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represent this combination of rulers. If the dynasties were PSEUDO-DIPTERAL (Gr. vevšńs, false, dls, double, and numbered thus before Manetho, the numeral may be the cause of Tepóv, a wing), the term given to a dipteral temple, i.e. in which Herodotus's confusion. After his father's death Psammetichus I. there are two rows of columns round the naos, the inner row of (664-610 B.C.) was able to defy thc Assyrians and the Ethiopians, which has been omitted to give more space for the processions and during a long reign marked by intimate relations with the or for shelter (see TEMPLE). Greeks restored the prosperity of Egypt. The short reign of PSEUDONYM (Gr. Vedúrumos, having a false name, the second Psammetichus (594-589 B.c.) is noteworthy for the revońs, false and ovoua, name), a false or invented name, graffiti of his Greck, Phoenician and Carian mercenaries at Abu particularly the fictitious name under which an author produces Simbel (7.0.). The third of the name was the unfortunate his work in order to conceal his identity. The same end is prince whose reign terminated after six months in the Persian gained by publication without any name, i.e. anonymously conquest of Egypt (525 B.c.). It has been conjectured that the (Gr. åvúvuos, without a name). The body of works thus profamily of the Psammetichi was of Libyan origin; on the other duced either without the author's name or under a fictitious hand, some would recognize negro features in a portrait of Psam- | name is known as anonymous and pseudonymous literature, metichus I., which might connect him with the Ethiopian rulers and many books have been published affording a key to the
See above, EGYPT: History; on the name, F. LI. Griffith, Catalogue identity of the various writers, forming an important section of of the Rylands demolic papyri; the portrait, H. Schäfer in Zeitschrift bibliography. Though Fredericus Geisler published a short für aegyptische Sprache, xxxiii. 116.
(F. LL. G.)
treatise on the subject entitled Larva detracta, &c., in 1669, the *PSELLUS (Gr. Vellos), the name of several Byzantine writers, chief early work was that of Vincent Placcius (1642-1699) whose of whom the following may be mentioned:
Theatrum anonymorum et pseudonymorum was published in 1708, • 1. MICHAEL PSELLUS the elder, a native of Andros and à edited by L. F. Vischer with a preface and life by J. A. Fabricius; pupil of Photius, who flourished in the second half of the oth supplements were published in 1711 and in 1740. The next century. His study of the Alexandrine theology, as well as of important work, only a fragment of the purposed scheme, was profane literature, brought him under the suspicions of the ortho- that of Adrien Baillet (9.v.), under the title of Auteurs déguisés dox, and a former pupil of his, by name Constantine, accused sous les noms étrangers, &c. (1690). Antoine Alexandre Barbier him in an elegiac poem of having abandoned Christianity. In
(q.v.) published his standard work Dictionnaire des ouvrages order to perfect his knowledge of Christian doctrine, Psellus had
anonymes et pseudonymes in 1806-1809 (2nd ed., 1822–1827). tecourse to the instructions of Photius, and then replied to his This was followed by the Supercheries littéraires dévoilées of J. M. adversary in a long iambic poem, in which he maintained his Quérard (q.v.). The third cdition of Barbier's work, embodying orthodoxy. None of his works has been preserved.
Quérard and much new matter, was published in 1872-1879. 2. MICHAEL CONSTANTINE PSELLUS the younger, born in 1018 | This was edited by P. Gustave Brunet, who published a supple(probably at Nicomedia; according to some, at Constantinople) | ment in 1880. Other works in French are those of C. Jolliet, of a consular and patrician family. He studied at Athens and Les Pseudonymes du jour (1867 and 1884), and F. Drujon, Livres Constantinople, where he became intimate with John Xiphilinus. d clef (1888). Of German works in this sphere of bibliography the Under Constantine Monomachus (1042-1054) he became one Index pseudonymorum, Wörterbuch der Pscudonymen of Emil of the most influential men in the empire. As professor of philo- Weller appeared in 1856, of which several supplements were sophy at the newly founded academy of Constantinople he published later. The most monumental of all works are the revived the cult of Plato at a time when Aristotle held the l Deutsche A
Deutsches Anonymen-Lexikon, 1501-1850, by M. Holzmann and
umen Leribon field; this, together with his admiration for the old pagan H. Bohatta (1902–1907), supplement, 1851-1908 (1900), and the glories of Hellas, aroused suspicions as to his orthodoxy. At Deutsches Pscudonymen-Lexikon, by the same authors (1906). See the height of his success as a teacher he was recalled to court, also F. Şintenis, Die Pscudonyme der neueren deutschen Litteratur where he became state secretary and vestarch, with the honorary (1890), and the supplementary: volume (1900), to Meyers's title of "Y FATOS TÕV øldoooow (prince of philosophers). Follow- | Konversations-Lexikon (6th ed.). The chief Italian work is the ing the example of his fricnd Xiphilinus he entered the monastery | Dizionario di opere anonime e pseudonime di scrittori italiani, by of Olympus (near Prusa in Bithynia), where he assumed the name. G. Melzi (1848-1859), with supplement by G. Passano (1887). of Michael. But, finding the life little to his taste, he resumed The Dutch Vermomde en naamloose schrijgers ... der Nederl. en his public career. Under Isaac Comnenus and Constantine Vlaamschen letteren, by J. I. van Doorninck (1883-1885), was a Ducas he exercised great influence, and was prime minister second edition of an earlier work. The Academy of Upsala is during the regency of Eudocia and the reign of his pupil Michael publishing, under the editorship of L. Bygden, a Swedish Parapinaces (1071-1078). It is probable that he died soon after dictionary Svenskt anonym och pseudonym lexikon (1898), &c. the fall of Parapinaces.
