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An Account of Some Modern Methods of Astrophysical Research
By GEORGE ELLERY HALE The introduction of photographic methods, the improvement of telescopes, and the rapidly increasing appreciation of the value to astronomy of physical instruments and processes, have revolutionized the observatory. From a simple observing station it has been transformed into a great physical laboratory, where images of the sun and stars are studied with many powerful instruments, and celestial phenomena are experimentally imitated with the aid of electric furnaces and other sources of intense heat. The result has been a great gain in our knowledge of the origin, development, and decay of stars. This books explains in a popular way how the life histories of the sun and stars are investigated. One hundred and four half-tone plates, made from the best astronomical negatives, place before the reader the most recent results of celestial photography in most of its phases. 250 pages, 104 plates, 8vo, cloth; net $4.00, postpaid $4.27
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ESSAYS PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL. IN HONOR OF WILI IAM JAMES, PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY
BY HIS OLLEAGUES AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY This volume is intended to mark in some degree its authors' sense of Professor James's memorable services in philosophy and psychology, the vitality he has added to those studies, and the encouragement that has flowed from him to colleagues without number. From Prefatory Note.
PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAYS. The New Realism......
................. GEORGE STUART FULLERTON Does Reality poboess Practical Character?...
.....JOHN DEWEY A Factor in the Genesis of Idealism......
........ WENDELL T. BUSH Consciousness a Form of Energy......
.. WM. PEPPERRELL MONTAGUE Perception and Epistemology ........
.. FREDERICK J. E. WOODBRIDGE Substitutionalism.
.........C. A. STRONG World-Pictures........
WALTER BOUGHTON PITKIN Naïve Realism: What Is It?........
..... DICKINSON S. MILLER Kant and the English Platonisto...........
............. ARTHUR O. LOVEJOY A Critique of Kant's Ethics ......................................................... FELIX ADLER The Abuse of Abstraction in Ethics ...
.................... HERBERT GARDINER LORD Purposive Consistency, the Outline of a Classification of Values........
......G. A. TAWNEY The Problem of Method in Mathematics and Philosophy ...................... HAROLD CHAPMAN BROWN
PSYCHOLOGICAL EASAYS. Pragmatism in Esthetics .......
... KATE GORDON The Consciousness of Relation ................................................
.... R. S. WOODWORTH On the Variability of Individual Judgment..............................
...... FREDERIC LYMAN WELLS The Validity of Judgments of Character...............
......NAOMI NORSWORTHY Reactions and Perceptions......
..JAMES MCKEEN CATTELL A Pragmatic Substitute for Free Will.........
........ EDWARD L. THORNDIKE With Photograph of PROFESSOR JAMES.
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It has been long known that the non-muscular articulations in the crinoid arm, synarthries or bifascial articulations, and syzygies, have an entirely different effect upon the arm structure than do articulations possessing muscle bundles, straight or oblique muscular articulations. The muscular articulations are composed of three elements (Figs. 1 and 7); (1) the dorsal ligament, bounded ventrally by a strong transverse ridge running across the middle of the joint face, (2) the interarticular ligaments, just ventral to the transverse ridge, occupying triangular areas one on each side of the central canal, and (3) the muscle bundles, occupying two large distally rounded areas, separated by a narrow median ridge or furrow; in straight muscular articulations (Fig. 1) the transverse ridge separating the dorsal ligament fossa from the interarticular ligament fossæ runs at right angles to the dorsoventral axis of the joint face, and the two interarticular ligament fossæ and two muscular fossæ are of equal size, while in oblique muscular articulations (Fig. 7) the transverse ridge is strongly diagonal in position, and the two interarticular ligaments and two muscular fossæ are, on one side crowded, on the other drawn out, and therefore unequal.
The non-muscular articulations (Figs. 5 and 11) are