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275

Transferet, et Longam multa vi muniet Albam.
Hic iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos
Gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem.
Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus
Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet
Moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet.
His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono;
Inperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Iuno,
Quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat,
Consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit

280

'for his reign,' or modal abl. = 'inpe. Hor. 3 Od. 4. 34, “laetum equino sanrando. Heins. restored 'ab sede' for a guine Concanum," and the similar use of sede,' from Med., Rom., &c.

gaudeo. Prop. 5. 10. 20 describes Ro271.] Muniet,' • build and fortify.' mulus with a helmet of wolf-skin ; but ‘Multa vi,' with great power and might, Virg., as Henry remarks, doubtless not, with strong fortifications. Virg. meant the tegmen’ to cover the whole doubtless followed Lucr. 1. 728, “multa person. munita virum vi," where however popula 276.] Comp. note on G. 2. 345. The tion seems meant. Wagn. retains lon- notion here is that of succession. The gam'as more poetical than ‘Longam;' he nation shall then pass into the hands of however writes Longam' in 6. 766. A Romulus. There is nothing to warrant similar inversion of the names of persons is the notion of Thiel and Forb. that 'excifound even in prose writers. See Macleune piet' = accipiet asylo.' •Mavortia’ may on Hor. 2 Od. 2. 3.

point at once to the birth of Romulus, the 272.] Wagn. and Forb. explain iam' worship of Mars at Rome, and the martial as " de eo quod nondum est, sed suo tem- character of the nation. pore certe fiet," referring to 4.566., 6.676., 278.] His,' as opposed to their prede8. 42., 11. 708, Tibull. 2. 5. 56, in all of cessors, whose date was limited. Metas' which passages ‘iam' means “at once,' a probably refers to the bounds of the emsense inapplicable here. We must rather pire (rerum '), 'tempora’ to its duration. take it therefore as contrasting Alba and Meta’ however may be transferred from its long-lived dynasty with the preceding space to time, 10. 472. With his temmembers of the series. “And here the pore pono' we may compare “ Stat sua kingdom shall endure three hundred years.' cuique dies," 10. 467. 'lam' then will mean, at this point of the 280.] Metu' is commonly taken with series of events. As 'regnabitur' is im- 'fatigat' (like “omnia magno Ne cesses personal, we should rather have expected turbare metu,” 11. 400), expressing the

a gente Hectorea. The epithet · Hec- terror which Jumo spreads through the torea' is of course not strictly applicable. universe. It may however, and perhaps

273.7 It is difficult to say whether better, be taken, as Serv. suggests, for the regina' or 'sacerdos' is to be taken as alarm which Juno feels at the course of the adjective. • Regina,''princess,' 6. 28, destiny, if we compare v. 23, “id metuens," note, as Antigone is termed thv Baoi and 10.9. Fatigat' will then mean, keeps aíba in Soph. Ant. 941. 'Sacerdos,' a earth, air, and sea astir, by constantly traVestal.

versing them and exciting their powers; 274.] For the construction “Marte 80 “remigio noctemque diemque fatigant," gravis, and the meaning represented by 8. 92. Thus Virg. may have had in his it, see note on G. 3. 506. “Gravida ex eye Il. 4. 26, where Here complains of the aliquo" is used by Ter. Hec. 3. 3. 32, and toil which she and her horses have underOvid (Met. 3. 260) has “gravidam de gone in persecuting the Trojans. semine lovis." Partu dabit' ='pariet.' 281.] The phrase 'in melius referre'is Comp. “Furtivo partu sub luminis edidit twice used in Virg. (here and 11. 425) for oras," 7. 660.

'to amend.' 275.] ‘Lupae tegmine laetus : comp.

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam.
Sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas,
Cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas
Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis.

265
Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar,
Inperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris,
Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo.
Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum,
Accipies secura ; vocabitur hic quoque votis.

