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An Account of Some Modern Methods of Astrophysical Research

By GEORGE ELLERY HALE The introduction of photographic methods, the improvement of telescopes, and the rapidly increasing appreciation of the value to astronomy of physical instruments and processes, have revolutionized the observatory. From a simple observing station it has been transformed into a great physical laboratory, where images of the sun and stars are studied with many powerful instruments, and celestial phenomena are experimentally imitated with the aid of electric furnaces and other sources of intense heat. The result has been a great gain in our knowledge of the origin, development, and decay of stars. This books explains in a popular way how the life histories of the sun and stars are investigated. One hundred and four half-tone plates, made from the best astronomical negatives, place before the reader the most recent results of celestial photography in most of its phases. 250 pages, 104 plates, 8vo, cloth; net $4.00, postpaid $4.27

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ESSAYS PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL. IN HONOR OF WILI IAM JAMES, PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

BY HIS OLLEAGUES AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY This volume is intended to mark in some degree its authors' sense of Professor James's memorable services in philosophy and psychology, the vitality he has added to those studies, and the encouragement that has flowed from him to colleagues without number. From Prefatory Note.

PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAYS. The New Realism......

................. GEORGE STUART FULLERTON Does Reality poboess Practical Character?...

.....JOHN DEWEY A Factor in the Genesis of Idealism......

........ WENDELL T. BUSH Consciousness a Form of Energy......

.. WM. PEPPERRELL MONTAGUE Perception and Epistemology ........

.. FREDERICK J. E. WOODBRIDGE Substitutionalism.

.........C. A. STRONG World-Pictures........

WALTER BOUGHTON PITKIN Naïve Realism: What Is It?........

..... DICKINSON S. MILLER Kant and the English Platonisto...........

............. ARTHUR O. LOVEJOY A Critique of Kant's Ethics ......................................................... FELIX ADLER The Abuse of Abstraction in Ethics ...

.................... HERBERT GARDINER LORD Purposive Consistency, the Outline of a Classification of Values........

......G. A. TAWNEY The Problem of Method in Mathematics and Philosophy ...................... HAROLD CHAPMAN BROWN

PSYCHOLOGICAL EASAYS. Pragmatism in Esthetics .......

... KATE GORDON The Consciousness of Relation ................................................

.... R. S. WOODWORTH On the Variability of Individual Judgment..............................

...... FREDERIC LYMAN WELLS The Validity of Judgments of Character...............

......NAOMI NORSWORTHY Reactions and Perceptions......

..JAMES MCKEEN CATTELL A Pragmatic Substitute for Free Will.........

........ EDWARD L. THORNDIKE With Photograph of PROFESSOR JAMES.

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A Monthly Journal, established in 1867, Devoted to the Advancement of the Biological Science

with Special Reference to the Factors of Organic Evolution and Heredity

ical Society . Naturalist; professor WILI

CONTENTS OF MARCH NUMBER lavitation Papers at the Baltimore Meeting of the Botan

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Pollination in Plants. Professor WILLIAM TRE

LEASE,
Darwin's Influence upon Plant Geography and Ecol-

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Darwin's Work on Movement in Plants. Professor

HERBERT MAULE RICHARDS,
An Examination of Darwin's "Origin of Species" in the

Light of Recent Observations and Experiments.

Professor EDWIN LINTON,
The Distinction between Development and Heredity in

Inbreeding. Dr. EDWARD M. EAST.
Breeding Experiments with Rats. Professor T. H.

MORGAN.
Shorter Articles and Discussion : The Chub and th, Texas

Horn Fly, Dr. Roy L. MOODIE. A New Camel from
the Lower Miocene of Nebraska, HAROLD JAMES

COOK,
Notes and Literature : Heredity-The Chondriosomes as

Bearers of the Hereditary Qualities, F. PAYNE.
Cultural Bed Mutations in the Potato.

CONTENTS OF THE APRIL NUMBER
Heredity of Hair Color in Man, GERTRUDE C. DAVEN-

PORT and CHARLES C. DAVENPORT.
A Mechanism for Organic Correlation. Professor G, H.

PARKER,
Recent Advances in the Study of Vascular Anatomy.

Vascular Anatomy and the Reproductive Structures.

