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ledge of the figure. V. BARTHoloMEw has some able specimens of Birds and Flowers, and, as a favourable example of them, we may point out No. 160, The Camelia Japonica, Arbutus, Nest, &c. LANce and Mrs. HARRison have each a delightful study in the same department. H. PARK has some very well executed Landscapes, and so have Thomas LINDsAY, E. DUNCAN, C. F. Poweli., G. F. Phillips, F. W. WATTs, D. Fowler, C. MARshALL, H. E. Dow NING, W. Fowler, W. H. PRIoR, and others. J. Thost PE's study of Pigs is worthy of notice, and we may mention with equal approbation GEORGE PARRY's contribution of Still Life, No. 286; W. SPRY's Group of Fish, No. 291; His Study of Flowers, No. 302, and J. W. WILLIAMs's Romeo and Juliet, No. 332.
We had almost omitted to refer to a frame of Landscapes by J. B. PYNE, though certainly equal, and we are by no means sure they are not superior, to any in the room.
First, and sold by the Commonwealth Commissioners to an agent of the King of Spain. During the invasion of that country, Murat possessed himself of them, and they were removed to Naples. On his death they were claimed by his widow, at the Congress of Vienna, as private property, and the claim was allowed. . The Marquis of Londonderry, then Ambassador, purchased them of the Queen, and they are now, after the lapse of nearly two centuries, again about to return to the neighbourhood of Whitehall. The necessary grant was very unanimously voted in the Committee of Supply on the 10th of April; when Mr. Spring Rice mentioned that, since the first pur. chase of pictures by the State, there had been given to the Gallery, by private individuals, pictures to the value of 67,000l. It was also mentioned, that the apartments to be allotted to the Royal Academy in the new building at Charing Cross, would be granted under the condition of their being resumable when required for the further accommodation of the National Collection.
RETzsch, the German Artist, whose Shakspeare Illustrations have acquired for him a European reputation, has announced some designs under the title of “Retzsch's Fancies.”
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
New Works announced for Publication.
Archaeographia: being a series of papers on several Antiquarian and Scientific subjects relating to, or connected with, the History and Chronology of the Jews, Egyptians, Chaldeans, Greeks, Chinese, and other ancient nations; the Physical History of the Universe; and the Progress of Religion, Civilisation, and Knowledge. Read before the Royal Society of Literature, published in several Periodical Journals, and others not before promulgated. By Is AAc CULLIMORE, M.R.S.L. To be published in occasional 8vo. volumes. Sylloge Theologica; or, Systematic Collection of Tracts in Divinity, by the Rev. Dr. WoRDsworth, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. An original Essay on Primitive Preaching, by John PETHERick, Minister of Totnes; and also a Second Edition of Dr. WARDLAw's Lectures on Christian Ethics. Remains of the late ALEx. KNox, Esq. of Dublin; containing letters and essays on the Doctrines and Philosophy of
Christianity, and the distinctive Character of the Church of England. Practical Advice to a young Parish Priest, by the Rev. J. D. Coleńidge. A uniform edition of the Works of the Rev. DANIEL Isaac, with a Memoir of his Life. Man, as known to us theologically and geologically, by the Rev. Dr. NAREs. Clavis Homilitica, or the Clergyman's Register of his Discourses, with reference to the order in which the Holy Scriptures are appointed to be read in the Services of the Church. 4. A Series of Lay Sermons on Good Principles and Good Breeding. By the ETTRick Shepherd. The People's Debt to the National Church; in a series of Readings, Historical, Biographical, and Doctrinal, Vols. I. and II. continuing the Age of Cranmer, o the Rev. Richard CATTERMoLE, B.D. Sir John. Dillon de Immunitate qua Gaudent Scoti ex pacto Unionis dissi-. dentes Angliae Protestantes. Reflections adapted to the Holy Seasons of the Christian and Ecclesiastical
April 10. J. W. Lubbock, esq., V. P. The following Fellows were elected: – Viscount Adare, Charles Ansell, esq. of Tottenham; Felix Booth, esq., Lieutenant Alexander Burnes, E.I.C.S., Francis Corbaux, esq., Sir William Browne Folkes, Bart. M.P., James William Freshfield, esq., John Davies Gilbert, esq. M.A., Edward Griffith, esq. F.S.A.; Edmund Halswell, esq. M.A., William Charles Henry, M.D. Physician to the Manchester Infirmary; bert Hudson, esq., Rev. Wm. Forster Lloyd, M.A. Professor of Political Economy at Oxford; John Phillips, esq. of York, Captain Nugent Smee, E.I.C.S., Wm. Spence, esq., Henry Sykes Thornton, esq. M.A., John Warburton, M.D., Horace, Hayman Wilson, Esq. Read 1. On a General Method in Dynamics, by William Rowan Hamilton, esq., Royal Astronomer of Ireland; 2. “Observations on the Motions of Shingle Beaches,” by Henry R. Palmer, esq. §r. S.
