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OBITUARY. The King of SWEDEN.–March 8.—At Stock- he flatly refused to serve in the army of England. holm, His Majesty Charles John XIV. King of With some difficulty he was persuaded to accept Sweden and Norway, and Sovereign of the Order an embassy to Austria, from which he shortly reof the Seraphim.
turned. On the establishment of the Consulate, Of all that brilliant race of warriors and of he received the staff of a Marshal of France, statesmen called into sudden life by the terrible and in 1806 the title of Prince of Ponte Corvo forces of the French revolutionary war to scour was added to his other honors. In the German and sack the plains and cities of Europe, few were campaigns, as well as in the command which he gifted with the more dignified and enduring energy held for a short time against the Chouans in the which survived the crisis of their youth-one west of France, he was distinguished from all his alone retained by his own deserts the kingly prize military comrades by his consideration and gene. which had been Aung to him. Of all the phan- rosity towards the conquered enemy. From 1806 tasmagoria of the French revolution, and the to 1809 he commanded the first corps d'armée in King-vassals of Imperial France, Bernadotte the north of Germany; and it is recorded that his alone preserved to our day the position to which personal kindness to a body of 1500 Swedes, he had been raised; but he preserved it because, who had fallen as prisoners into his hands, first in a country jealous of its ancient liberties and of awakened among the younger officers of that naits national independence, he learned faithfully to tion those feelings of gratitude which led to his observe the conditions of a constitutional govern- nomination as a candidate for the reversion of the ment, and to maintain, even at the sacrifices of his crown of Sweden. personal sympathies, the honor and freedom of Of all the Imperial generals (for the sterner the land which had adopted him.
Republican spirits of the army had long been reJohn Baptiste Julius Bernadotte was born at moved from the scene) Bernadotte was the least Pau, the capital of Bearne, Jan. 26, 1764. His inclined to yield to Napoleon that servile deferparents were humble, but not of the very humblest ence which he so strictly exacted. The blemishes condition, as appears from the superior education of the Imperial regime, the abuse of military they were enabled to give him. Some accounts power, and the jealousies which had sprung up say that he was designed for the bar; but, in his between the grandees of that transitory court, had 16th year, he suddenly relinquished his studies, alarmed his caution, and, perhaps, offended his and enlisted as a private soldier into the Royal sense of justice. Suddenly, and by a personal Marines. Notwithstanding his superior acquire impulse rather than by any subtle combination of ments and his good conduct, the year 1789 found policy or intrigue, his name was mentioned at the Bernadotte only a sergeant; but after the revolu- Diet of Orebro, where the deputies of Sweden tionary torrent swept away the artificial distinc-were assembled to choose a successor to Charles tions of society, and cleared the military stage for XIII. The consent of the Prince de Ponte Corvo the exhibition and success of plebeian merit, his had already been privately implied; that of the rise was most rapid. In 1792" he was Colonel in Emperor Napoleon was, not without misgivings, the army of General Custines. The year follow- extorted from him. Bernadotte said, with charac. ing he served under Kleber with so much ability teristic acuteness, “Will your Majesty make me and zeal, that he was promoted to the rank of greater than yourself, by compelling me to have General of Brigade, and almost immediately after- refused a crown?" Napoleon replied, “ You may wards to that of General of Division.
go; our destinies must be accomplished.” In the ensuing campaigns, the new General From that hour Bernadotte, or, as he was served both on the Rhine and in Italy, and on thenceforward styled, Charles John, Crown Prince every occasion with distinguished reputation; but of Sweden, turned with no divided affection to he kept aloof from the conqueror of Italy-having bis adopted country. The first acts of his governeven thus early taken up an ominous foreboding ment were to refuse to recruit the French fleet at of his designs.