England was late in entering the field. The first work actually Living during the most melancholy period of Byzantine history, published was the Handbook of Fictitious Names, by R. Thomas Psellus exhibited the worst faults of his age. He was servile (Olphar Hamst) (1868). Samuel Halkett, and the successor to his and unscrupulous, weak, fond of intrigue, intolerably vain 'and compilations, John Laing, both died before their work was ambitious. But as a literary man his intellect was of the highest published; edited and revised by Miss C. Laing it appeared in order. In the extent of his knowledge, in keenness of observation, 1882-1888 in 4 vols. as the Dictionary of the Anonymous and in variety of style, in his literary output, he has been compared | Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain, by S. Halkett and J. to Voltaire; but it is perhaps as the forerunner of the great Laing. This remains the standard work on the subject in Renaissance Platonists that he will be chiefly remembered. His English. Other works are W. Cushing, Initials and Pseudonyms works embraced politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology, | (American and English from the beginning of the 18th century): jurisprudence, physics, grammar and history.
2nd series (1886, 1888), and Anonyms (1890); F. Marchmont, A of his works, which are very numerous, many have not yet been Concise, Handbook of Literature issued under Pscudonyms or printed. We may mention: Chronographia (ft mention: Chronographia (from 976-1077), which
Initials (1896); see also especially W. P. Courtney, The Secrets in spite of its bias in favour of the Ducases is a valuable history of his time, chicfly on domestic affairs; three Epitaphioi or funeral of our National Literature (1908), the first chapter of which orations over the patriarchs Cerularius, Lichudes and Xiphilinus. contains a sketch of the history of the subject, to which the His letters (nearly 500 in number) are also full of details of the period. above account is mainly due. The anonymous and pseudoA complete list of his works is given in Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca,
nymous Latin literature of the middle ages has been treated in X. 41; the most important have been published by C. Sathas in his Megawvun BpXo0nkn, iv, v. On Psellus himself see Leo Allatius, De modern times by A. Franklin, Dictionnaire des noms, &c., latins Psellis et eorum scriptis (1634); E. Egger in Dictionnaire des sciences 1100-1530 (1875), and A. G. Little, Initia operum latinorum philosophiques (1875); A. Rambaud in Revue historique (1877):
saec. 13-15 (1904). P. V. Bezobrazov, Michel Psellos (1890; in Russian); C. Neumann,
- PSEUDO-PERIPTERAL (Gr. Sevdñs, false, tepl, round, Die Weltstellung des byzantinischen Reiches vor den Kreuzzügen (1894); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der bysantinischen Literatur (1897); *Tepov, a wing), a term in architecture given to a temple in J. E. Sandys. Hist. of Classical Scholarship (1906), i. 411.
I which the columns surrounding the baos have had walls built
between them, so that they become engaged columns, as in the connected by a channel, 40 m. long and 3 to 10 wide, with Lake great temple at Agrigentum. In Roman temples, in order to Peipus. The marshes on the banks of the Polista are nearly increase the size of the cella, the columns on either side and at the 1250 sq. m. in extent. Forests occupy nearly one-third (32%). rear became engaged columns, the portico only having isolated of the entire area, and in some districts (Kholm, Toropets, columns. (See TEMPLE.)
| Porkhov) as much as two-thirds of the surface. Large pine PSEUDOPOD, PSEUDOPODIUM, the name given to an ex forests are met with in the north; in other parts the birch and tension of the naked protoplasm of certain Protozoa, notably the the aspen prevail; but almost one-quarter of the forest area is Sarcodina (q.v.), for crawling or creeping or for the prehension overgrown with brushwood. of food, but not for active swimming (see also AMOEBA).