April 17. Francis Baily, esq. V. P. The paper on the Elementary Laws of Electricity, by William Snow Harris, esq., F.R.S. was resumed.
April 24. Davis Gilbert, esq. V. P.The same paper was concluded; and a portion read of a paper, on the Generation of Marsupiate Animals, by Richard Owen, esq.
ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.
At the anniversary meeting, Francis Baily, esq. was re-elected President. The Report of the Council stated that the Planetary Ephemeris, computed under the direction of Lieut. Stratford, and presented by him to the Society, was printed. The Council congratulated the Society on the prospect of the reduction of the observations made by Bradley, Maskelyne, Pond, and others. Government has granted the sum of 500l. for
By the Rev. JAMEs BREwsTER,
that purpose; and the execution has been undertaken by Professor Airy. The appearance of the Nautical Almanac for 1834-5, framed on the model propoed
by the Society in 1830, under the superintendence of Lieut. Stratford, may be considered as forming a new era in practical astronomy. The funds of the Society were reported to be in a flourishing state—total number of Fellows 3.25. During the year the Society had lost by death one Fellow and three Associates, viz. M. Legendre, the author of the Elliptic Functions and of the Theory of Numbers; Carlo Brioschi, a native of North Italy, employed in the corps of geographical engineers formed by the Austrian government; and Pietro Caturegli, Professor of Astronomy in the University of Bologna, and director of the Observatory. The Council further announced that the new standard scale, with its stand and apparatus, for comparative measures, was at length completed under the direction of the committee.
No medal was awarded at this anniversary.
THE DUKE OF SUSSRX's SolREES.
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, as President of the Royal Society, manifests a liberality and courtesy highly honourable to himself, and entitled to imitation . other noble and eminent persons, who are advanced to similar stations by the members of their respective societies. Occasionally, during the winter season, his Royal Highness invites some of the leading members of the Royal Society to dine with him at Kensington Palace, and on the same evening receives a large assemblage of visitors from 9 to 12 o'clock. On these occasions, many of the first nobility and gentry of the country thereby meet some of the most eminent men of science, professors of the fine Arts, and literary characters. Thus a familiar and useful intercourse of wealth and talent—of men of rank and men of genius —and other grades of society, are brought into social and familiar union. Nothing can be more delightful, or better calculated to promote harmony and good feeling between the three estates of the kingdom. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex has evinced not only political wisdom, but intellectual taste, in thus bursting the trammels of formal, cold, courtly etiquette, and standing forth the founder of a new era and a new fashion. Sir Joseph Banks certainly commenced this system, and his Sunday evening soirées were truly pleasant and intellectual; but the example of a Royal Duke is more imsing—is calculated to produce more influence than that of a commoner, and the manners and talents which his Royal Highness exercises and displays on these, as on other public occasions, are at once bland, courteous, and dignified. The Presidents of the Astronomical Society, Mr. Baily—of the Geological, Mr. Greenough, are in the habit of having frequent dinner and evening parties of the members of their respective societies, and thereby contribute very materially to promote science and a friendly intercourse among its lovers and patrons. These gentlemen are rarely ever absent from their presidential duties, and thus manifest a laudable zeal and a positive attachment to that science over which *; are elected as professional guardians. wo of the Duke of Sussex's meetings have taken place since Christmas, and two others are named on the invitation cards. For the purpose of gratifying the "company, and furnishing matter for conversation, various objects of art, science, vertu, literature, &c. are placed on the tables, and the choice treasures of the library are accessible through the obliging attentions of Mr. Pettigrew, his Royal Highness's librarian. The unrivalled collection of Bibles is a source of great interest to many persons. Among other objects exhibited have been a series of marbles of different countries and qualities, on which Mr. C. H. Smith has lectured; a model of a machine for polishing lenses; a very curious model of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, made by Mr. Davidson; and a series of drawings illustrating the Architectural Antiquities of different ages and different countries, being part of Mr. Britton's extensive series for his lectures.
