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2. Wherein it must conhit, and in to this fort of trade, one may promise one's what proportion it must be fealed.

felf great fuccess from the diminution fo As to the first question, on what goods defired. the lowering and abatement of publick Finally, we should reflect on such foreign duties thould principally fall ; it has been goods, which being admitted not prejudi. observed, that principally all foreign goods, cial to our fabricks, yet, as they are prinwhich are not only brought and consumed cipally consumed in the country, thould on in our country, but also taken off our A importation pay fome duties, in order to hands by foreigners, should enjoy this be

make the lofa of the admiralties as small nefit : For, to put our merchants in a as poffible. condition, to trade on an equal footing As to the second question, how far the with their neighbours, at foreign markets, fame ought to take place on such goods, a the carrying of goods through, and traf. few words will fuffice to thew; and we ficking in this country, should be made need only remark, the more these are re. as cheap and eafy as can poffibly be con- lieved, the greater will be the success of the trived.

diminution. of these goods a preference should be B Having thus established fome principles given to all the prime materials, that are concerning what goods fhould enjoy the be. Terviceable in our fabricks, manufactures, nefit of a free port coming in and going handicrafts, &c. as also the ingredients out; we may now proceed to fuch, as, necessary in the said handicrafts, manu. by their importation, are prejudicial to our factures, and fabricks. By such measures, faid fabricks, manufactures, and trandi. our fabricks, manufactures, and handi- crafts ; and to the products of our country, Crafts, would be encouraged on the samo colonies, and fisheries. footing as our general trade, and no caule C As to all these laft mentioned goods, it of dispute given between those pretended is agreed, that they ought, on importation, jarring interests.

not only to remain taxed; but, fofar as they All foreign goods and merchandizes, tend to luxury, to superfiuities, and to use, that come here to be fifted and afforted, are thereby prejudicial to our faid fabricks, and afterwards again exported, ought like. manufactures, &c. therefore should be as wire to enjoy the beneót of this diminution heavily charged as possible; with proper and abatement ; for these are an induce. regard, however, to our treaties; as allo, ment to the industrious trader to exercise that by too heavy imposts, we do not in his calents, in terting them to work :D volve ourselves in those difficulties, of And were it requisite to enumerate in this which the line of the year 1725 produces article, all the advantages that trade reaps many instances, which have had this effect, from those assortments, even under the that the colleges of the admiralties would present heavy taxes ; we should find, that have raised and received more, had they the falling off of our trade, has thereby, in asked less ; a consideration, which ought some measure, been stopt. But when peo- to be well remembered when we set about ple in foreign parts set about the same, a reformation of their revenues." as it is already perceived they do, it will E And he concludes with a particular ex. be then too late to guard againit, or to pre- planation and examination of his scheme,

to which he annexes, 1. A lift of goods Neither can such goods, as are which ought not to be loaded with any worked, manufactured, or sorted here ; duties on importation. 2. A list of such but re-exported in the same condition, as ought to pay fome small duties, and as they were imported, be excluded from have a drawback ; and 3. A list of such as this advantage, without prejudice to trade ought not to be allowed to be imported, in general ; for these goods, when there is


and such as ought not to be allowed to be a superfluity of them, furnith the merchants

exported. with an opportunity to make magazines of them in this country,

To be A UTHOR, &c. The advantages arising from hence, and which have only relation to trade, are thele:

THILE a nation preserves itself free That whenever afterwards a scarcity


and independent, its inhabitants are happens, foreigners can buy these goods happy ; but the funthine is loon eclipsed, of us, at a lower price, than at the places G when ambition rulhes like a tempest o'er where they are produced ; not to mention the land ; darkening the prospect, and obmany other advantages accruing therefrom scuring the beams of heaven.descended to this country ; and confidering, that the liberty. What defolations follow in her plenty of money to be found here above

Reps ! what havock does she scatter in her other places, and the low interest it bears course, whide learning and virtue hang in pomparison to other countries, contribute


vent it.