The climate is very moist and changeable. The average PSILOMELANE, a mineral consisting of hydrous manganese temperature is 41° F. (17.1° in January and 64.8° in July). oxide with variable amounts of barium, potassium, &c. It is! The population of the government numbered 1,135,639 in sometimes considered to be a hydrous manganese manganate, but
ncse manganate, but 1897, when there were 584,931 women, and the urban population of doubtful composition. The amount of manganese present only 72,623. The estimated population in 1906 was 1,275,300, corresponds to 70-80% of manganous oxide with 10-15% of With the exception of 25,460 Esthonians (1897), the inhabitants "available” oxygen. The mineral is amorphous and occurs as are almost entirely Great Russians. They belong mainly to the botryoidal and stalactitic masses with a smooth shining surface Orthodox Greck Church, but the official number of Nonconand submetallic lustre. The name has reference to this char- formists, 32,066, is far below the mark. There are also about acteristic appearance, being from the Greek Vilós (naked, 12,000 Lutherans and 4000 Roman Catholics. The government is smooth) and uélas (black); a Latinized form is calvonigrite, divided into eight districts, the chief towns of which, with their and a German name with the same meaning is Schwarzer Glaskopf. populations in 1897, are Pskov (9.8.), Kholm (5899), NovoPsilomelane is readily distinguished from other hydrous manga- rzhev (2973), Opochka (5658), Ostrov (6252), Porkhov (5573), nese oxides (manganite and wad) by its greater hardness (H.= 5); Toropets (7489) and Velikiye Luki (8481). Between 1875 and the sp. gr. varies from 3.7 to 4.7. The streak is brownish- 1896 the peasantry increased their landed possessions by 91% black and the fracture smooth. Owing to its amorphous nature, and the merchants bought considerable areas from the nobles, the mineral often contains admixed impurities, such as iron who altogether sold 43% of their estates. Although the soil hydrates. It is soluble in hydrochloric acid with evolution of is far from fertile, no less than 30% of the total area is under chlorine. It is a common and important ore of manganese, crops and 12% under meadows. The crops principally cultivated occurring under the same conditions and having the same com- are rye, oats, barley, pease, potatoes, flax (for which the govern. mercial applications as pyrolusite (9.0.). It is found at many ment is famous) and hemp. Grain has to be imported, but oats localities; amongst those which have yielded typical botryoidal are exported. Owing to the efforts of the zemslvos, there has specimens may be mentioned the Restormel iron mine at been a notable improvement in agriculture, especially in dairyLostwithiel in Cornwall, Brendon Hill in Somerset, Hoy in the farming. Fishing in Lake Pskov and the smaller lakes is a source Orkneys, Sayn near Coblenz, and Crimora in Augusta county, of income. The manufacture of wooden wares for local needs, Virginia. With pyrolusite it is extensively mined in Vermont, ship-building, the timber trade, and the weaving of linen and Virginia, Arkansas and Nova Scotia.
woollens for local requirements are additional sources of income. PSKOV, a government of the lake-region of north-west Russia, Flax, flour, tobacco factories, saw-mills, distilleries and breweries which extends from Lake Peipus to the source of the west Dvina, are the principal industrial establishments. The population having the governments of St Petersburg and Novgorod on the engage also in the preparation of lime, in stone-quarrying, and N., Tver and Smolensk on the E., Vitebsk on the S. and Livonia in the transport of merchandise. (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.) on the W. It has an area of 17,064 sq. m. In the south-east it PSKOV, in German, Pleskau, a town of Russia, capital of the extends partly over the Alaun or Vorobiovy heights, which stretch government of the same name and an archiepiscopal see of the west into Vitebsk and send to the north a series of irregular Orthodox Greek Church, situated on both banks of the Velikaya ranges which occupy the north-western parts of Pskov. A River, 9 m. S.E. from Lake Pskov and 170 m. by rail S.W. of depression 120 m. long and 35 m. broad, drained by the Lovat St Petersburg. Pop. (1897), 30,424. The chief part of the and the Polista, occupies the interval between these two hilly town, with its kremlin on a hill, occupies the right bank of the tracts; it is covered with forests and marshes, the only tracts river, to which the ruins of its old walls (built in 1266) descend; suitable for human occupation being narrow strips of land the Zapskovye stretches along the same bank of the Velika vå along the banks of the rivers, or between the marshes, and no below its confluence with the Pskova; and the Zavelichye communication is possible except along the watercourses. occupies the left bank of the Velikaya--all three keeping their
With the exception of the south-eastern corner, where Carboni- old historical names. The cathedral in the kremlin has been ferous rocks crop out, nearly the whole of the government consists. four times rebuilt since the 12th century, the present edifice of Devonian strata of great thickness, with deposits of gypsum dating from 1691-1699, and contains some very old shrines, as and white sandstone, the latter extensively quarried for building also the graves of the bishops of Pskov and of several Pskov purposes. The bottom moraine of the Scandinavian and Finnish princes, including those of Dovmont (d. 1 200), and Vsevolod ice-sheet formerly extended over the whole of this region, and (d. 1138). The church of Dmitriy Solunskiy dates originally has left behind it numerous ridges (kames or eskers), the upper from the 12th century; there are others belonging to the 14th parts consisting of Glacial sands and post-Glacial clays, sands and isth. The Spaso-Mirozhskiy monastery, founded in 1956, and peat-bogs. The soil is thus not only infertile, but also and restored in 1890-1903, has many remarkable antiquities. badly drained, and only those parts of the territory which are The ruins of numerous rich and populous monasteries in or covered with thicker strata of post-Glacial deposits are suitable near the town attest its former wealth and greatness. The for agriculture.