ROYAL GICOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.
March 24. John Barrow, esq., in the chair. – Eight Fellows were elected; others proposed. There was read a portion of a communication, entitled “Papers descriptive of the countries beyond the north-western frontier of the Bombay Presidency, relating chiefly to the principalities of Joodapoor and Jaysulmar,” &c. compiled from the notes of Lieut. Burnes, collected in 1829-30, while surveying these countries under the orders of the Bombay government. April 7. Mr. Hamilton in the chair.— Lieut. Burnes gave a vivá voce account of a portion of his interesting travels in India. The narrative was descriptive of some of the countries beyond the northwestern frontier of the Bombay presidency, and was illustrated by reference to a capital map, constructed by Lieut.
Burnes himself, under the fostering auspices of Sir J. Malcolm. Our traveller started from Cutch in 1829-30, went up the Runn, a strange region which he describes as entering the territories of the Rajpoot princes, whose ancestors had *... of the country 400 years ago.
ving the Runn, Lieut. B. proceeded to Parkur, a country which he describes as differing from every other in the world. For six months it is impassable from water; the other six months of the year it is covered with an incrustation of salt, which forms an article of considerable traffic. From Parkur he proceeded into the desert, which, though so called, spontaneously produces vegetation sufficient for sustenance, and has wells of water at the depth of sixty feet. Lieut. B. proceeded to the river Loonee: then to the capital of Joodpoor, the most flourishing principality in Rajasthan. Proceeding to Ajmeer, the only place in the Indian territory where the Creator is worshipped —for the Hindoos only worship the Preserver—Lieut. Burnes visited the sacred stream, in which, whosoever bathes has not only all his own sins washed away, but those likewise of his relations. After some other interesting observations, Lieut. B. returned to Cutch; and finished his narrative by pronouncing a well-merited eulogy upon the encouragement afforded by the Geographical Society to such travellers as are willing to devote their science and their energies towards obtaining a more perfect knowledge of the globe we inhabit.
The petition from the proprietors of the London University for a Charter, which would give to them alone, of all the schools in London, the privilege of conferring Degrees in Arts, Medicine, and Law, is immediately to come before a Committee of the Privy Council appointed for that purpose. The prayer is opposed by Oxford and Cambridge, on general grounds; by the College of Surgeons, as adverse to the interests of medical science: and by the medical lecturers of the metropolis, as calculated to constitute a new and unjust monopoly in medical teaching. The latter body, amounting to above 100 of the most eminent members of the profession in London, have petitioned for the establishment of a great Metropolitan University, without reference to Ecclesiastical distinctions—in which all the efficient schools would stand on an equal footing, and be considered as Colleges: the duty of examining candidates being placed in other hands than those of their own teachers. The parties are severally to be heard by Counsel. A museum, consisting of many valuable specimens and preparations of morbid anatomy, midwifery, and casts, with numerous prints and drawings, collected by Gore Clough, esq., of Upper Nortonstreet, Fitzroy-square, at an expenditure of nearly 3,000l., has been presented to the London University for the Use of the Students of the new North London Hospital, which will be opened at Michaelmas with 110 beds. The preparations are for the most part in excellent preservation, and will be deposited in a temporary apartment till the large room, about to be fitted up, is ready for their reception.
