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παρὰ τῆς τύχης τι συμβέβηκεν ἐναντίωμα ἢ ἄλλο τι 381 δύσκολον γέγονε (πολλὰ δὲ τἀνθρώπινα)· εἶτ ̓ ἐπὶ τούτῳ τῷ καιρῷ ῥήτωρ ἐξαίφνης ἐκ τῆς ἡσυχίας ὥσπερ πνεῦμ ̓ ἐφάνη, καὶ πεφωνασκηκὼς καὶ συνειλοχως ῥήματα καὶ 10 λόγους συνείρει τούτους σαφῶς καὶ ἀπνευστί, ὄνησιν μὲν οὐδεμίαν φέροντας οὐδ ̓ ἀγαθοῦ κτῆσιν οὐδενὸς, συμφορὰν 382 δὲ τῷ τυχόντι τῶν πολιτῶν καὶ κοινὴν αἰσχύνην. καίτοι ταύτης τῆς μελέτης καὶ τῆς ἐπιμελείας, Αἰσχίνη, εἴπερ ἐκ ψυχῆς δικαίας ἐγίγνετο καὶ τὰ τῆς πατρίδος συμφέροντα 15 προῃρημένης, τοὺς καρποὺς ἔδει γενναίους καὶ καλοὺς καὶ πᾶσιν ὠφελίμους εἶναι, συμμαχίας πόλεων, πόρους χρημάτ των, ἐμπορίου κατασκευὴν, νόμων συμφερόντων θέσεις, 383 τοῖς ἀποδειχθεῖσιν ἐχθροῖς ἐναντιώματα. τούτων γὰρ ἁπάντων ἦν ἐν τοῖς ἄνω χρόνοις ἐξέτασις, καὶ ἔδωκεν ὁ 20 παρελθὼν χρόνος πολλὰς ἀποδείξεις ἀνδρὶ καλῷ τε κἀγαθῷ, ἐν οἷς οὐδαμοῦ σὺ φανήσει γεγονώς, οὐ πρῶτος, οὐ δεύτερος, οὐ τρίτος, οὐ τέταρτος, οὐ πέμπτος, οὐχ ἕκτος, οὐχ ὁποστοσοῦν, οὔκουν ἐπί γε οἷς ἡ πατρὶς ηὐξάνετο. 384 τίς γὰρ συμμαχία σου πράξαντος γέγονε τῇ πόλει ; τίς δὲ 25 βοήθεια ἢ κτῆσις εὐνοίας ἢ δόξης; τίς δὲ πρεσβεία, τίς 329
ὥσπερ πνεῦμα ἐφάνη] he suddenly springs up a speaker, rising after his rest like a gale.' The aorist is here used of a sudden event.
συνείρει τούτους] ' he strings these together audibly and without bating breath.' Dissen compares Dion. Chrysost. Orat. xxxiii. : καὶ πάνυ χαίρετε ἀπνευστὶ ξυνείροντες τοσοῦτον ὄχλον ῥημάτων.
τῷ τυχόντι] • to some one or other of his fellow-citizens.'
ἐμπορίου κατασκευήν] the establishment of a mart,' i. e. for Athenian merchandise and commerce.
τούτων γὰρ . . . ἐξέτασις] for in former times there was a demand for all those things. This meaning is suggested by the passage (§ 393), οὐκέτι συμβούλων
ἀλλὰ τῶν κολακεύειν ἑτέρους βουλομένων ἐξέτασις ἦν, and Mr. K. observes that eraσis is "strictly applicable to a search or muster, where the names of persons are called over-the things needed or missing are inquired for." But the
original meaning is, I think, rather test-
alle diese Gegenstände dienten in frü-
πολλὰς ἀποδείξεις ] many opportunities of showing himself.