present town is ill-built, chiefly of wood, and shows traces of The rivers are numerous and belong to three separate basins decay. It has a cadets' school, a normal school for teachers, to Lakes Peipus and Pskov the rivers in the north-west, to Lake and a few lower technical schools, an archaeological museum Ilmen those in the middle, and to that of the Dvina the rivers (1903) and some scientific societies. The private collections in the south-east. A great number of small streams pour into (coins, antiquities, art works, &c.) of Messrs Pushkin and Lake Pskov, the chief being the Velikaya. The Lovat and the Sudhov are two of the most remarkable in Russia. The manu. Shelon, belonging to the basin of Lake Ilmen, are both navigable; factures are unimportant. Since the completion of the St
hile the west Dvina flows for 100 m, on the south border of the Petersburg and Warsaw railway the trade of Pskov has in government or within it, and is used only for floating timber. Pskov has regular steam communication with Dorpat. There are no fewer than 850 lakes in Pskov, with a total area of History.-Pskov, formerly the sister republic of Novgorod, 591 sq. m. The largest is Lake Pskov, which is 50 m. long and and one of the oldest cities of Russia, maintained its indepen13 broad, covers 300 sq. m, and bas a depth of 3 to 18 ft.; it is I dence and its free institutions until the 16th century, being thus the last to be brought under the rule of Moscow. It already or even an irritation caused by friction of the clothing. The existed in the time of Rurik (9th century); and Nestor mentions favourite starting point of the lesion is either the elbows or the under the year 914 that Olga, wife of Igor, prince of Novgorod, fronts of the knees. It is nearly always symmetrical in its was brought from Pleskov (i.e. Pskov). The Velikaya valley distribution, and spreads over the trunk and the extensor and river were from a remote antiquity a channel for the trade surfaces of the limbs, in contrast to eczema, which selects the of the south of Europe with the Baltic coast. Pskov being an flexor surfaces. The hairy scalp may also be affected. The important strategic point, its possession was obstinately dis eruption generally first shows itself as one or more papules, puted between the Russians and the Germans and Lithuanians at first red and spreading, and later white from the formation throughout the ith and 12th centuries. At that time the of scales and red at the spreading margin, where it is surrounded place had its own independent institutions; but it became in by a hyperaemic zone. On removing the scales is seen a the 12th century a prigorod of the Novgorod republic--that is smooth hyperaemic zone dotted with red spots. The patches a city having its own free institutions, but included in certain spread centrifugally and may remain stationary for a long time respects within the jurisdiction of the metropolis, and compelled or coalesce with other patches and cover large areas of skin. in time of war to march against the common enemy. Pskov In some cases involution of the central portion accompanies had, however, its own prince (defensor municipii); and in the the spreading of the patch, and large concentric rings are formed. second half of the 13th century Prince (Timotheus) Dovmont The lesions may persist for years, or spontaneously disappear, fortified it so strongly that the town asserted its independence leaving behind a slight brown stain. The symptoms are usually of Novgorod, with which, in 1348, it concluded a treaty wherein slight and there is little or no irritation or itching, and no pain the two republics were recognized as equals. Its rule extended except in a form which is associated with osteo-arthritis. The over the territory which now forms the districts of Pskov, disease, though of noted chronicity, is subject to sudden exOstrov, Opochka, and Gdov (farther north on the east side of acerbations, and may reappear at intervals after it has comLake Peipus). The vyeche or council of Pskov was sovereign, | pletely disappeared. It has little or no effect upon the general the councils of the subordinate towns being supreme in their health. Several forms have been described, viz. the simple own municipal affairs. The council was supreme in all affairs uncomplicated, the nervous, the osteo-arthritic, and the of general interest, as well as a supreme court of justice, and the seborrhoeic. Varieties have also been named according to the princes were elected by it; these last had to defend the city and character of the patches, such as psoriasis punctata, guttata, levied the taxes, which were assessed by twelve citizens. But circinata or nummularis, or when large areas are involved and the while Novgorod constantly showed a tendency to become an skin is harsh, dry and cracked, it is known as psoriasis inveterata. oligarchy of the wealthier merchants, Pskov figured as a republic The pathological changes taking place in the skin have been in which the influence .of the poorer classes prevailed. Its described as an inflammation of the papillae and corium, with trading associations, supported by those of the working classes, a down-growth of the stratum mucosum between the papillae checked the influence of the wealthier merchants.