DUKE of YORK's MONUMENT.
April 8. The Statue of the Duke of York was raised to the top of the column in Carlton Gardens: the following details respecting this magnificent work will be found interesting.
The subscription for a monument to commemorate the public services of the Duke of York, as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, having, in the year 1829, amounted to the sum of 21,000l. (which was afterwards increased, by an accumulation of interest and further contributions, to about 25,0001). the Committee of Nobleman and Gentlemen for managing the application of that fund, invited seven or eight of the most eminent architects in the country to offer their suggestions and to make designs, with a view to the accomplishment of that object. Great zeal and talent were displayed on the occasion by the several competitors, who, in the month of August, 1829, delivered in their respective designs and estimates. The Committee, however, did not come to a decision upon those designs until the month of December, 1830, when that which had been submitted (at the same time with the rest) by Mr. B. Wyatt, was finally adopted. Mr. Nowell, the mason, of Grosvenor-wharf, Pimlico, became the contractor, under an engagement to complete the column, for the sum of 15,700l. 9s. 6d. within two years from the time of his being put in possession of the ground.
Fortunately the great opening from Carlton-gardens into St. James's Park had been decided on before the exact site for the column was fixed upon; and thus an opportunity was afforded for placing this magnificent structure in one of the most imposing positions imaginable, whether j, reference to its effect as viewed from the top of Regent-street, or from the Park, below the steps. Possession
of the ground having been given over to the architect and the contractor on the 25th of April, 1831, the excavation of the foundation was commenced on the 27th of the same month, and finished on the 25th of the month following. The peculiar nature of that foundation is not one of the least extraordinary characteristics of this great work. The ground being in an artificial and a very loose state, to a great depth below the general level of Carlton-gardens, it became necessary to remove the loose soil, and dig to a solid stratum of natural earth, which was not found at less than 22 feet below the general surface. In the course of 28 days from the completion of the excavation, a body of concrete, consisting of stone-lime, river stones, sand, coal-ashes, and water, in certain proportions, was formed, of sufficient magnitude and solidity to fill up the excavation, and to sustain the vast superincumbent weight of the column. This artificial foundation was, to a certain degree, of a pyramidal form, its base lines forming a square of 53 feet, whilst its top lines formed a square of 30 feet, with ail four sides inclining equally and regularly (as towards the apex of a pyramid) from the base to the top. At the height of 11 feet six inches above the base line of the concrete, was introduced a strong course of Yorkshire stone slabs seven inches thick, lying over the whole surface of the concrete at that level, an extent of upwards of 40 feet each way, and composed of stones of such magnitude, that nine of them were sufficient to cover the whole superficies, effectually equalising the pres– sure from above upon the body of the concrete below. Again at the top of the line of the concrete this same expedient was repeated, and another course of Yorkshire stone slabs introduced, to complete the artificial mass which was to form the foundation for the column and its pedestal, and which, in a short time, became as solid and compact as if it had been a natural rock of granite. Upon this huge newly-created body of composition (which was completed on the 25th of June, 1831) the first course of masonry was, in only three weeks afterwards, commenced. The column is of the Tuscan order, and is composed of granite of different colours, all brought from quarries in Aberdeenshire. Its surface throughout is, according to technical language, “fine-axed” (not polished or rubbed); and as regards hardness, colour, and external appearance, it is not inferior to the red and grey Egyptian granite of ancient times. The pedestal underneath the column consists of 10 courses of gray granite, from the quarries of Aberdeen, above the
level of the ground, and is 16 feet 18 inches high, to the bottom of the base of the column, having one course of rough granite (from the island of Hern) between the first of these ten courses and the course of Yorkshire stone slabs on the top of the concrete. The plinth of the pedestal measures 22 feet 6 inches on either side; and its die is 18 feet and three-quarters of an inch diameter. The base of the column, consisting of two members only, viz. the plinth and the torus, are formed also of granite from Aberdeenshire, but of a bluer tone of colour than that of the edestal; and are, together, five feet four inches in height. The shaft of the column, which is of red granite, contains 26 courses, and has six apertures on one side and seven on the other, for the admission of light to the staircase within. The bottom diameter of the shaft is ll feet 73 inches, and that of its top, immediately under the capital, is 10 feet 1% inches; whilst its whole height is 84 feet 10 inches, from the top of the basement
SocIETY of ANTIQUARIANs.