290
Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis;
Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus,

Iura dabunt ; dirae ferro et conpagibus artis 282.] Macrobius (Sat. 6. 5) says that foll. “Pulchra Troianus origine,' from the Laberius was the author of this line; and high line of Troy; as though it had been Suetonius (Aug. 40) tells a story of Au- 'pulchra Troianorum origine.' This congustus' quoting it. It had probably be- nects the line with those which precede. come a stock line to express the grandeur It is conceivable however, as has been sug. of imperial Rome. "Gentem togatam’ is gested to me, that 'pulchra' may refer to not a tame addition, being sufficiently Augustus' personal beauty, an allusion to characteristic; so that there is no need which would be appropriate in a speech to with Heyne to seek a point in any anti- Venus. thesis between 'arma' and 'toga. Hor. 287.] 'Qui terminet,' destined to 3 Od. 5. 10, “Anciliorum et nominis et bound. togae Oblitus.”

288.] For the alleged origin of the 283.] Sic placitum,' oőtws CéDoktai. Julii from lulus see Merivale, Hist. vol. i. Jupiter is speaking destiny. It will be p. 97, who observes that the great Julius observed that “lustra' being a strictly seems to have been the first to assert it. Roman measure of time, Jupiter is thus “Caesar et omnis Iuli Progenies," 6. 789. made to speak the language of the great * Demissum :' comp. G. 3. 35. nation. *As Rome's years roll on.'

289.] 'Spoliis Orientis onustum.' For 284.) Assaracus is the ancestor through similar compliments to Augustus as conwhom Aeneas was related to the royal queror of the East, see G. 2. 171., 4. 560, house of Troy. Comp. II. 20. 230. The A. 8.724 foll. Serv. mentions another read descendants of Aeneas shall triumph over ing, ‘honestum,' which would easily arise those of Achilles ( Phthiam '), Agamem- from the spelling 'honustum,' frequently non (Mycenas '), and Diomede (* Argos').' found in old MSS. Comp. 6. 838, "Eruet ille Argos Agamem- 290.] 'Hic quoque, as well as Aeneas, noniasque Mycenas, Ipsumque Aeaciden, v. 259.

“Damnabis tu quoque yotis” E. 5. genus armipotentis Achilli.”

80. See on v. 286. 286.] Caesar,' Augustus (Julius Caesar 291.] As it is expressed elsewhere, 6. by adoption); not, as Serv. thinks, Ju. 792, E. 4. 8, the iron age will pass into lius, who could hardly be said to be laden the golden. with the spoils of the East, and who was 292.] These four deities are chosen, as not the primary object of a Roman’s Henry remarks, as typical of the primitive homage. We may observe that he is not and golden age of Rome. Vesta has been distinctly spoken of here as Julius Caesar, mentioned before in a similar connexion which would have been ambiguous, but is G. 1. 498, Romulus and Remus G. 2. called Caesar, the gentile Julius being 533. The union of the two latter, as mentioned as connecting him with Iulus. Heyne observes, symbolizes the end of It may seem against this that his apotheo- civil broils. Numa (Livy 1. 21) established sis is spoken of v. 289; but it may be the worship of Fides. Comp. Hor. Car. meant to understand the deification as Saec. 57, “ Iam Fides et Pax et Honor taking place during his life, as we know it Pudorque priscus.” “Cana' occurs 5. 744 to have done, E. 1. 44 note, Hor. 2 Ep. 1. as an epithet of Vesta. 15. With the whole passage comp. 6. 791 293.) 1

* Iura dabunt,' «shall impose laws,'

295

Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor impius intus
Saeva sedens super arma et centum vinctus aenis
Post tergum nodis fremet horridus ore cruento.