and an increase of the horny layer (keratosis). This latter, This struggle continued throughout the 14th and 15th cen- however, has been said to be due to the formation in it of tiny turies. Nothwithstanding these conflicts Pskov was a very dry abscesses. The silvery appearance of the scales is due to wealthy city. Its strong walls, its forty large and wealthy the inclusion of air globules within them. The treatment is churches, built during this period, its numerous monasteries, hygienic, constitutional and local. The clothing must be and its extensive trade, bear testimony to the wealth of the regulated so as to prevent undue perspiration or irritation or inhabitants, who then numbered about 60,000. As early as the chafing of the skin. The most effective local application is 13th century Pskov was an important station for the trade chrysarobin used as an ointment. A bath of hot water and soap between Novgorod and Riga. A century later it became a should first be given, or an alkaline bath, in order to remove member of the Hanseatic League. Its merchants and trading | all the scales; the ointment is then applied, but must be used associations had factories at Narva, Reval and Riga, and ex-over a small arca at a time, as it is apt to set up dermatitis. ported flax, corn, tallow, skins, tar, pitch, honey, and timber | Tarry applications, such as unguentum picis liquidae, creosote for ship-building. Silks, woollen stuffs, and all kinds of manu- | ointment or liquor carbonis detergens, are also useful; and factured wares were brought back in exchange. In 1399 the radio-therapy has caused a rapid removal of the lesions, but prince of Moscow claimed the privilege of confirming the elected neither it nor the ointment has prevented subsequent recurprince of Pskov in his rights; and though, fifty years later, rence. In chronic cases the sulphur-water baths of. Harrogate, Pskov and Novgorod concluded defensive treaties against | Aix-les-Bains and Aachen have been successful. The internal Moscow, the poorer classes continued to seek at Moscow a administration of small doses of vinum antimoniale, in acute protection against the richer citizens. After the fall of Nov. cases, or of arsenic (in gradually increasing doses of the liquor gorod (1475) Pskov was taken (1510) by Basil Ivanovich, prince arsenicalis) in chronic cases, is undoubtedly beneficial. of Moscow, and a voyvode or deputy was nominated to govern - PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused the city. Moscow, at the end of the 17th century, abolished by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae. the last vestiges of self-government at Pskov, which thence- found in the liver, kidneys and 'ureters.
rward fell into rapid decay. Near this city the Teutonic | PSYCHE (vuxn). in Greek mythology, the pers knights inflicted a severe defeat upon the Russians in 1502. of the human soul. The story of the love of Eros (Cupid) for Pskov became a stronghold of Russia against Poland, and was Psyche is a philosophical allegory, founded upon the Platonic besieged (1581) for seven months by Stephen Bathory during conception of the soul. In this connexion Psyche was reprethe Livonian War, and in 1615 by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. sented in Greek and Graeco-Roman art as a tender maiden, with Under Peter the Great it became a fortified camp.
bird's or butterfly's wings, or simply as a butterfly. Sometimes (P. A .T. BE.)