April 10, Hudson Gurney, esq. V.P. Reader Wainwright, esq. of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, was elected Fellow of the Society. Mr. William Taylor exhibited a small Roman lamp, of earthenware, found a few months since among some rubbish thrown up near the bridge which passes over the Surrey canal on the Kent Road. It has this mark, STRobiii. A. J. Kempe, esq. F.S.A. exhibited an early and very rare copy of the Military Ordinances, printed by Richard Pynson in 1513, from the library of Mr. Molyneaux, at Loseley house. The reading was continued of Mr. Ottley's memoir on the ancient MS. of Cicero's Aratus in the British Museum. April 17. Mr. Gurney in the chair. Henry Beckley, Richardson, esq. architect, was elected Fellow. Edward Hawkins, esq. F. S. A. exhibited a torques of very pure gold, and weighing 74 oz. very similar to that engraved in Camden's Britannia. The Countess of Tyrconnell exhibited a jewel, also of very pure gold and high antiquity. It is a cross, each limb of which is rather more than an inch in length, and set with five uncut rubies. It is strung on a gold chain of closely wrought fillagree work, resembling in texture a silken cord, and terminating in snakes heads (with jewelled eyes), and two minute rings. Two handsome gold sliders, and a rudely formed bead, also
to the bottom of the capital. The capital consists of two courses of the same coloured granite as the base, and is four feet two inches in height. . Upon the outer lines of the abacus of the capital is fixed a plain but very substantial iron railing; and in its centre is constructed the acroter, which at once forms a roof or covering to the internal staircase, and a pedestal for the statue to stand upon. The superstructure is of the same red granite as the shaft, and contains seven courses in height between the top of the abacus and the foot of the statue. The gross altitude of the whole structure, from the surface of the ground to the top of the acroter, is 123 feet six inches.
The statue which surmounts the column, was executed in bronze by Mr. Westmacott for 3,000l. It is 13; feet high, and weighs seven tons. The Duke appears fronting the Horse Guards in the robes of the Order of the Garter, the folds of which assist in supporting the Statue.
run upon the chain. Yorkshire. A. J. Kempe, esq. F.S.A. communicated a chronological review of the Articles of War, in illustration of the Tract above mentioned. The reading of Mr. Ottley's memoir was continued. April 23. This being St. George's day, the annual elections took place, when the officers were severally re-elected, and the following Council: The Earl of Aberdeen, Pres.; the Duke of Sussex; Thos. Amyot, esq. Treas.; G. F. Beltz, esq.; John Bruce, esq.; the Bishop of Carlisle; Nich. Carlisle, esq. Sec. ; Col. Sir Aler. Dickson ; Sir H. Ellis, Sec.; John Gage, esq. Director; H. Gurney, esq. V. P.; H. Hallam, esq. V.P.; W. R. Hamilton, esq. V. P.; Rev. Joseph Hunter; Sir Fred. Madden; Sir F. Palgrave; Thos. Phillips, esq.; Thos. Rickman, esq.; Edw. Rudge, esq.; Lt.-Gen. Sir T. H. Turner; and the Rt. Hon. C. W. W. Wynn, V. P. The names in Italics are new Members in the room of C. R. Cockerell, esq. C. P. Cooper, esq., Rev. J. B. Deane, D. Gilbert, esq., R. Lemon, esq., the Bishop of Landaff. J. H. Markland, esq., Rt. Hon. Sir R. Peel, Sir T. Phillipps, and C. G. Young, esq. From the Treasurer's accounts for the last year, it appears that the total income of the Society, , including dividends, was 1,700l. ; and that the sum expended upon the publications of the Sociéty had been 1,300l. The number of Fellows in the last printed list is 678.
It was found in