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Litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice caeli

Constitit et Libyae defixit lumina regnis.
Atque illum talis iactantem pectore curas
Tristior et lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentis
Adloquitur Venus: 0 qui res hominumque deumque
Aeternis regis inperiis, et fulmine terres,

Quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum,
Quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot funera passis,
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ?
Certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis,

Hinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucri, 235 Jupiter is said to be from Naevius, by gathered from the preceding lines, espe. Macrob. Sat. 6. 2, quoted p. 23 above. cially from · Libyae defixit lamina regnis.' • Velivolum' is said by Macrob. Sat. 6. 5 228.] The euphemistic comparative to be borrowed from the Helena of Livius tristior' may be explained with reference (Laevius ?): tu qui permensus ponti either to the habitual joyousness of Venus, maria alta velivola.'. It occurs an φιλομμειδής 'Αφροδίτη, σY, as Henry thinks, epithet of ships in Lucr. 5. 1442, and to the tearless serenity of the gods, for in two fragments of Ennius. The word which he comp. Ov. F. 4. 521. here may be meant to recall the scene 229.] “ Hominumque deorumque,” 2.745, which has just taken place on the sea; which Heins., Bentley, and Wakefield prebut it need mean no more than the fer here. Ribbeck observes in confirmation sea with all its sails, as the earth with of this, that elsewhere in Virg. *deum all its peoples. Comp. Lucr. 1. 2, “ caeli always occurs in the middle, deorum'at subter labentia signa Quae mare navi. the end of a verse: but this is more likely gerum quae terras frugiferentis Concele- to have been the result of ordinary metribras." Terras iacentis,' the earth lying cal convenience than of design, and other outstretched beneath his gaze, as“ glebas commentators seem right in claiming for iacentis” (G. 1. 65) is the soil lying out the poet liberty to use a hypermeter or not stretched to the sun.

as he pleases.—Res hominumque deum. 224.] · Dispiciens,' the reading of two que,' taken in a loose sense for the MSS., mentioned by Serv., is restored by universe, is the object of terres.' Ribbeck, who refers to Lachm. on Lucr. 231.] The language, as Heyne remarks, 4. 236. Lachm.'s position is that de- is modelled on IT. 4. 31, the sense on Od. spicere' only takes the acc. in the sense 1. 62. of contempt, an opinion improbable in 232.] “Quibus clauditur.' In prose we itself, as the metaphorical meaning must should have had claudatur,' as the logical have come from the literal, and requiring reference of the clause 'quibus clauditur' the alteration of various passages. The is evidently to tantum.' It matters little change, as remarked on v. 211, is slight, whether we explain ‘funera' of the deaths and might be made even without MSS.; that had actually thinned the Trojan but the reason for it appears to fail com. nation, or as a strong expression for pletely.

clades.' 225.] Latos populos'occurs in Ennius, 233.] 'Ob Italiam,' 'for the sake of Ann. 1. fr. 4 (Vahlen). 'Sic,' i. e. 'sic Italy,' i. e. to prevent their reaching Italy. despiciens.' Comp. 7. 668, where “sic sub. This seems clearly better than with ibat” refers to "torquens” and “indutus." Schirach and Hand to explain the words -Vertice caeli : Virg. has evidently “errantibus circum Italiam.” taken these words from Il. 8. 51, aŭtos Š 234, 235.) We may either take 'hinc &v kopvoñor KalléCETO. Comp. also ib.5.754, hinc' as a mere repetition, or suppose that ακροτάτη κορυφή πολυδειράδος Ούλύμποιο. there are two clauses : hinc fore RomaHom. however intended the summit of nos, hinc fore ductores a sanguine Teucri." the mountain Olympus; while Virg. ap. Volventibus annis' is Homer's repitoparently had a notion of the highest point mévwv évavtar. “Revocato,' “revived," of a celestial region, the same which he after the national extinction of Troy. calls “caeli arcem,” v. 250.

Comp. G. 4. 282, “Nec genus unde novae 227.] The import of talis' is to be stirpis revocetur habebit.”