οὐ πρῶτος, οὐ δεύτερος] This passage is thought to be an imitation of an oracle addressed to the Megarians, and quoted in the Scholia to Theocritus, xiv. 48: ὑμεῖς δ ̓ ὦ Μεγαρεῖς οὔτε τρίτοι οὔτε τέ. ταρτοι οὔτε δυωδέκατοι, οὔτ ̓ ἐν λόγῳ, οὔτ ̓ ἐν ἀριθμῷ. The ordinal δ-πο-στός may be compared with χιλιοστός &c.
οὔκουν ἐπί γε οἷs ] ' at any rate not in any case where the state was gaining strength.'
διακονία δι ̓ ἣν ἡ πόλις ἐντιμοτέρα γέγονε ; τί τῶν οἰκείων ἢ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν καὶ ξενικῶν, οἷς ἐπέστης, ἐπηνώρθωται διὰ σέ ; ποῖαι τριήρεις ; ποῖα βέλη ; ποῖοι νεώσοικοι; τίς ἐπισκευὴ τειχῶν; ποῖον ἱππικόν ; τί τῶν ἁπάντων σὺ χρήσιμος 5 εἶ; τίς ἢ τοῖς εὐπόροις ἢ τοῖς ἀπόροις πολιτικὴ καὶ κοινὴ 385 βοήθεια χρημάτων παρὰ σοῦ ; οὐδεμία. ἀλλ ̓, ὦ τᾶν, εἰ μηδὲν τούτων, εὔνοιά γε καὶ προθυμία· ποῦ; πότε; ὅστις, ὦ πάντων ἀδικώτατε, οὐδ ̓ ὅτε ἅπαντες, ὅσοι πώποτ' ἐφθέγξαντ ̓ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος, εἰς σωτηρίαν ἐπεδίδοσαν, καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον 10 ̓Αριστόνικος τὸ συνειλεγμένον εἰς τὴν ἐπιτιμίαν ἀργύριον, οὐδὲ τότε οὔτε παρῆλθες οὔτ ̓ ἐπέδωκας οὐδὲν, οὐκ ἀπορῶν,
τί τῶν . . . διὰ σέ] ‘what of domestic, or Hellenic, or foreign affairs over which you presided has been improved through you?'
ποῖαι τριήρεις ;] This question is probably suggested by what is related of the orator Lycurgus, viz., that χειροτονηθείς ἐπὶ τῆς τοῦ πολέμου παρασκευῆς ὅπλα μὲν πολλὰ καὶ βελῶν μυριάδας πέντε ἀνήνεγκεν εἰς τὴν ἀκροπόλιν. This happened a little before the delivery of this speech, probably in B.c. 335, when the Athenians were preparing for war against Alexander. Vit. X. Orat. p. 852, quoted by Dissen.
τίς ἢ τοῖς εὐπόροις;] • what financial relief for the state and the public have you given to the wealthy or the needy?' The poor were benefited by the alterations which Demosthenes effected in the regulations for the trierarchy; the rich by improvements in the administration of the revenues.
ἀλλ ̓, ὦ τᾶν, εἰ] Demosthenes makes Aeschines rejoin, But, my good fellow (take the will for the deed), if I did none of these things, I certainly showed loyalty and zeal. Bekker makes this an interrogative clause: improperly, as I think. As for ὦ ταν or ὦ τάν, the derivation was a matter of dispute, even among the old grammarians. Bekker, Anec. p. 569. Buttmann (Ausführ. Gr. i. p. 224) considers τάν as an old form of τύ or τύνη, and a Táv as the vocative of the second person. Hermann, on the contrary, (Soph. Philoct. 1373) observes: “ Non dubium videtur, confatam esse istam vocem ex ὦ et ἐτῶν. Nam quod Buttmanno placet, τάν antiquam quandam formam pronominis Tú fuisse, sive etiam ex τήνος esse ortam, id non solum ana
logia omni destitutum est, sed repugnantem etiam habet significationem vocabuli, quae ubique convenit cum λῷστε, numquam cum ὦ οὗτος, aut ὦ σύ, licet utroque modo explicuerint veteres quidam lexicographi." Nevertheless, though the passage in the Philoctetes (ὦ τῶν διδάσκου μὴ θρασύνεσθαι κακοῖς) supports Hermann's view, the phrase in the text here (if not elsewhere in Demosthenes) is quite consistent with Buttmann's explanation. The ν ἐφελκυστικόν is not accounted for on Hermann's supposition. Comp. pp. 33 and 163, and Donaldson's Cratylus, p. 162, ed. 1.