Brest with Swedish sailors, and to struggle against The weakness of the existing government, the the oppressive exigencies of the continental systalents, popularity, and character of the hero, and, tem. In 1812 a secret alliance was formed beabove all, the contempt which he exhibited for tween Sweden and Russia; and in the following the orders of the Directory, when opposed to his year the Crown Prince assumed the command of own views, might well create distrust in a mind the combined forces of Northern Germany against 50 sagacious as Bernadotte's. He was so little the French Empire. The reward of these serdisposed to become the instrument of Bonaparte's vices which he had rendered to the cause of Euambition, that, after the peace of Campo-Formio, ropean freedom, and to the armies of Sweden,
was his undisputed succession to that crown, he did not intend, on that account, to forego his which he owed neither to the sword nor to the own claim, as well as that of his family, to the arbitrary policy of his former master, but to the throne of Sweden.”—Gent's Mag. deliberate choice of the Swedish people. He showed himself worthy of the confidence of Eu
The long-expected death of the Duke of Anrope by his undeviating adherence to those prin- goulême took place at Goritz on the 3d instant, ciples of order, justice, and forbearance, by which after months of suffering. The Duchess and Duke the maintenance of the general peace has been of Bordeaux were with the expiring exile. It is happily secured; and, by his frank and judicious stated that the French Court have gone into compliance with the obligations imposed upon a mourning. sovereign by the free constitutions both of Sweden and of Norway, he earned the unbounded veneration of those nations. If we look back upon the annals of Sweden in the preceding half century, we are confounded by the perpetual revolutions
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. which agitated the state and menaced the existence of its Kings. But since the accession of Charles John to the throne of Sweden, although Annuaire des Voyages et de la Geographie pour the whole of Europe has at various times been
l'année 1844, par une réunion de géographes et shaken by important changes in the internal con- de voyageurs, sous la direction de M. Frederic stitutions of its states, Sweden has continued to
Lacroix. Paris. 1844. enjoy uninterrupted tranquillity and prosperity.
This is the first of a promised series of little It was on his birthday in the year 1840, after a works to be published annually, and which are reign of nearly 30 years, that Charles John XIV. to comprise a popular survey of whatever, worthy took occasion, in a speech from the throne, to of note, shall have been done in each year towards survey with parental satisfaction the condition of extending and enriching the field of geographical his dominions. The population of the kingdom knowledge. The design is excellent, and the was so much increased, that the inhabitants of execution of this first part is, on the whole, very Sweden alone are now equal in number to those creditable. As a specimen of cheap literature it of Sweden and Finland before the latter province is a marvel, even as considered with reference to was torn from the former. The commerce and the average rate of price for French publications. the manufactures of the country have been The body of the work opens with a «Resumé des doubled, agriculture improved, instruction dif. Voyages de l'Année,' occupying fifty pages. Next fused, the finances raised from a state of great we have fourteen articles (170 pages), either oriembarrassment to complete prosperity, the na: ginal essays, or extracts from books of travels not tional debt almost paid off, a civil and a penal yet published, some of which are highly interes:code proposed for promulgation, the great canals
ing The rest of the volume is taken up with which unite the ocean with the Baltic have been reviews of recent works, of which twenty-seven completed, and lastly, the secular hostility of the are noticed, and with useful tabular matter, lists Swedish and Norwegian nations has given way of books, &c. The following statement, put forth to mutual confidence, cemented by kindred insti- on the authority of M. Hommaire de llell, is tutions, and the enlightened government of the startlingly at variance with opinions hitherto resame sceptre.
ceived. That traveller spent five years in exSuch are the claims of the late sovereign to the ploring the countries between the Black Sea and respectful and grateful recollections of his people. I the Caspian. His work has recently begun to be of all the princes of his time, he sought most published in parts; we purpose giving our readers steadily and effectually to concentrate the whole
some account of it when it shall have reached a energy of his government on the internal duties
more advanced stage of publication. which it had to perform. He found Sweden ex
"M. Hommaire has ascertained that the differhausted by centuries of foreign war, which were ence of level between the Sea of Azov and the followed by endless reverses abroad and convul. Caspian, is 18.304 millimètres (7.3 English inches) sions at home; he has left her at the head of the not 108 mètres (354 English feet) as asserted by secondary powers of Europe, and well prepared Parrot and Engelhart in 1812, nor 25 mètres (82 to uphold her interests and her dignity in those English feet) as declared in 1839 by three memimportant questions which the course of events bers of the Academy of St. Petersburg. He may, at no distant period, open for discussion on proves that this difference of level is not the conthe shores of the Baltic. A very interesting memoir of Bernadotte will sequence of a depression in the land, as some and of the quantity of surplus water that flows SELECT LIST OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. from it into the Mediterranean. The numerous salt lakes covering considerable spaces in the provinces of southern Russia, prove that the Caspian
but results simply from the be found in the volume entitled “ The Cou and diminution of the waters in the Caspian. This Camp of Napoleon,” but it is too long and too diminution he traces partly to the separation of well known to be transferred to our columns on the two seas, and partly to the loss sustained by this occasion.