Qui mare, qui terras omni dicione tenerent,
Pollicitus, quae te, genitor, sententia vertit ?
Hoc equidem occasum Troiae tristisque ruinas
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens;
Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos
Insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ?
Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis,
Illyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus


236.] 'Omni dicione,' with every kind variety, it is joined with 'fata,' the former. of sovereignty, i. e. with full sovereignty; 240.] Comp. 6. 62, “ Hac Troiana tenus as Serv. says, “pace, legibus, bello.” So fuerit fortuna secuta.” No MS. appears « omni cura

7. 487 = “summa cura.” to give 'actis,' which might have been Omnis' (terras ') is read by fragmm. expected as a variety, as in the parallel Vat. and Verona, and mentioned, though assages

“omnibus exhaustos iam casibus,” not with approval, by Serv..

v. 591, "pelagi tot tempestatibus actus,” 237.] Wagn. (after Heyne) supposes an 3. 708, the abl. is found in some of the anacoluthon, as if 'quam sententiam ver- best MSS. tisti'should have followed; but this would 241.] ‘Das :' Jupiter is addressed not be very harsh, resembling rather the merely as the interpreter of fate, but as licences of the Greek poets than those of identified with it, and answers accordVirg. The omission of the verb subst. ingly " Imperium sine fine dedi,” v. 279. with the second person is paralleled by So pollicitus,' v. 237. Comp. 3. 375. 5. 687., 10. 827. Ribbeck, who has at. Otherwise 'dare' would bear the modified tacked the omission of the verb subst. in signification of announcing; see on 3. 85. various passages where it is acknowledged 242.] The legend of Antenor is given to be right in Wagn.'s elaborate essay on by Livy, 1. 1, where it is said that he led the whole subject, Q. V. 15, here reads a colony of Trojans and of Heneti from "pollicitu 's,' as in 5. 687, "exosu 's.' As Paphlagonia to the head of the Adriatic, yet he has given no reasons for the inno- where he expelled the Euganei; and that vation, which certainly seems, in Forb.'s the place where he and his followers first words,“ apocope a Vergilio plane aliena.” landed was called Troja. His story was Rau proposed pollicitum,' which would variously told, Pindar, Pyth. 5. 19, taking be awkward.—Quae te sententia vertit:' the Antenoridae to Cyrene: the Romans * quae' is for cur,' or quomodo' (like however cherished naturally the legend of “quo numine laeso” for “quam ob laesio- a migration to Italy, and one Largus, a nem numinis,” v. 8); as appears from v. contemporary of Ovid, wrote a poem on it. 260,“ neque me sententia vertit.” “Te sen. See Heyne's Excursus on this passage. tentia vertit’is poetical for ‘tu sententiam Elapsus:' others, such as Sophocles, made vertisti,' the opinion being supposed to him escape by collusion with the conchange the mind as external persuasion querors. might.

243.] «Tutus’ is contrasted with tot 238.] 'Solabar occasum Troiae. Comp. casibus actos,' as Forb. remarks. PeneCic. Mil. 35, “solari brevitatem vitae." trare' is not so much to penetrate into, • Occasum,' 2. 432.

as to make his way through or past; Illy239.] The meaning of 'fatis contraria ricum, the Liburni, and the Tergestinus fata rependens' is clearly, “compensating Sinus, in which is the ‘fons Timavi,' being or repaying destiny (of the destruction of all left on Antenor's right as he sailed to Troy) with destiny' (of reaching Italy). Venetia. The expression seems to denote “ Rependere et compensare leve damnum the difficulty of a coasting voyage, such as delibatae honestatis maiore alia hones- Antenor would make up the east of the tate,” Gell. 1. 3. •Contraria' expresses Adriatic, whether arising from the dangerthe opposition between destiny and des- ous nature of the coast itself, or from the tiny as in 7. 293, "fatis contraria nostris barbarity of the inhabitants. Illyricos Fata Phrygum.” Strictly then the epi- sinus' may be either the Adriatic, as washthet would agree with 'fatis,' as the latter ing the shore of Illyricum, or the indentaof the two correlatives, but, by a poetical tions in the Illyrican coast. “Intima


Regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi,
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis
It mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti.
Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit
Troia, nunc placida conpostus pace quiescit :
Nos, tua progenies, caeli quibus adnuis arcem,


regna Liburnorum' is not so much the its sound after bursting up. ‘Proruptum,' interior of the Liburnian territory, which 'bursting up: comp. 7. 459, “ toto proAntenor coming by sea would not pene- ruptus corpore sudor.” This description trate, as the kingdom lying far inward in of the Timavus has been censured as out the Adriatic. 'Superare' is said to be a of place in the speech of Venus; it how, nautical word by Serv., who quotes from ever expresses the portentous character of Lucilius“ promontorium remis superamus the region into which Antenor is allowed Minervae. Here and E. 8. 6, where it is to penetrate with safety. also applied to the Timavus, it probably 247.] Tamen,' in spite of all these denotes difficulty.

dangers. 244.] 'Fontem Timavi' is rightly ex- 248.] 'Genti nomen dedit,' probably plained by Henry of the fountain or source Veneti, which was identified with Heneti. of the Timavus. Between this and the sea Henry however argues from Troia arma (a distance of about a mile) there are sub- that Troja is meant : see on v. 242. ‘Arma terranean communications, through which fixit,' hung up his arms and those of his the salt water forces its way, breaking out comrades, in token that their sufferings by at the fountain through seven mouths or flood and field were over. Serv. comp. holes in the limestone rock, and overflow- Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 4, "armis Herculis ad postem ing the channel of the river. See the ac- fixis." count quoted by Henry from Cluverius, 249.] ‘Nunc, &c.: Wagn., Forb., and Ital. Antiq. 1. 20, and more recent de- Jahn understand these words of the death scriptions cited in the same note from of Antenor; but in spite of the special Wittmann and Schlözer. It appears from pleading of the former that a peaceful Serv. that this view was received by death would naturally be mentioned as the many in his time; but the subsequent climax of the wanderer's happiness, and commentators, including Heyne, Wagn., that Antenor, even during the Trojan war, and Forb., understand. mare proruptum' must have been near the grave, it is eviand “pelago’of the volume of the waters of dent that the sense required is rather that the river, so that 'fontem Timavi' has of a tranquil settlement following on lato stand for the river itself.

bours. The language undoubtedly is such 245.] 'Per ora novem :' the general ac- as is more generally applied to death or count, as intimated above, appears to be sleep, but the occurrence of such expresthat there were seven of these 'ora,' or sions as conponere pacem” (7. 339., 12. sources. Cluverius however l. c. speaks of 822), or “ foedus ” (10. 15), conponere the whole of the country to the sea as bellum foedere" (12.109), and “urbem tuta "unum perpetuumque saxum innumeris conponere terra” (3. 387), proves abunpassim altissimisque antris perforatum ;" dantly that the words 'conpostus pace' and it seems from Wittmann's account may well have been used of the repose of that the 'ora' are constantly overflowed, a peaceful life. Possibly too Virg. may so that their number is not easy to ascer- have thought of Ennius' celebrated lines tain. Polybius asserts that the water in . (A. 18. 7), “Sicut fortis equus, spatio qui all but one of these 'ora' is salt, which saepe supremo Vicit Olympia, nunc senio Strabo denies. The two are reconciled by confectu quiescit,” where of course peaceCluverius, who reports from actual obser- ful old age, not death, is meant. The vation that the sea occasionally bursts up antithesis between “fixit' and 'nunc qui. through six of the sources, and renders the escit' merely implies that, after having water undrinkable. • Vasto cum mur. founded his city, named his nation, and mure montis' refers to the sound of the hung up his arms for ever, he entered on water re-echoing through the limestone a prosperous reign. rock as it bursts up; “pelago sonanti,' to 250.] 'Nos : she rhetorically identifies


Navibus, infandum ! amissis, unius ob iram
Prodimur atque Italis longe disiungimur oris.
Hic pietatis honos ? sic nos in sceptra reponis ?