Haec ait, et Maia genitum demittit ab alto,
Ut terrae, utque novae pateant Karthaginis arces
Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido
Finibus arceret. Volat ille per aera magnum
Remigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris.
Et iam iussa facit, ponuntque ferocia Poeni

300

not, shall administer justice' ('ius dicent' thaginians as he convenes Aeneas in 4. 265 or 'reddent') Henry. The function in Virg. foll. There may be a confusion between is generally a royal one, v. 507., 3. 137., 5. the Homeric character of Hermes as the 758 note : see however 8. 670. “Ferro et messenger of the gods and his other chaconpagibus artis' (a hendiadys) should be racter as the god of eloquence and the taken, as Henry says, with dirae.' "The civilizer of mankind; for which see Hor. gates of war grim with closely-welded plates 1 Od. 10 and Ov. F. 5. 663.-'Demittitof iron. It will answer then to “ ferratos pateant-arceret.' Jahn rightly remarks postis” 7. 622. "Conpagibus' would not that ut pateant’expresses Jupiter's charge be a natural expression for bolts or bars, to Mercury, 'arceret' his object in giving in spite of the parallel 7. 609. The word it. The former, it is obvious, would nais twice used for planking, above v. 126 turally come under the historic present, and 2. 51. The allusion is to the closing but it could hardly have been extended to of the temple of Janus A.U.c. 725. Virg. the latter. prefers calling it the temple of War here 298.] *Terrae--arces :' that they might and in 7. 607, where it is described at be allowed to enter the territory and length; but it does not appear whether received into the city. Novae' is to be he had any authority for the name, or taken with ‘Karthaginis,' as is proved by merely followed the line of Ennius cited v. 366, on which Serv. says “Karthago est by Hor. 1 S. 4. 60, postquam Discordia lingua Poenorum Nova Civitas, ut docet tetra Belli ferratos postis portasque re. Livius.” In the same way Virg. uses fregit," where Discord may have suggested epithets explanatory of the etymology of Fury here, though she apparently bursts the name 3. 693, “ Plemyrium undosum ;" the doors from without.

698, “stagnantis Helori ;” 703, “ arduus 294.] •Impius,' on account of the civil Acragas ;" 705, “palmosa Selinus.” With wars. G. 1. 511. The imagery in this pateant' Forb. comp. "clauditur orbis" passage is supposed to be derived from a above v. 233. painting of Apelles mentioned by Pliny 299.] Hospitio Teucris :' a double dative 35. 10, representing War fettered, which after pateant. Comp.“exscidio Libyae" was placed by Augustus in his own forum. v. 22. Fati nescia' is observable, as Germanus Valens thinks that there is an showing Virg's conception of fate as a allusion to a statue of Mars, mentioned by power which other agencies may thwart, Pausanias, representing the god bound and though they cannot ultimately overcome seated on a pile of arms; the meaning of it. Heyne's explanation, that Dido's ignothe binding being apparently that he was rance of destiny might lead her to supnot to pass over to the enemy.

pose that the Trojans wished to settle at 295.j .Saeva arma' 8. 482, &c. “Ma- Carthage, seems less likely. nus post terga revinctum' 2. 57. Here 301.] Adstitit," alighted. Comp. 6. 'manus' is inferred from `post tergum. 17, “Chalcidicaque levis tandem super ad* Nodi' are coupled with 'vincla' Lucr. stitit arce.” For 'remigio alarum’ comp. 6. 356.

Lucr. 6. 743, “Remigi (so Lachm. for 297–304.] Mercury is sent down to “remigio”) oblitae pennarum vela remitdispose Dido and the Carthaginians to tunt." The original author of the metawelcome the Trojans.

phor, which has become a common place 297.] Mercury's mission is rather inde- in poetry, is supposed to be Aesch. Ag. 52. finite, as Virg. can have hardly meant 302.] Ponuntque' shows that the effect him actually to convene Dido and the Car- of Mercury's mission is almost simultane

305

Corda volente deo; in primis regina quietum
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam.

At pius Aeneas, per noctem plurima volvens,
Ut primum lux alma data est, exire locosque
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras,
Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene,
Quaerere constituit, sociisque exacta referre.
Classem in convexo nemorum sub rupe

cavata
Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris
Occulit; ipse uno graditur comitatus Achate,
Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro.