she is pursued and tormented by Eros, sometimes she revenges PSORIASIS, a skin affection characterized by the occurrence herself upon him, sometimes she embraces him in fondest of flat dry patches of varying size covered with silvery white affection. The tale of Cupid and Psyche, in the Melamor phoses scales. Next to eczema and ringworm it is ono of the most of Apuleius, has nothing in common with this conception but commonly found skin diseases. It occurs frequently during the name. In it Psyche, the youngest daughter of a king, infancy and early adult life, and rarely begins after the age of arouses the jealousy of Venus, who orders Cupid to inspire her bfty. Though a parasitic origin has been suggested, no bac- with love for the most despicable of men. Cupid, however, teriological factor has yet been found, and it has been demon- falls in love with her bimself, and carries her off to a secluded strated that psoriasis may, follow on nervous shock, gout, mental spot, where he visits her by night, unseen and unrecognized emotion and insufficient nourishment. It may also follow an by her. Persuaded by her sisters that her companion is a attack of scarlet fever or erysipelas. The site of the disease hideous monster, and forgetful of his warning, she lights a lamp may be determined by an abrasion or other injury of the skin, to look upon him while he is asleep; in her ecstasy at his beauty
she lets fall a drop of burning oil upon the face of Cupid, who | Animal Magnetism and The Truths in Popular Superstitions awakes and disappears. Wandering over the earth in search respectively. Esdaile and Elliotson were practical pioneers of him, Psyche falls into the hands of Venus, who forces her to in the medical use of induced sleep or somnambulism. For undertake the most difficult tasks. The last and most dangerous their ideas and experiments The Zoist may be consulted. The of these is to fetch from the world below, the box containing epidemic of “spiritualism" and of “turning tables " then the ointment of beauty. She secures the box, but on her way invaded Europe, from America, and was discussed by Dr Carback opens it and is stupefied by the vapour. She is only penter, Faraday, Gasparin, De Morgan and many others. The restored to her senses by contact with the arrow of Cupid, at | adventures of Daniel Dunglas Home excited all Europe, and whose entreaty Jupiter makes her immortal and bestows her his effects were studied by Sir William Crookes with especial in marriage upon her lover. The meaning of the al
tention. Home disappeared after a lawsuit; his successes obvious. Psyche, as the personification of the soul, is only remain an unsolved enigma. Believers explained them by the permitted to enjoy her happiness so long as she abstains from agency of the spirits of the dead, the old savage theory. He il-advised curiosity. The desire to pry into its nature brings had many followers, most of whom, if not all, were detected in suffering upon her; but in the end, purified by what she has vulgar impostures. Of the books of this period those of undergone, she is restored to her former condition of bliss by Mr Richard Dale Owen (1810-1890) are the most curious, but the mighty power of love..
exact method was still to seek. On this story see L. Friedländer, “Ueber das Märchen von Amor In 1882 the Society for Psychical Research, under the presiund Psyche" (in Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, 1888, dency of Henry Sidgwick, professor of moral philosophy in the vol. i.; for a treatment of the Greek conception, see E. Rohde, Psyche, 1894). For Psyche in art see A. Conze, De Psyches imagi
| university of Cambridge, was founded expressly for the purpose nibus quibusdam (1855); Max Collignon, Essai sur les monuments of introducing scientific method into the study of the “ debateable grecs el romains relatifs au mythe de Psyché (1877).
phenomena.” Other early members were Edmund Gurncy, PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, a term which may be defined, F. W. H. Myers, Andrew Lang, Professor Barrett, Mrs Şidgwick, partially, as an examination into the amount of truth contained F. Podmore, Lord Tennyson, Lord Rayleigh and Professor in world-wide superstitions. Thus when Saul disguised himself Adams; while among presidents were Professor Balfour before his séance with the witch of Endor, and when Croesus Stewart, A. J. Balfour. Profes
our, Proiessor William James of Harvard scientifically tested the oracles of Greece (finding clairvoyance and Sir William Crookes. The society has published many or lucidité in the Delphic Pythoness), Saul and Croesus were volumes of Proceedings. In France and in Germany and Italy psychical researchers. A more systematic student was the many men of distinguished scientific position have examined Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry. In his letter to Anebo, the Italian "medium" Eusapia Palladino, and have contributed answered in IIepi uvotnplwv by Iamblichus (?) we find Porphyry experiments, chiefly in the field of hypnotism and“ telepathy." concerned with the usual alleged phenomena-prophecy; the Hypnotism has been introduced into official experimental power of walking through fire unharmed; the movements of psychology and medicine with some success. inanimate objects, untouched; the “levitation" of "mediums"; | It is plain that the range of psychical research is almost apparitions of spirits, their replies to questions, the falsehood unlimited. It impinges on anthropology (with its study of the of those replies; and so forth. Similar phenomena fill the lives savage theory of spirits-animism-and of diabolical possession), of the saints and the records of witch trials. Apparitions, and on the usual province of psychology, in the problems of especially of the dying or the dead; the stereotyped disturb- the hallucinations both of morbid patients and of people in ances in haunted houses; and the miraculous healing of normal mental health. The whole topic of the unconscious diseases, are current in classical and medieval records. The or subconscious self is made matter not of mere metaphysical exhibition of remote or even future events, to gazers in mirr speculation (as by Kant and Hamilton), but of exact observa. crystals, vessels full of water, or drops of ink or blood, is equally tion, and, by aid of hypnotism and automatism, of direct notorious in classical, Oriental, medieval and modern litera- experiment. The six original committees of the society ture; while the whole range of these phenomena is found in undertook the following themes: Chinese, Japanese, Hindu, ancient American, Red Indian and I. An examination of the nature and extent of any influence savage belief.