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Character and Fate of SE JANUS. 559 their deje&ted heads! History is full of the quitous crimes, the most barbarous tyran. fatal effects of this dangerous vice ; few nies, and heaviest oppreffions, he was sudkingdoms have escaped her thocks, but denly plucked from his aspiring height, perhaps the ruled as strongly in the and given up to a death both ignominious breast of Tiberius's favourite Sejanus, or and dreadful ; moft historians agree, that (to use a modern phrase) his prime mini- the incensed people anticipated the publick fter, as many other of her proselytes; him, executioners, and tore him into a thousand as mon conspicuous, have I cholen for the A pieces. Ex co nibil superfuit quod carnifes subject of a letter to you, who are always traberet, Sen. And Juvenal says, it was attentive to the publick good.

in every body's mouth, Nunquam, fi quis To flatter a man in power, to praise mibi credit, amavi bunc bominem, “ Nobo. his words, approve his deeds, and pro- by can ever say he was my friend.” Semote his defires, are certain teps to janus seems (lays the author of the above his favour, and almoft (ecure his elteem, play, in his preface) to have been marked Of the truch of this doctrine Sejanus was out by Providence, as an example to fu. fully apprized; he was a man of good turity, of that justice which will at one address, great natural abilities, and ad. B time or other overtake the great bad man, mirable policy, which led him to study who uses his power to oppress or to curtail the humour and inclinations of his man the liberties of his country. This reflecfer: To whom, by encouraging his fol. tion is very just, the subject Thould live lies, and applauding his weaknesses, he continually in the mind not only of a became so dear, as to obtain his entire king, but of his ministers : The one will confidence ; there was no secret hidden thence be taught how careful he should be from him, nothing done without his ad. in trufting his power too far out of his vice, and the most important transactions C own hands, the other to avoid the thoals of the state were committed to his care. on which Sejanus (plit, and that misused The emperor, absorpc in pleasures, dele. favours are followed by destruction. gated to him almost wholly his power, Truly happy is the prince, in whose which he used to the moft destructive ends, court honest men are to be found, to the betraying of his master, the ruining his whom he may intrust the management of fellow subjects, and ensaving his country. his revenues, on which depends the honour

The throne was the point which Sejanus of his designs, the majesty of his crown, had in view, to level his way to which;D and the tranquillity of his fate. That the most impious and atrocious methods such my be always found at the head of were pursued. The ancient liberty of the the British Itate, is a wish, in which I am republick was, by degrees, totally destroy- certain you will join, ed. Riot and luxury was let loose among

SIR, the people, who were thus blinded to the

Your humble servant, chains which were preparing for them; by

PUBLICUS. inspiring them with a love of pleasure, they were brought to neglect their free- From Ibo INSPECTOR, Dec. 14. dom. Roma (lays Tacitus) ruunt in fervi-E tium consules, petres, equires. And while Cuneta Deus replet, Deus eft fupra, Deus infra. they were diverting themselves in the thea

MONT. Lib 3. tre or circus, Sejanus was arbitrarily fixing E are informed that an enjoyment own dependants and creatures in all

of the immediate presence of the those publick ports and employments, Deity will be one of the first pleasures which thould have been filled up by their of a future period of existence : A confree election. The author of a play, just templation of his attributes will in some published, under the name of Sejanus,


degree anticipate the glorious rapture here. gives us this pi&ture of these times, so To dwell upon the ideas of his excellence, dreadful to liberty and Rome.

is in some measure to enjoy his presence ; " See the great mistress of the world en. and this will at once give us a taste of that “ Navid,

["' with cares, superior bliss, and prepare us for the com"Oppreff’d with 'woes, and harrass'd out pletion of it. “ While her abandon'd sons (quite loft to The greatest human satisfactions must

arise from a sense of what the being is "I Who should her sacred liberty defend, that enjoys them, and what that great “ In luxury and riot spend their time, G Source of all existence, from which we de. “ Become the voluntary tools of pow'r, rive them. He who contemplates as he " And work the chains to manacle them- ough the mercy of his Creator, will be at “ selves."

ease even under faults which he is consci. But to return to Sejanus, after 16 years ous that he does his utmost to prevent, enjoyment of almost regal power,

or lo amend; he who is conscious of his which time he had practised che moa ini.