ἐπεδίδοσαν] ' gave donations for the preservation of the state.' Some suppose this to have happened directly after the battle of Chaeroneia, B. c. 338; others in B. C. 335, when the Thebans rose against Alexander, and called upon the Athenians for aid. But from Deinarchus c. Dem. § 81, we should infer it was in B. c. 338-337, for the orator thus observes : μετὰ τὴν μάχην τὴν ἐν Χαιρωνείᾳ — οὐδὲν φροντίσας τῆς τότε παρούσης ἀπορίας, ἡνίχ ̓ οἱ ἄλλοι πάντες ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων ἐπεδίδοσαν εἰς τὴν ὑμετέραν σωτηρίαν.
Αριστόνικος] This Aristonicus was probably the person mentioned in $ 103 as having proposed the crowning of Demosthenes on a former occasion. For some cause or other he had incurred a fine to the state, and the further penalty of ἀτιμία or loss of civil rights from nonpayment. Το effect his restoration (εἰς τὴν ἐπιτιμίαν) his friends had raised a subscription, τὸ συνειλεγμένον. An orator named Aristonicus (ὁ Μαραθώνιος) was one of the persons put to death by Antipater. Plut. Demos. c. 28.
πῶς γάρ; ὅς γε κεκληρονόμηκας μὲν τῶν Φίλωνος τοῦ κηδεστοῦ χρημάτων πλειόνων ἢ πεντεταλάντων, διτάλαντον δ ̓ εἶχες ἔρανον δωρεὰν παρὰ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τῶν συμμοριών 15 386 ἐφ ̓ οἷς ἐλυμήνω τὸν τριηραρχικὸν νόμον. ἀλλ ̓ ἵνα μὴ λόγον ἐκ λόγου λέγων τοῦ παρόντος ἐμαυτὸν ἐκκρούσω, παραλείψω ταῦτα. ἀλλ ̓ ὅτι γ ̓ οὐχὶ δι ̓ ἔνδειαν οὐκ ἐπέδωκας, ἐκ τούτων δῆλον, ἀλλὰ φυλάττων τὸ μηδὲν ἐναντίον γενέσθαι παρὰ σοῦ τούτοις οἷς ἅπαντα πολιτεύει. 20 ἐν τίσιν οὖν σὺ νεανίας καὶ πηνίκα λαμπρός ; ἡνίκ ̓ ἂν εἰπεῖν κατὰ τούτων τι δέῃ, ἐν τούτοις λαμπροφωνότατος, μνημονικώτατος, ὑποκριτὴς ἄριστος, τραγικὸς Θεοκρίνης.
Εἶτα τῶν πρότερον γεγενημένων ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν μέμ νησαι. καὶ καλῶς ποιεῖς. οὐ μέντοι δίκαιόν ἐστιν, ὦ 25 ἄνδρες Αθηναῖοι, τὴν πρὸς τοὺς τετελευτηκότας εὔνοιαν ὑπάρχουσαν προλαβόντα παρ' ὑμῶν πρὸς ἐκείνους ἐξετά-330 388 ζειν καὶ παραβάλλειν ἐμὲ τὸν νῦν ζῶντα μεθ ̓ ὑμῶν. τίς
διτάλαντον δ ̓ εἶχες ἔρανον] ‘and received two talents as a gift, clubbed together by the leaders of the Symmoriae.'
