which by many the Messiah noting the event, so that and thus was fulfilled, the should be treated. Galilee was considered by the insense would be much clearer. For it is obvious that habitants of Judea as a degraded place, chiefly from our Lord did not speak in parables or ride into Jerusa- its vicinity to the Gentiles ; and Nazareth seems to lem previously to his last passover, simply for the pur- have been proverbially contemptible ; and from the pose of fulfilling the predictions recorded, but also from account given of the spirit and conduct of the inother motives; and in chap. ii, - the evangelist only habitants by the evangelists, not without reason.”remarks that the circumstance of our Lord's return E. M. B. from Egypt corresponded with the prophet Hosea's To my correspondent, as well as to many learned relation of that part of the history of the Israelites. men, there appears some difficulty in the text; but I So in the twenty-lhird verse Joseph dweli at Nazareth really think this is quite done away by that mode of because he was directed so to do by God himself; and interpretation which I have already adopted ; and as the sacred historian, having respect to the effect after- far as the miraculous conception is concerned, the whole wards produced, (see John vii. 41, 42, 52,) remarks is set in the clearest and strongest light, and the objecthat this abode in Nazareth was a means of fulfilling lions and cavils of the Jews entirely destroyed.


Prediction respecting the conquest of Syria and Israel by the Assyrians, 1-4. Israel, for rejecting the gentle

stream of Shiloah, near Jerusalem, is threatened to be overflowed by the great river of Assyria, manifestly alluding by this strong figure to the conquests of Tiglath-pileser and Shalmaneser over that kingdom, 6–7. The invasion of the kingdom of Judah by the Assyrians under Sennacherib foretold, 8. The prophet assures the Israelites and Syrians that their hostile attempts against Judah shall be frustrated, 9, 10. Exhortation not lo be afraid of the wrath of man, but to fear the displeasure of God, 11-13. Judgments which shall overtake those who put no confidence in Jehovah, 14, 15. The prophet proceeds to warn his countrymen against idolatry, divination, and the like sinful practices, exhorting them to seek direction from the word of God, professing in a beautiful apostrophe that this was his own pious resolution. And to enforce this counsel, and strengthen their faith, he points to his children, whose symbolic names were signs

or pledges of the Divine promises, 16–20. Judgments of God against the finally impenitent, 21, 22. B. M. cir. 3282. MOREOVER the Lord said | pen concerning • Maher-shalal. 4. M. cir. 3262.

B. C. cir. 742. Anno Olymp. unto me, Take thee a great hash-baz.

Anno Olymp. Nona 3.

roll, and a write in it with a man's 2 And I took unto me faithful A. U.C. 12.

Nonæ 3.

A. U. C. 12.

a Chap. xxx. 8; Hab. ii. 2.

- Heb. in making speed to the spoil he hasterieth the prey, or make speed, &c.

The prophecy of the foregoing chapter relates di- invasion of Judah by the same power under Sennacherectly to the kingdom of Judah only: the first part of rib, which would bring them into the most imminent it promises them deliverance from the united invasion danger, like a flood reaching to the neck, in which a of the Israelites and Syrians; the latter part, from ver. man can but just keep his head above water. The two 17, denounces the desolation to be brought upon the next verses, 9 and 10, are addressed by the prophet, kingdom of Judah by the Assyrians. The sixth, se- as a subject of the kingdom of Judah, to the Israelites veňth, and eighth verses of this chapter seem to take and Syrians, and perhaps to all the enemies of God's in both the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. This people; assuring them that their attempts against that people that refuseth the waters of Shiloah,” may be kingdom shall be fruitless ; for that the promised Immeant of both : the Israelites despised the kingdom of manuel, to whom he alludes by using his name to exJudah, which they had deserted, and now attempted to press the signification of it, for God is with us, shall destroy ; the people of Judah, from a consideration of be the defence of the house of David, and deliver the their own weakness, and a distrust of God's promises, kingdom of Judah out of their hands. He then probeing reduced to despair, applied to the Assyrians for ceeds to warn the people of Judah against idolatry, assistance against the two confederate kings. But how divination, and the like forbidden practices ; to which could it be said of Judah, that they rejoiced in Rezin, they were much inclined, and which would soon bring and the son of Remaliah, the enemies confederated down God's judgments upon Israel. The prophecy against them! If some of the people were inclined concludes at the sixth verse of chap. ix. with promises to revolt to the enemy, (which however does not clearly of blessings in future times by the coming of the great appear from any part of the history or the prophecy,) deliverer already pointed out by the name of Immanuel, yet there was nothing like a tendency to a general defec- whose person and character is set forth in terms the tion. This, therefore, must be understood of Israel. most ample and magnificent. The prophet denounces the Assyrian invasion, which And here it may be observed that it is almost the should overwhelm the whole kingdom of Israel under constant practice of the prophet to connect in like manTiglath-pileser, and Shalmaneser; and the subsequent | ner deliverances temporal with spiritual. Thus the

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