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum
Voltu, quo caelum tempestatesque serenat,
Oscula libavit natae, dehinc talia fatur:
Parce metu, Cytherea, manent inmota tuorum
Fata tibi: cernes urbem et promissa Lavini
Moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli
Magnanimum Aenean ; neque me sententia vertit.
Hic tibi — fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet,


herself with her son. Arcem caeli’ (for presentation (supposed to be unique) of which see note on v. 225) denotes here the Iuppiter Serenus, with the inscription fullest enjoyment of divine honours which "lovi Sereno Sacr.," on an ancient lamp had been promised to Aeneas after death. in the Passerian Museum. Tempestates' * Adnuis' with acc. 12. 187. * Adnuis' has means the weather rather than the storms, a special propriety as applied to a promise so that there is no occasion to suppose a of Jupiter. ÚTÉO XETO kai kAT ÉVEVO EV, Il. Zeugma, with Wagn. 2. 112.

256.] Oscula libavit: see note on G. 251.] Infandum' interjected, like 2. 523, and comp. 12. 434, and Sueton. “miserum ” 6. 21, “nefas” 8.688. «Unius Aug. 94, “Osculum pueri delibatum digitis ob iram' recalls “saevae memorem Iunonis ad os suum detulisset.” The word howob iram," v. 4.

ever, even in its primary sense, seems to 252.] Prodimur,' forsaken by Jupiter, mean, not simply lips, but lips for kissing. not, as Heyne takes it, betrayed to de. Heyne remarks that ‘natae' is used after struction by the wiles of Juno.

colli' as Homer uses "Ektop: after ta 8'. 253.] *Honos," reward,' as in 5. 249, There is great delicacy in the use of the 308. Reponis,' restore us in Italy to the subst. here, which has the force of 'pater empire we have lost at Troy. “Reponere' natae.' See on E. 8. 1, 18. is connected with ‘in sceptra,' which vir. 257.] • Metu,' the old dative. “Parce:' tually means into the possession of the see on G. 2. 339. “Tuorum fata,' like sceptre.' 'Is this to restore a king to his “fata Phrygum,” 7. 294. Tibi’ is the throne ?'

ethical dative connected with the whole sen254296.] •Jupiter reassures her, tell. tence, as we might say, 'to your comfort.' ing her what the course of the destined 258.] Urbem et promissa Lavini moeTrojan empire is to be, beginning with nia' is a hendiadys. Observe the change Lavinium, passing into Alba, and ending of quantity from Lavina,' v. 2, which is in Rome, whose greatness is to be per. like that in Italia,' 'Italus,' • Apulia,' fected in the golden age of Augustus. • Appulus, &c., a larger licence being al

254.] ‘Olli Heyne comp. Enn. A. 1. lowed for metrical convenience in proper 31, Olli respondet rex Albai longai.' Nie- names than in other words. buhr, Lect. vol. ii. p. 155, ed. 1844, says 2 59.) Heyne quotes Enn. A. 1. 47,"unus that Virg. admitted a few archaic forms erit quem tu tolles ad caerula caeli Temin compliance with the precepts of the pla,” which he supposes to be said, not by Alexandrian grammarians about epic Venus, but by Mars, because Ovid intro. composition. ·Subridens,'‘smiling gently.' duces the line (F. 2. 487) in a speech of The line is nearly repeated 12. 829. Ho- Mars praying for the deification of Rominum sator atque deorum,' 11. 725. mulus. Ad sidera :' see on 3. 158. Here

255.] Serv. quotes Enn. (A. fr. inc. 3), apotheosis of course is meant. “Iuppiter hic risit, tempestatesque serenae 260.] Neque me sententia vertit :' see Riserunt omnes risu lovis omnipotentis.” note on v. 237, and comp. 10. 608, "nec te Heyne refers to Gud. Inscrip. p. 5, n. 3, sententiaf allit.” “Magnanimus' of Aeneas, for an inscription “ lovi Opt. Max. Sere- 5. 17., 9. 204, the Homeric meyaouuos. natori ;” and Henry says there is a re- 261.] Wagn. has rightly changed


Longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo-
Bellum ingens geret Italia populosque ferocis
Contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, ,
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas,
Ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis.
At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo
Additur,Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno --
Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis
Inperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini


Heyne's punctuation, Hic, tibi fabor noting that he was still in the camp, has enim,' which is also approved by Servius. not been noticed. “Rutulis subactis ' may • Tibi’ implies thou shalt see him victo- very well be the abl. absol.; but it is more rious in Italy.' 'Quando' has the force probably the dative, an idiom common in of 'quandoquidem,'as ote that of 871. The Greek, and found also in Juv. 14. 10, "Cum re' in ‘remordet' may express either a septimus annus Transierit puero.". It is a single recurrence or frequent repetition; variety of the ethical or personal dative. the latter sense seems more natural here. See on v. 102 above. “Cura recursat,” below, v. 662. Remor- 268.] Heyne without reason suspects this dere' is found Lucr. 3. 827., 4. 1135. line. It is a natural attempt to strengthen

262.] Volvens' is probably a metaphor a weak point of the legend, the absence of from a book unrolled. • Volvendi sunt any connexion between Iulus and

any chalibri cum aliorum tum inprimis Catonis,” racter in the Trojan story. Dum res Cic. Brut. 87. Jupiter says he will open stetit Ilia regno'may either be rendered yet further the secrets that lie in the book with Wagn., dum res stetit Ilio regno' of fate. The notion in “movebo" is that (* res stetit' = 'fortuna stetit '), or, which of “quieta movere.” “Fallax historias mo- seeins better, while the Trojan state (res vet,” Hor. 3 d. 7. 20, quoted by Gossrau. Ilia,' like 'res Romana ') stood with power So “excitare,” to cite, as we say colloqui- unbroken (stetit regno,'stood in respect ally, to rake up. “Awaken the secrets of its power '). In the latter case we may of Fate's book from the distant pages compare 2. 88, “ Dum stabat regno incowhere they slumber.'

lumis.” With the perfect after dum,' in 263.) Bellum ingens,' G. 2. 279. Po. the sense of duration, comp. 3. 15, “Dum pulosque ferocis contundet,' 'will crush Fortuna fuit.” its bold nations. Comp. 4. 229., 5. 730, &c. 269.] Volvendis mensibus :' here and

264.] • Mores' conveyed to a Roman in “volvenda dies,” 9. 7, Virg. has fol. many of the notions which political insti. lowed the usage of Enn. A. inc. 69, “ clatutions and a social system convey to us. mor ad caelum volvendus per aethera va. Comp. 8. 316, “Queis neque mos neque git,” and of Lucr. 5. 1276, “Sic volvenda cultus erat ;" and see on G. 4. 5. There is aetas conmutat tempora rerum.” Both not a mere play on the double sense of the in this passage and in 9.7, however, the word 'ponere,' as the building of a city ordinary sense of the gerundive would implies a settled civil government. “Mores have force, as in each case it is a god ponere,' like vouoeteiv in Greek. “Inpo- who may be speaking of destiny, so that nere morem,” 6. 852 ; " Posuere urbem,” we may doubt whether Virg. would have 8.53. There may be a notion too of giving used the word in a connexion where he (ponere' = 'dare,' as Deivai = goûvai), as could not have availed himself of comviris' seems to show.

mon as well as of archaic associations. 265.] The legend was that the first Understood in the ordinary sense ‘volsettlement (represented in Virg. by the vendis mensibus' will be an instrumental camp) endured for three years, Lavinium or modal ablative. • Orbis : for thirty, after which the kingdom was orbis” occurs in 5. 46. The epithet transferred to Alba, which lasted for three which is here wanting must be supplied hundred. For the form of expression from the context, especially from 'mencomp. v. 755 below.

sibus.' 266.] The propriety of hiberna,' as de- 270.] ‘Inperio' may be either dative,


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