310

ous with the discharge of it. Comp. the mer's Tonid opeolv opualvorra. Wagn., use of 'que' after 'vix' 2. 692 &c., and who will not allow that 'volvens' can that of .iamque' followed by a sentence be equivalent to 'qui volverat,' followed without a connecting particle 2. 132 foll. by Forb., supposes the sense to be that “Iussa facessunt” 4. 295. “Pone animos” Aeneas resolved during the night to go 11. 366. It may be doubted whether the out at daybreak; but this would only in. meaning is 'to lay aside' or 'to allay,' as troduce worse confusion, as 'ut primum in Hor. 1 Od. 3. 16, “tollere seu ponere lux alma data est' cannot mean, ' as soon freta” (comp. "animos tollent sata" G. 2. as the day should dawn:' not to mention 350); but such expressions as “ ponere in the abruptness of the transition from conimicitias' seem rather in favour of the stituit,' thus explained, to occulit.' former. So probably “iram ponit " Hor. A. 307.] ' Explorare' has an object clause P. 160, as the antithesis to colligit' over and above the accusative in 7. 150, appears to show. Here possibly accipit' so that it may be constructed here with may point the same way, though 'quietum' quas-oras,' quaerere' being added as a might be pressed on the other side. piece of surplusage for the sake of clear

303.] «Volente deo.' OEOÙ OAVTOS OC- ness, like “memoret ” after “ fari” 2. 75. curs Aesch. Theb. 427 and elsewhere in Vento,' by stress of weather, as in 4. 46. the sense of Dev BENóvTwv: so that it is with the general sense comp. 7. 130 foll., possible that 'volente deo' is meant to be 148 foll. understood generally, not taken of Mer. 308.] •Inculta' seems to have the force cury, which is the common interpretation. of a substantive, like culta' in the GeorThe participle will of course bear the sense gics. For he sees a desert before him.' either of, 'if he wills,' or, as here, since he 309.] Exacta, probably the result wills.' Quietum,' peaceful,' opp. to of his inquiries; exigere' being 'to in"turbatus” (8. 435) and “turbidus” (11. quire.' Ov. A. A. 2. 129, “illic quoque 742 &c.). • Animum-mentem: comp. pulchra Calypso Exigit Odrysii fata cru“ magnam mentem animumque” 6. 11, enta ducis.” It may however mean no and the Homeric κατά φρένα και κατά more than τα πεπραγμένα, as in his deOvubv. Lucr. couples “mens animusque" mum exactis " 6.637. Ulysses reconnoitres 3. 142, 403: in 3. 94 he uses the words alone Od. 10. 144 foll. convertibly, "animum ... mentem quam 310.] 'In convexo nemorum,' where the saepe vocamus," and in 6. 1183 he talks of woody shores of the cove (v. 164) nar. "animi mens.” Accipere mentem’ is used row. The expression is like "caeli condifferently below, v. 676.

vexa.” 305-324.] 'Aeneas goes out in the 311.] Clausam occulit' like “submersas morning to reconnoitre. After hiding his obrue" v. 69 above. fleet in the cove, he meets his mother in 312.] 'Comitatus' with the abl. withthe shape of a huntress, and is accosted out the preposition is found even in prose. by her in that character.'

Cic. pro Cael. 14, “mulier alienis viris co305.] There is a slight inaccuracy in mitata.”. ‘volvens,' as if the thoughts of the night 313.] Henry takes 'manu crispans has. continued into the day; the present par- tilia' as equivalent to .crispans manum ticiple being perhaps suggested by Hom in hastilia,' and interprets crispans' as

Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silva,
Virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma, 315
Spartanae, vel qualis equos Threissa fatigat
Harpalyce volucremque fuga praevertitur Hebrum.
Namque humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum
Venatrix, dederatque comam diffundere ventis,
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentis.