ἐφ ̓ οἷς . . . νόμον] for the damage you did to the law of the Trierarchy.' It would seem from this, that some alterations of a prejudicial character were made in the bill as originally proposed by Demosthenes, and that they were owing to the interested opposition of his rival. I agree with Grote (xi. 645) in this opinion rather than with Böckh (Attische Seewesen, p. 183, and Polit. Econ. Ath. iv. 14) in his idea, that Demosthenes here speaks of an injury done to the law after its enactment.
ἀλλ ̓ ἵνα μή] ‘but that I may not by going through subject after subject exclude or debar myself from the matter in hand.'
φυλάττων] • but from your care that no act of yours might be in opposition to those for whom you always act in your public life.'
où veavías] 'spirited' like a young man. Comp. note p. 65. See also, λαμπρὸν οὐδὲ νεανικόν. c. Meid. § 170.
τραγικός Θεοκρίνης] a tragic Theocrines. According to Harpocration (s. v.) this Theocrines was notorious for his calumnies, as proved by a speech against him, written either by Demosthenes or
Deinarchus. Assuming then, that he was a common informer, who affected commiseration, and tried the pathetic in his trade, the point would be that Aeschines slandered his countrymen while pretending to commiserate the misfortunes of neighbouring states: e. g. of Thebes and Phocis. So Dissen observes: "Tragicum sycophantem dicit Aeschinem Demosthenes, h. e. patheticas querelas simulate fundentem calumniandi causa." Another, and perhaps a simpler interpretation is, that Aeschines after having been a tragedian, turned a common slanderer or informer, like Theocrines. Lord B. here observes: "the whole passage is magnifi. cent, the ideas are powerful, and the diction perfect. A grand effect is ever produced in oratory by closing a passage with such accumulation of weighty and telling expressions condensed and powerful. It is a resource of the art far too little drawn upon in our times."
τὴν . . . εὔνοιαν . . . παρ' ὑμῶν] having taken advantage of the good-will which you (παρ' ὑμῶν) bear the dead. This refers to the peroration of Aeschines in the speech against Ctesiphon, of which Lord B. says, “it would be one of the greatest of all the remains of ancient eloquence but for the terribly lame conclusion of the last few words."
γὰρ οὐκ οἶδε τῶν πάντων ὅτι τοῖς μὲν ζῶσι πᾶσιν υπεστί τις ἢ πλείων ἢ ἐλάττων φθόνος, τοὺς δὲ τεθνεῶτας οὐδὲ τῶν ἐχθρῶν οὐδεὶς ἔτι μισεῖ; οὕτως οὖν ἐχόντων τούτων τῇ 5 φύσει, πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμαυτοῦ νῦν ἐγὼ κρίνωμαι καὶ θεωρῶμαι; μηδαμῶς· οὔτε γὰρ δίκαιον οὔτ ̓ ἴσον, Αἰσχίνη, ἀλλὰ πρὸς σὲ καὶ ἄλλον εἴ τινα βούλει τῶν ταὐτά σοι 389 προῃρημένων καὶ ζώντων. κἀκεῖνο σκόπει. πότερον κάλλιον καὶ ἄμεινον τῇ πόλει διὰ τὰς τῶν πρότερον εὐεργεσίας, 10 οὖσας ὑπερμεγέθεις, οὐ μὲν οὖν εἴποι τις ἂν ἡλίκας, τὰς ἐπὶ τὸν παρόντα βίον γιγνομένας εἰς ἀχαριστίαν καὶ προπηλακισμὸν ἄγειν, ἢ πᾶσιν, ὅσοι τι μετ ̓ εὐνοίας πράττουσι, τῆς παρὰ τούτων τιμῆς καὶ φιλανθρωπίας μετεῖναι ; 390 καὶ μὴν εἰ καὶ τοῦτ ̓ ἄρα δεῖ με εἰπεῖν, ἡ μὲν ἐμὴ πολιτεία 15 καὶ προαίρεσις, ἄν τις ὀρθῶς σκοπῇ, ταῖς τῶν τότ ̓ ἐπαινου‐ μένων ἀνδρῶν ὁμοία καὶ ταὐτὰ βουλομένη φανήσεται, ἡ δὲ σὴ ταῖς τῶν τοὺς τοιούτους τότε συκοφαντούντων· δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι καὶ κατ' ἐκείνους ἦσαν τίνες, οἳ διέσυρον μὲν τοὺς ὄντας τότε, τοὺς δὲ πρότερον γεγενημένους ἐπῄνουν, βάσ- 20 391 κανον πρᾶγμα καὶ ταὐτὸ ποιοῦντες σοί. εἶτα λέγεις ὡς οὐδὲν ὅμοιός εἰμι ἐκείνοις ἐγώ ; σὺ δ ̓ ὅμοιος, Αἰσχίνη; ὁ δ ̓ ἀδελφὸς ὁ σός; ἄλλος δέ τις τῶν νῦν ῥητόρων ; ἐγὼ