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“ fame)

goodness, will know that every work of with us, how would it comfort and lupo his hands was intended to be happy and port us in our virtuous pursuits, how top he who feels the sense of his beneficence, our career in ill! Hypocrisy would fade and the care of his over-ruling providence, and die away under its influence ; and will rest in security, amidst a thousand that open honesty which we found it dangers, under the wing of fo powerful a our business to profess before God, would Protector ; but more than all, it is our in- render us honoured and happy among one Cerest to be eternally mindful of his omni. A another. presence.

We are not to pretend an ignorance of This, of all his attributes, is the most the will of our Creator ; nor should wo immediate source of good, the most pow. dare to do it if only sensible as we ought to erful guard against ill, to him whose eyes be, that he is about us, and condemns us are open to it. How little will he wish to

for dissimulation in the pretence. Let the have witnesses to the worthy actions he man who is going to engage in any action performs, who is assured that he, whom he does but suspect (and there is no ill that alone it is his duty to please ; he who a- the conscience suffers us to execute without lone is to reward, is witness to them! B such a fufpicion) ask himself this thors And how infinitely ought the man, who is question, Will what I am about to do be about to do an ill thing, to dread the con.

pleasing to him who sees all my actions ? fequences of it, while conscious that the and he will find a monitor within, that Being, to whom he is to be accountable for will never fail to give him truth in answer. it, is present while he perpetrates it! The If the applause of the world, or the man who sees himself and his Creator in dread of infamy from it, can encourage this liglat, will not only be secure from ill, or deter us in our intended actions, how but from the very means of ill ; not only C much more trongly would a conscious his actions, but his inclinations will be free ness of the presence of that Being, whose from all tendency to it. He will be at all acceptance or whole censure of them is times senfiole that the great Being, wbo is all that is worth our care, answer the famo about bis parb, about bis bed, and spictb out purpose ! a!! bir ways, fees to the depth of all his most The bands of society are nothing, unless secret resolutions : He will remember, that deduced fiom this original principle ; and God sees the heart, as men the faces of one it is not easy to say, to how exalted a another, and he will do all that the frailty s pitch, this mutual love to one another of his nature will admit, to drive from might be carried, were the several indivi. thence every thought that cannot stand the duals duly sensible of that which first efta. teft of such an inspection. .

blished their union. Men, without a con'Tis easy for us to deceive a parcel of sciousness that their actions all lie open to creatures mort-fighted as ourselves ; our the immediate inspection of Heaven, would intentions are hidden from them ; our ac- be more insidious and destructive, more tions only come under their cognizance ; dangerous to cne another than brutes, and if we find it impoffible to bring into by as much as they are more cunning; execution a crime of which our soul is rul. E nor have I ever been more struck with the ly guilty, we are out of the reach of pu. juftnefs of an apprehension from others, nishment. To this is owing the daring re- ihan in the instance of that of the patriarch curity of offenders, while they argue that in Gerar, when he gives it for his realon, if the deed succeeds, it pays them for the The fear of God is nul in bis place, On the consequences ; and that if it does not, the contrary, when a sense that the immediate altempt is in oblivion : But 'tis not so with eye of a Creator and a Judge is over all the him wlio knows our thoughts ; his tribu. actions, is impressed, as it ought, in the nal is what we ought infinitely more to f several individuals, every man finds those dread than that below; and this is a seat about him his friends and brothers. of justice, at which acts not committed Our connection with the Divinity is fuch, may be arraigned : He sees the very prin. that he ought never to be ablent from our ciples on which we proceed, the contri. thoughts. We cannot, indeed, be always vances which we are forging in our breasts praying, always employed in acts of external for the bringing them into execution, and worship to trim, but we may for ever relain the ends at which they are aimed. He him in our hearts : Every object that occurs will not impute to us that innocence which to us affords a theme on which to piaise we may boast from our ill intents being G him : And to remember him as we ought frustrated ; but will require us to account in all our actions ; and to pay him this trifor crimes we had determined, as rigour. bute in ail our occurrences, is to give what ourly, as if we had effected them.

he more esteems than the hfting up of Could we arrive at a constant sense, that hands, or the bending of knees, a con inued our Creator and our judge is always prelent woi thip of the mind; an; adoration worthy