Professor JOHN M. COULTER.
The Progress of Plant Anatomy During the Last

Decade. Professor EDWARD C. JEFFREY.
Shorter Articles and Correspondence: A Note on the

Degree of Accuracy of the Biometric Constanta, DR.
RAYMOND PEARL Pure Strains as Artifacts of

Breeding. O. F. COOK.
Notes and Literature: Heredity-The Nature of “Unit"

Characters, DR. W. J, SPILLMAN. Environment-
DR. FRANK E LUTZ. Experimental Zoology-Hr.
bridology and Gynandromorphism, Professor T. H.
MORGAN, Echinodermata-Red Sea Crinoids, DR.
AUSTIN HOBART CLARK,

OONTENTS OF THE MAY NUMBER
The Categories of Variation. Professor S. J. HOLMES.
The General Entomological Ecology of the Indian Corn

Plant. 8. A. FORBES.
Notes and Literature: Biometrics-Some Recent Studies

on Growth. DR. RAYMOND PEARL. Erperimental
Zoology-Cuénot on the Honey Bee, Professor T. H.
MORGAN. The Upholding of Darwin-Poulton and
Plate on Evolution, V. L. K.

CONTENTS OF THE JUNE NUMBER
Heredity and Variation in the Simplest Organismis.

Professor H. S. JENNINGS
The Color Senge of the Honey Bee Is Conspicuous

ness an Advantage to Flowers? JOHX H. LOVELI. Variation in the Number of Seeds per Pod in the

Broom, Cytisus scoparius. Doctor J. ARTHUR

HARRIS.
Present Problems in Plant Ecology:

The Trend of Ecological Philosophy. Professor
HENRY C. COWLES.
The Present Problems of Physiological Plant

Ecology. DR. BURTOX LIVINGSTOX.
Notes and Literature: Notes on Evolution, V. L K.

De Vries's Species and Varieties, DR. GEORGE H.
SHULL. Embryology - On the Totipotence
the First Two Blastomeres of the Frog's Eye
DR. J. F. McCLENDON,

CONTENTS OF THE JULY NUMBER
Selection Index Numbers and their Use in Breeding.

Dr. RAYMOND PEARL and FRANK M, SURFACE.
A Contribution to the Theory of Orthogenesis. Dr.

ALEXANDER G, RUTHVEN.
The “Presence and Absence" Hypothesis. Dr. GEORGE

HARRISON SHULL.
Present Problems in Plant Ecology : Vegetation and

Altitude. Professor CHARLES H SHAW.
Shorter Articles and Correspondence : Pleistocene

Swamp Deposits in Virginia. Dr. EDWARD W.

BERBY.
Notes and Literature : Heredity-A Case of Non-Men-

delian Heredity. Dr. W. J. SPILLMAX.

CONTENTS OF THE AUGUST NUMBER
The New Flora of Krakatan. Professor DOUGLAS

HOUGHTON CAMPBELL
A Male Crayfish with Some Female Organs Professor

E. A, ANDREWS.
Present Problems in Plant Ecology :

Problems of Local Distribution on Arid Begions

Professor VOLNEY M, SPAULDING.
The Relation of the Climatic Factors to Vegrtation

Professor EDGAR N. TRANSEAU.
Notes and Literature. Recent Experiments on the I

heritance of Coat Colors in Mice. Professor T. H.
MORGAN. Some Experiments in Breeding Slap
Professor T, D, A, COCKERELL.

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It has been long known that the non-muscular articulations in the crinoid arm, synarthries or bifascial articulations, and syzygies, have an entirely different effect upon the arm structure than do articulations possessing muscle bundles, straight or oblique muscular articulations. The muscular articulations are composed of three elements (Figs. 1 and 7); (1) the dorsal ligament, bounded ventrally by a strong transverse ridge running across the middle of the joint face, (2) the interarticular ligaments, just ventral to the transverse ridge, occupying triangular areas one on each side of the central canal, and (3) the muscle bundles, occupying two large distally rounded areas, separated by a narrow median ridge or furrow; in straight muscular articulations (Fig. 1) the transverse ridge separating the dorsal ligament fossa from the interarticular ligament fossæ runs at right angles to the dorsoventral axis of the joint face, and the two interarticular ligament fossæ and two muscular fossæ are of equal size, while in oblique muscular articulations (Fig. 7) the transverse ridge is strongly diagonal in position, and the two interarticular ligaments and two muscular fossæ are, on one side crowded, on the other drawn out, and therefore unequal.

The non-muscular articulations (Figs. 5 and 11) are

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