320 'clenching.' He objects to the ordinary of Hor. Od. 1. 25. 20, where see Macleane's sense 'brandishing (making the spear note. Heyne, Wagn., and Forb. take curl or quiver) on the ground that it is 'equos fatigat’as 'presses her horses,' “quod unsupported and inappropriate, when, as proprium Amazonibus.” But Serv.'s exhere and in 12. 165, where the line re- planation, tires by outrunning them,' is curs, the person is peacefully engaged. supported by the imitation from Silius While however it may be granted that just quoted (comp. also Sil. 3. 307), and

crispans' is a strong expression for the corresponds with the story of Harpalyce, motion of the spear merely as carried very circumstantially given by Serv. In in the hand in walking, it must be re- Soph. Ant. 981 foll. (a passage which corremembered that it is hazardous to assume sponds remarkably with this story of Harthat one expression is put for another, palyce), we have the expression Bopeas which itself has no example in the Latin äuittos. Both ‘praevertor' and 'praelanguage. Homer's heroes carry two verto' are used in this sense : comp. 7. spears. “Lato venabula ferro" 4. 131. 807., 12. 345. Fuga’ of rapid movement

314.] Sese tulit obvia :' comp. "infert in general, G. 3. 142. 201. se saeptus nebula," v. 439.

318.] Humeris suspenderat arcum :' 315.] Heyne remarks that Virg. had to powo wv éxwv, Il. 1. 45. The bow, and before him Od. 7. 19., 13. 221, where sometimes the arrows, appears to have been Athene meets and guides Ulysses, in the placed in the bow-case, or ywputós (10. one place as a girl carrying water, in the 169, “ Gorytique leves humeris"), and so other place as a shepherd. "Gerere of slung over the shoulder. See Dict. A. an assumed appearance 12. 472. Wagn. 'arcus.' • Habilem,' well shaped for the rightly understands the meaning to be hand, a general epithet of the bow, not of “ virginis os habitumque gerens, et vir- the manner in which she carried it. ginis arma vel Spartanae vel Thressae.” 319.] · Venatrix,' 'as a huntress.' 'DeVenus assumes the face and appearance of derat comam diffundere ventis,' a Grecism; a virgin and the accoutrements of a hunt. comp. Hor. 1 Od. 26. 2, " Tradam pro

tervis in mare Creticum Portare ventis." 317.] ‘Harpalyce. There is more than It is difficult to obtain an exact gramone mythological character of this name; matical analysis of the expression, which but the one meant here appears to be a may be explained either by making comam Thracian princess who took to the woods diffundere' jointly the object of dederat' upon the dethronement of the king her ("fan the dishevelling of her hair to the father. The MSS. have 'Hebrum.' Rut- winds '), or by making 'comam'the object gers conjectured Eurum,' which has been and diffundere ' an epexegetical acc. (her received by several editors, including Heyne hair, namely, its dishevelling'); or, lastly, and Ribbeck, on the ground that it is no by making comam’ the object and dif. proof of swiftness to outrun a river, and fundere' a cognate acc. expressing the That Hebrus in particular, as Serv. re- effect of the gift. marks, is not swift. Wagn. and Forb. 320.] Nuda genu,' i. e. her tunic did however rightly defend the MSS. reading, not reach the knee. Ov., M. 10. 536, as in perfect conformity with classical “Nuda genu, vestem ritu succincta Dianae" usage, and particularly supported by Sil. (quoted by Forb.). A representation of 2. 73, “Quales Threiciae Rhodopen Pan- Diana with her tunic girt up above the gaeaque lustrant Saxosis nemora alta jugis knee, and the folds gathered into a knot cursuque fatigant Hebrum innupta ma- or bunch on the breast, is given in Dict. nus," "The Thracian huntress outstrips A. chlamys. It is difficult however, on the rivers of her own country. A similar a comparison of parallel passages (4. 139., Attempt has been made to correct the text 11. 776; Stat. Theb. 4. 265; Claud. Cos.

ress.

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