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1751. Of HERRINGS, and their amazing Shoals. 561 of its nobleft ardour.' This kind of life this expression may be allowed) I mean ale establishes that peace within, which only most beyond the reach of figures. They can arise from the testimony of a good con. come up, as we may lay, on the breadth Science : This prevents all ill, and inspires of the ocean : And it is thought that the all good that is in our power: This gives bulk of the thoal may be more in extent us that serenity of mind, without which all than the island of Great Brilain. other pretended pleasures lead to remorse : 'Tis said, that they are greatly strained This is the health of the soul; this diffufes A in their progress routhward, by their being

; that universal satisfaction, that uninter- obliged to pass between the shores of rupted chearfulness, over it, that gives its Greenland and the North Cape ; which (to relich to the highest enjoyments : This, them) may be a fusait, tho' 200 leagues while it inspires the soul every moment to broad. renew the commerce with him who form: Advancing forward, and their amazing ed it, gives a convi&tion of the greatnes body meeting with an interruption, trom of its origin ; and while it urges it on to the situation of Great Britain, il necessarily approaches, though at an infinite distance: B equal, or unequal, cannot be known.

divides them into two parts ; whether to the resemblance of the Divinity, con. vinces it that it is a ray of that eternal Sun. One part of them fteer weit or fouth

Security in the poffeffion of what we welt; and, bearing the Orkneys and Shet. all good, is the only means of perfect en. land to the left, pass on towards Ireland ; joyment of it ; but a certainty of every where meeting with a second interruption, change that can happen being yet far bet. they divide again, when part of them keepter than the present, is an improvement ing to the coast of Great Britain, pass a. upon that security : This can be only por. way south, down St. George's, or the felfed by him who knows his Creator for C Irish channel ; and thus advancing, be. his friend ; wbo remembers, as the Pralmist tween Great Britain and Ireland, they gloriously expresses it, tbat God is bis rock, enter the Severn sea, where they meet and be bigb God bis Redeemer.

with part of their former companions.

The other part, edging off, for want of A curious Account of ebe Herrings; tbeir room, to the west and south-west, as be. Sboals, &c.

fore,) rove along the Irish, or Western BOUT the beginning of June, eve. Ocean ; and fill keeping upon the coast, ry year, the Sherlanders discover, proceed to the south More of Ireland ; and

D by several figns in the air and on the sea, then steering south-east, meet with their a vaft and incredibly amazing moal of companions, who came down tie Irish herrings, advancing from the north. The channel. place were they breed, their numberless The other part of the first grand division multitude, their manner of coming, and made in the north, parting a little to the especially, their regular, annual progress, eart and south-east, come down into the are quite wonderful. With regard to the German ocean ; they then pass by Shet. place they come from, and in which they land, and make the point of Buchannels may be said to inhabit, breed and increase; E in Scotland, and the coast of Aberdeen, Nl we know is, that it is far north. That filling, in their progress, all the bays, they are almoft infinite in number, may be firths, creeks, and rivers, with their in sapposed from what we fee of them; and credible multitudes ; as tho' purposely dia yet these (it may be concluded,) are but as rected, by Heaven, to offer themselves for the (warm to the hive ; a certain number the relief and employment of the poor, of fupernumeraries, detached from the Mill and the benefit of commerce. Hence far greater multitude of inhabitants who coming away south, they pass by Dunbar ; remain behind, and fent abroad (as it and rounding the high Moses of Berwick, Were) every year, to seek their food in


are seen agein off Scarborough, and not other places ; as tho' there was not room before : They are not discovered in bulk, for them, in the countries inhabited by till they come to Yarmouth roads, and their ancestors. These fith Ho not return, thence to the mouth of the Thames ; ffo far as we can perceive,) to their native from whence, proceeding along the Bria place, there to breed a farther supply for tish channel, they are seen no more. next season ; but, on the contrary, come The ingenious author of Spectacle de la from home big with their prolifick spawn, Nature, expatiates thus, in his figurative when every fith produces many thousand G tive manner, on the subject in question : others. This spawn they cait in those “ Many kinds of fish come in Moals to feas; the herrings coming full to us, and our coaffe. Some are always with us, being Morten and empty long before they and others swim yearly to us in vast muldepart. Their number may be reckoned citudes. The season of their partage, as among the infinites of finice nature (if well as the track they take, are well known; December, 1751