the waters of the Qural, the Volga, and the Emba, Bernadotte married the sister of the wife of since the Qural mountains have been denuded of Joseph Bonaparte. His son and heir has assumed their forests, and the regions along the banks of the royal authority, under the style of Oscar the the Volga have been brought into cultivation. Second, and announced his intention of continu. Every thing combines to prove that the Caspian ing the government of Sweden and Norway in was formerly connected with the Black Sea in a the footsteps of his late father. The Prince of line passing through the basins of the Manitch Vasa, the heir of the old dynasty, has written and the Kouma; and this junction would be refrom Darmstadt to all the great powers, to say newed were the Bosphorus suddenly blocked up, that, “in the present position of affairs, he should as is found by an easy calculation of the amount certainly abstain from all demonstration; but that of evaporation from the surface of the Black Sea,
GREAT BRITAIN. was formerly much more extensive than it is at the present day. It was the gradual retirement History of England, from the Peace of of the waters of that sea, that left behind those Utrecht.' By Lord Mahon, vol. 4. From remarkable hollows from which the Russians ex: the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle to the Peace tract vast quantities of salt.”—Foreign Quarterly.
History of the Church of Scotland, from Southey's Poetical Works, complete in one Volume. the Reformation to the Present Time. pp. 800. Double columns. Longmans.
By Thomas Stephen, vol. 2. Like the late popular edition of Moore, the System of Political Economy. C. H. publishers have here collected the poetical treas. Hagen, LL. D. Translated from the Gerures of Southey into a single volume, together with the separate explanatory and highly interest
man by J. P. Smith. ing prefaces to former editions. These present
Journal of a Missionary Tour through much for the critic to reflect upon, and are pecu- the Desert of Arabia to Bagdad. By the liarly worthy of attention for the author's criti- Rev. Jacob Samuel. cisms upon himself, and anecdotes connected with * the composition of so many immortal writings. ick William III., King of Prussia, as nar
Religious Life and Opinions of FrederFor Southey is one of the immortals; and when we view the vastness and variety of the produc- rated by the Very Rev. R. Egbert, D.D., tions contained within this volume, we feel that Bishop in the United Evangelical Church we are within the shrine of a genius of original of Prussia. character, great attainments, and extraordinary
Varronianus : a Critical and Historical powers. To say more now would be superfluous. The public has every reason to rejoice in being Introduction to the Philological Study of enabled to possess such a monument of literary
the Latin Language. By the Rev. John devotedness and magnificent talent. It is a library William Donaldson, M. A. in itself.-Lit. Gaz.
Researches on Light. By Robert Hunt,
Secretary to the Royal Polytechnic Society. The Rebellion in the Cerennes. An Historical
Novel, in two volumes. By Ludwig Tieck.
Bibliotheca patrum ecclesiast. latinorum Tieck is becoming better known and better selecta. Cur. E. G. Gersdorf. Vol. xi. Firliked in England every day. This is one of the miani Lactantii Opera. Tom. ii. Leip. best of his historical stories exceedingly well trans- Vierteljahrs- Schrift, kirchliche. No. 2, lated.
(Ap.-Ju. 1844.) Berlin, The rebellion of which it embodies the princi
Atlas Von Asia. No. 2.: Karte von pal feature was one of that long succession of insurrections in which the small Protestant sects, China u. Japan. Von H. Berghaus. Gotha such as the Albigenses and Waldenses, vindicated
Ueber das Verhältniss der ägyptischens themselves to the death against the crusades and Sprache zum semitischen Sprachstamm. oppressions of the papal power. The characters Von Th. Benfey. Leipzig. in this narrative are nearly all historical, and Tieck exhibits considerable art in the way in
Suidæ Lexicon, græce et latine. Ad which he blends his facts, and the dramatic inci- fidem optimorum librorum exactum post dents he interweaves with them, so as to produce Th. Gaisfordum recensuit et annotatione a romance no less picturesque than true. These rebellions and struggles for freedom of I. Fasc. vii. et ult.
critica instruxit Godofr. Bernhardy. Tom.
Halle. religious opinion are favorite topics with the German writers, but none of them exceed in interest the bold circumstances attending the movement headed by Roland, the hero of Tieck's plot. To the English reader these stories ought to be no
Illustres Médicins et Naturalistes des legs attractive. England is the champion of the Temps Modernes. Par M. Isid. Bourdon. protestant world. The dispersed and hunted pro- Paris. testants of all denominations in all parts of the
1688—1830, ou Parallèle Historique des earth look to England, with much the same feelings as the followers of the Greek church look to Revolutions d'Angleterre et de France sous Constantinople—short of the historical tradition Jacques II. et Charles X. Par M. le Comte which consecrates it as the metropolis of their Maxime de Choiseul-Daillecourt. Paris. religion. It is hardly necessary to commend L'Inde Anglaise en 1843. Par le Comte Madame Burette's labor to every body who takes Edouard de Warren, Ancien Officier au an interest in such topics.- Court Journal.
Service de S. M. Brittanique dans l'Inde,