ὅτι τοῖς μὲν ζῶσι πᾶσιν] that against all living men there is a certain lurking of envy, greater or less, whereas the dead are not hated any longer, not even by their enemies.' This idea is variously expressed by many writers. Thus the author of the speech against Sallust, c. ii. 8, says: "Quare noli mihi antiquos viros objectare. Neque me cum iis conferre decet, P. C., qui jam decesserunt omnique odio carent et invidia, sed cum iis qui mecum una in republica versati sunt." So also Thucyd. ii. c. 45: φθόνος γὰρ τοῖς ζῶσι πρὸς τὸ ἀντίπαλον· τὸ δὲ μὴ ἐμποδὼν ἀνανταγωνίστῳ εὐνοίᾳ τετίμηται. Again in Horace (iii. 24): "Virtutem incolumem odimus
Sublatam ex oculis quaerimus invidi." οὔσας ὑπερμεγέθεις] 'surpassingly great as they are, indeed no one can say how great.'
τὰς ἐπὶ τὸν... ἄγειν] ' to subject to ingratitude and contempt those that are
done for this present age. Lord B. thus: 'consider again-whether it is more honourable and more for the interests of the country, that because of the services rendered by our predecessors, prodigious though they be beyond all power of expression, we should show ingratitude and detraction towards those of the present day.' Mr. K. thus: whether, &c. . . . those of the present generation should be unrequited and spurned.'
κατ ̓ ἐκείνους ἦσάν τινες] After τινες some MSS. add τοὺς χρόνους, but they are not found in the Codex S., and so Bekker brackets, and Dindorf with Dissen excludes them.
μὲν γὰρ οὐδένα φημί. ἀλλὰ πρὸς τοὺς ζῶντας, ὦ χρηστὲ, ἵνα μηδὲν ἀλλ ̓ εἴπω, τὸν ζῶντα ἐξέταζε, καὶ τοὺς καθ ̓ 25 αὑτὸν, ὥσπερ τἄλλα πάντα, τοὺς ποιητὰς, τοὺς χορούς, 331 392 τοὺς ἀγωνιστάς. ὁ Φιλάμμων οὐχ ὅτι Γλαύκου τοῦ Καρυστίου καί τινων ἑτέρων πρότερον γεγενημένων ἀθλητῶν ἀσθενέστερος ἦν, ἀστεφάνωτος ἐκ τῆς Ὀλυμπίας ἀπῄει, ἀλλ ̓ ὅτι τῶν εἰσελθόντων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἄριστα ἐμάχετο, 5 ἐστεφανοῦτο καὶ νικῶν ἀνηγορεύετο. καὶ σὺ πρὸς τοὺς νῦν ὅρα με ῥήτορας, πρὸς σαυτὸν, πρὸς ὅντινα βούλει τῶν 393 ἁπάντων· οὐδένα ἐξίσταμαι. ὧν, ὅτε μὲν τῇ πόλει τὰ βέλτιστα ἑλέσθαι παρῆν, ἐφαμίλλου τῆς εἰς τὴν πατρίδα εὐνοίας ἐν κοινῷ πᾶσι κειμένης, ἐγὼ κράτιστα λέγων 10 ἐφαινόμην, καὶ τοῖς ἐμοῖς καὶ ψηφίσμασι καὶ νόμοις καὶ πρεσβείαις ἅπαντα διῳκεῖτο, ὑμῶν δὲ οὐδεὶς ἦν οὐδαμοῦ, 394 πλὴν εἰ τούτοις ἐπηρεάσαι τι δέοι· ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἃ μήποτ'
two brothers, Philochares the elder, and Aphobetus the younger (Apollon. in vita Aesch.), of whom the former had been a general, and is probably meant here. Demosthenes mentions both (F. L. § 262), and Aeschines also (F. L. § 158), who speaks of Aphobetus as πεπρεσβευκώς ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἀξίως τῆς πόλεως πρὸς τὸν Περσῶν βασιλέα.