which may be exerted by one mind upon another, At various periods, and in proportion to the scientific methods apart from any generally recognized mode of perception. of the ages, attempts have been made to examine these things 2. The study of hypnotism and the forms of so-called mesmeric scientifically, St Augustine wrote on the whole topic with
trance, clairvoyance and other allied phenomena. remarkable acuteness and considerable scepticism; his treat 3. A critical revision of Reichenbach's rescarches, into certain ment of miracles of healing is especially noteworthy. After organizations called “sensitive." Petrus Thyraeus (1546-1601), S. J. Wierus, Ludwig Lavater 4. A careful investigation of any reports, resting on strong (1527-1586), and other authors of the 16th century, came the testimony, regarding apparitions at the moment of labours of Glanvill, Henry More, Richard Baxter, Boyle, Cotton death or otherwise, or regarding disturbances in houses Mather, and others in England and America, during and after reputed to be haunted. the Restoration. Attempts were made to get first-hand evidences 5. An inquiry into the various physical phenomena commonly and Glanvill investigated the knocking drummer of Tedworth called spiritualistic, with an attempt to discover their in situ (1663). The disturbances in the house of the Wesleys causes and general laws. at Epworth (1716 and later) were famous, and have copious 6. The collection and collation of existing materials bearing contemporary record. David Hume believed himself to have on the history of these subjects. settled questions which, when revived by the case of Sweden- To these themes we might now add the study of "crystalborg and the experiments of Mesmer and his pupils, puzzled gazing," and of the hallucinatory visions which a fair percentage and interested Kant. The influence of Mesmer has never died of people observe when staring into any clear deep, usually a out; the fact of “animal magnetism ” (with such examples as glass ball; but ink (with some experimenters) does as well, or the" divining rod," and the phenomena in general) was accepted a glass water-jug. Of these themes, the third has practically in his manner, and explained, by Hegel. The researches of led to nothing. The experiments of Reichenbach on the perBraid (c. 1840-1850) gave a new name,“ hypnotism,” to what ception of flames issuing from magnets have not been verified. had been called "mesmerism ” or “animal magnetism ”; a The collection of historical examples, again (6), has not been name conveying no theory of " magnetic " or other “fluids." much pursued by the society, except in Mr Gurney's studies of “ Mesmerism " implies a theory of “emanations” from the witchcraft in Phantasms of the Living, by himself, Mr Podmore operator to the patient; “hypnotism” implies no such hypo- and Mr Myers. On the other hand, a vast number of experithesis. In the middle of the 19th century Dr Gregory and ments were made in " thought transference.” (1) Diagrams Dr Mayo published their entertaining but unsystematic works, I drawn by A were reproduced by B; cards thought of, numbers and so forth were also reproduced in conditions that appeared , evidence before them, hallucinations coincided with deaths to make the normal transference of the idea by sound, sight or in a ratio of 440 times more than was to be expected by the law touch impossible, and to put chance coincidence out of court. of probabilities. The committee came to the conclusion that a In one or two instances collusion was detected ingeniously. relation of cause and effect does exist between the death of A In others two explanatory theories have been broached. People and the vision of A beheld by P. The hallucination is apparently may accidentally coincide in their choice of diagrams, or the caused from without by some unexplained action of the mind “ unconscious whispering” of a person fixing his mind hard on or brain of A on the brain or mind of P. This effect is also a number, card or what not may be heard or seen. But coin-traced, where death does not occur, for example, in the many cidence in diagrams does not apply when a ship, dumb-bells, a instances of false“ arrivals." A is on his way to X, or is dreamcandlestick or a cat is drawn by both experimenters; nor can ing that he is on his way, and is seen at X by P, or by P, Q and "unconscious whispering " be heard or seen when the experi- R, as may happen. These cases are common, and were explained
rooms. On the whole, the inquirers in Celtic philosophy by the theory of the “ Co-Walker," a kind convinced themselves that one mind or brain may influence of “astral body." The facts are accounted for in the same another mind or brain through no recognized channel of sense.way by Scandinavian popular philosophy. Possibly in many This is, of course, an old idea (see Walton's Life of Donne, and instances such hallucinations are the result of expectancy in his theory of the appearance of Mrs Donne, with a dead baby, the beholder. Yet if we go out to shoot or fish, excepting to Dr Donne in Paris). The method of communication remains to encounter grouse or salmon, we do not usually see grouse or a problem. Are there “brain waves," analogous to the X-rays, salmon if they are not there! Where the arrival is not expected, from brain to recipient brain, or does mind touch mind in some this explanation fails. In “second sight," even among savages, unheard-of way? The former appears to be the hypothesis these occurrences are not infrequent, and doubtless admit of preferred by Sir William Crookes and Professor Flournoy an explanation by telepathy. In two instances, known at (Des Indes d la planète Mars, pp. 363-365). On this showing first hand to the present writer, persons dreamed, at a distance, there is nothing “supranormal ” in “telepathy," as it is called that they entered their own homes. In one the person was The latter theory of “a purely spiritual