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and the greatest advantages are reaped from is formed in the bec, from the crude wax, that knowledge. To inttance only in her: or fariaa (so far I agree with him) : Bus rings. The capital of their nation seems by his observations, he says, after digeftion to be between the points of Scotland, Nor. it is discharged upwards by the mouth ; way and Denmark. From thac situation whereas, by my observations, it is the the Danish colonies take their progress an- læces, husks, or mells of the farina or nually ; traverfing, at different times, the crude wax, after digeftion, discharged by channel ; and paffing by Holland and A the anus. Flanders. But these are not a' troop of As to the first, I have frequently follow banditti, who coast about at random: Their ed a bee loading the farina, bee.bread, os tour being prescribed, and their annual crude wax, upon its legs, thro' a part of march regulated, with the utmost exact. a great field in flower ; and upon whatness. The whole body begin their march foever fower I saw it firit alight and gather at the fame time ; when none of them the farina, it continued gathering from that Atraggle out of their proper track ; none kind of flower and has passed over many dirert to commit depredations ; but they other fpecies of flowers, cho' very numerous continue their progress, from csalt to coast, B in the field, without alighting upon or till the appointed period.

loading from them; tho the Aower it They are a numberless people ; they chole was much scarcer in the field than perform a long voyage ; and, when the the others : So that if it began to load body of the aíny is pafled by, they are all from a daily, it continued loading from gone ; and none of the same species make them, neglecting clover, hopeysuckles, their appearence, till next year. Attempts violets, &c, and if it began with any of the have been made to discover, what it is others, it continued loading from the same thai induces the herrings to undertake fuch C kind, palling over the daily. So in a gar. Tong voyages, and inspires them with the den upon my wall-trees, I have seen it policy they obferve. The English, French load from a peach, and pass over apricots, and Dutch fishermen declare, that the plums, cherries, &c. yet made no dir. channel teems, every year, with an incre. Winction betwixt a peach and an almond.' dible number of worms and little h1h, on Now M. Reaumur, in his memoir upon which the herrings feed. The coast of our the bces making honcy, nientions Ariftotle's inand is very rich, the soil of it breeding observation of bees loading or gathering à sullidge or furf that swims near it, and from species of on which all floating filh, fuch as macka. Ding; nor quitting a violet to gather from 'rel, pilchards and herrings, feed. This a cowslip i which he says is not juftly fond draws the fish to us, and keeps them founded ; for he has observed frequently ahout our island and no other country. a bec on a large border gathering from This fußenance may be considered as a kind Aowers of different species, If M. Reaumur of manni, which these fish come, at fta. only meana, that, when the bee gathers tud periods, to gather up. And, after hav. honcy, it takes it indifferently from any 'ing cleared the seas, in the northern parts nower, I can say nothing against it ; but, of Europe, during the summer and autumn, E if he intends it to mean the bee's loading they proceed towards the south, whither che farina upon its legs, then my obserthey are invited by a new stock of provifi. vation directly contradicts it. ons : But, if these fail, they advance for. What further confirms my observation, ward with greater swiftness, in order to is this, that each load upon the legs of accoinmodate themselves elsewhere." a bee is of one uniform colour throughout,

as a light red, an orange, a yellow, a white, Concerning Brus, and ebeir : Merbod of

or a green, and is not upon different parts garbering Wax and HONLY. In å Letter from Arthur Dobbs, Eja; 10

of the load of a different colour ; so that as F

the farina of each fpecies of Aowers, when Charles Stanhope, Ela; F. R. S. Ex. colle&ed together, is of one uniform colour, traited from tbc Philosophical Transac

the presumption is, that it is gathered cions, No 496, just published.

from one species. "For, if from different HE

M. , , that I ap- lour, and part of another. prehend he says, the bees range from Another observation to confirm the same fiowers of one species to those of another fact is, that bees, in the height of the fenfpecies, whilft they are gatliering one load;G son, return to the hives with loads of so that the farina, or crude wax, loaded very different magnitudes, some having upon their legs, is from different species loads as great as Imall (not, whilft others of Aswers ; which is contrary to what I have very small loads; it cannot be conhave observed. The other thing that I ceived that this difference is from the indiffer with him ir, is, that he says the wax activity or Noth of the bee in celleaing ito 3


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