ὁ Φιλάμμων] According to Harpocration and Eustathius (ad Il. 23. 686) this Philammon was an Athenian boxer, frequently victorious in combats with his antagonists. Of Glaucus of Carystus in Euboea a good story is told by Pausanias, vi. 10. He lived about B.c. 670.
καὶ σὺ πρὸς τοὺς νῦν ὅρα με] ‘and do you now look at me by the side of orators of the present day.' Aeschines (c. Ctes. 190), apparently by anticipation, but probably in an edition of his speech published after its delivery, attempts to answer these observations thus : Καίτοι πυνθάνομαι γ' αὐτὸν μέλλειν λέγειν, ὡς οὐ δίκαια ποιῶ, παραβάλλων αὐτῷ τὰ τῶν προγόνων ἔργα. Οὐδὲ γὰρ Φιλάμμωνά φησι τὸν πύκτην Ολυμπιάσι στεφανωθῆναι, νικήσαντα Γλαύκον τὸν παλαιὸν ἐκεῖνον πύκτην, ἀλλὰ τοὺς καθ' ἑαυτὸν ἀγωνιστάς· ὥσπερ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοοῦντας ὅτι τοῖς μὲν πύκταις ἐστὶν ὁ ἀγὼν πρὸς ἀλλήλους, τοῖς δ ̓ ἀξιοῦσι στεφανοῦσθαι πρὸς αὐτὴν τὴν ἀρετὴν, ἧς καὶ ἕνεκα στεφανοῦνται.
οὐδένα ἐξίσταμαι] not one do I de
cline.' So two of the best codices, S. and Y., and most recent editors instead of οὐδενὶ ἐξίσταμαι, as in most MSS. and in Bekker. Either reading is admissible here, the rule of construction as laid down by Mr. Drake being that ἐξίσταμαι takes a dative where εἴκω, and an accusative where φεύγω might be used. Comp. Soph. Ajax v. 82:
φρονοῦντα γάρ νιν οὐκ ἂν ἐξέστην όκνῳ, and v. 672:
ἐξίσταται δὲ νυκτὸς αἰανὴς κύκλος τῇ λευκοπώλῳ φέγγος ἡμέρᾳ φλέγειν. Also adv. Zen. § 36: τῆς πολιτείας αὐτῆς τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐξέστηκα.
ὧν, ὅτε μὲν τῇ πόλει] ‘of whom, when the state had the opportunity of choosing the best policy, and rivalry in patriotism was open to all, I appeared to give the best counsel.'
πλὴν εἰ τούτοις] except if it were necessary to insult your fellow-citizens.” Herodotus (vi. 9) uses ἐπηρεάζειν for ‘threatening: τάδε σφι λέγετε ἐπηρεά ζοντες τάπερ σφεὰς κατέξει.
ἐπειδὴ δὲ . . . συνέβη] but when such things happened, as would to heaven never had, and no longer was it a question of (or, was there a call for counsellors for the state, but of (or, for) men ready to obey orders and take pay against their country.'