communication” is scen, in the other distinctly heard, by the inmates of his or her argued for by Mr Myers (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical house. In several of these examples knocks are heard, as in Research, xv. 407-410). If we accept telepathy as experi. spiritualist séances. In fact, if we accept the evidence, living mentally demonstrated, and regard it as a physical process, but remote persons may, unconsciously, produce effects of we reduce (4), “ apparitions at the moment of death or other sounds and of phantasms exactly like those which popular wise," to a normal though not very usual fact. Everyone belief ascribes to the spirits of the dead. would admit this in the case of mere empty hallucinations. A, If we admit the evidence, of which a great body exists, and in Paisley, sees P, in London, present in his room. P is neither if we attribute the phenomena to telepathy, curious inferences dying nor in any other crisis, and A is, as both continue to be, may be drawn. Thus if the phenomena are such as only the in his normal health. Such experiences are by no means very spirits of the dead could be credited with producing-if the uncommon, when there is nothing to suggest that P has exercised dead were frequently recognized by various good witnesses any telepathic influence on A. On the other hand, in Phantasms it would follow (on the hypothesis of telepathy) that telepathy of the Living, and in the report on the Census of Hallucinations is not a physical process caused by material waves or rays from (Proceedings, vol. x.), the society has published large numbers living brain to brain, the dead having no brains in working order. of “coincidental" hallucinations, the appearance of P to A On the other hand, if living brains may thus affect each other, coinciding with the death or other crisis of the distant P. That a subjective hallucination experienced by the living A may such“ wraiths" do occur is the popular and savage belief. But, conceivably be “ wired on" to the living P. Thus A, in a given it may be urged, many hallucinations occur and many deaths. house, may have a mere subjective hallucination of the presence People only remember the hallucinations which happened, or of the dead B, and may, unconsciously, insect with that halluwere made by erroneous reckoning to seem to happen, coin-cination other persons who come to the house. Thus once cidentally with the decease of the person seen. This is not quite admit that any living brain may infect any other, and it becomes true, for a hallucination so vivid as to be taken for a real person practically impossible for a spirit of the dead to prove his and addressed as such is not easily forgotten by a sober citizen, identity. Any information which he may give in any way even if “nothing happened ” afterwards. None the less, the must either be known to living people, however remote, or coincidental hallucinations have certainly a better chance of unknown. If known to a living person, he may, unconsciously, being remembered, while fancy is apt to exaggerate the closeness “ wire it on" to the seer. If wholly unknown to everybody, the
“ wire it on of the coincidence. Nothing can demonstrate that coincidences | veracity of the information cannot be demonstrated, except between death and hallucination occur more frequently than | later, if it refers to the unknown future. Thus the theory of by the doctrine of chance they ought to do, except a census of telepathy, with a little good will, puts the existence and activity the whole population. In the present indifference of govern- of the souls of the dead beyond possibility of proof. ment to psychical science no party is likely to institute such a These remarks apply to the researches of the society into census, and even if it were done, the frivolity of mankind would alleged isolated phantasms of the dead, and into "haunted throw doubt on the statistics. It would be necessary to cross- houses.” As to the former cases, it is admitted on all hands examine each “percipient," and to ask for documentary or that sane and sober people may have subjective hallucinations other corroborative evidence in each case.
of the presence of living friends, not dying or in any other crisis. The Society for Psychical Research collected statistics in Obviously then, the appearance of a dead person may equally proportion to its resources. More than 17,000 answers were be an empty hallucination. Thus, a member of the House of received to questions rather widely circulated. The affirmative Commons, standing at the entrance of a certain committee-room, respondents were examined closely, their mental and physical saw another member, of peculiar aspect and gait, pass him and health and circumstances inquired into, and collectors of enter the room, his favourite haunt. Several hours passed evidence were especially enjoined to avoid selecting persons before the percipient suddenly recollected that the other member known to be likely to return affirmative replies. There were had been dead for some months. Even superstition cannot argue 80 cases at first hand in which the death of the person seen that this appearance was a ghost. In the same way Hawthorne, coincided, within twelve hours, with the visual hallucination of the celebrated novelist, frequently, he has written, saw a dead his or her presence, out of 352 instances of such hallucinations.club-man in his club. But suppose, for the sake of argument, By way of arriving at the true proportions, the hallucinations that at intervals members of the house kept seeing such appearwhich coincided with nothing were multiplied by four. In this ances of dead members of parliament, and suppose that they had
de for obliviousness of non-coincidental | never seen the prototypes in their lifetime, but yet correctly ballucinations. The verdict of the committee was that, on the described them: then it might be said that their hallucinations