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was a rural deity of Latium, often identified with the god Pan. Honc - Accipimus,' we hear that he (Latinus) was born of Faunus and the Laurentian nymph Marica. pater,' erat' understood : 'tu - auctor, you were the founder of the race. Filius huic,' .nullus fuit' under. stood; he had no son : primâ – est,' one that was born being snatched away in early youth ; erepla' agreeing with proles.'
52 - 4. servabat,' kept up the family : viro,' for a husband. "Mul. ti petebant illam,' many were suitors for her hand.
56. Turnus'; he was king of the Rutuli, a people closely united with the Latins, the subjects of Latinus. Ardea was their chief city. Latium itself was south of Etruria, from which it was separated by the Tiber. "regia conjux,' Amata, the queen of Latinus; she favored the pretensions of Turnus.
59-63. See Book II. 512, and note. 'Sacra comam'; Gr. $ 234. II. the foliage of which was sacred : “metu,' with religious respect : Quam pater Ipse — Latinus,' which father Latinus himself was said to have consecrated to Apollo : 'inventam,' it being discovered, when he first founded the city. ab eâ,' from this · Laurus' was derived the name Laurentian.
64-6. Hujus - dense Obsedêre apicem,' a swarm of bees settled upon its top : et -nexis'; see note to Geor. IV. 257.
69-70. et - arce,' and that a band of men were coming in the same direction that the bees came, - from the seaboard,- to the same place,
and would there bear rule on the summit of the citadel, as the bees oc· cupied the top of the tree. 'dominarier'; Gr. § 322. 1. 6.
73. Her long hair seemed to take fire ; see Book 11. 682 - 4.
75-80. “comas'; Gr. § 234. II. tum – tectis,' then she seemed to be wrapped in smoke and red flames, and to scatter the fire through the whole house. This event prefigured the war, that was afterwards ex. cited by the contest for her hand. 'ferri,' was considered : 'canebant, they prophesied : • Ipsam,' Lavinia.
81-3. sollicitus monstris,' alarmed by these prodigies : 'sub alta Albunea,' near lofty Albunca, - a fountain of sulphurous water in a hilly portion of the Tiburtine district, now called the Solfatara di Tivoli. The water, which is of a milky hue and smells offensively, falls into the river Anio.
85-9. “Enotria'; see note to Book I. 532. 'In - petunt,' in times of crisis and doubt, seek for an oracle. Set — pelivit,' laid down during the silent night on the outstretched skins of slaughtered sheep, and courted sleep : ‘simulacra,' visions.
91. 'Acheronta'; here put for the infernal gods : 'imis Avernis,' in the lower world.
94-5. • Atque — Velleribus,' and lay supported on the hides and extended fleeces of these sheep. ex alto luco,' from the thick forest.
97 - 9. thalamis paratis,' the nuptials now agreed upon, - with Tur. nus. qui — ferent, who — sanguine,' through their posterity, - shall raise our nume to the stars.
100-1. In this order ; - videbunt Omnia vertique regique,' &c. 'sub pedibus,' under their sway : quâ – oceanum'; that is, from farthest east to west, from one end of the globe to the other.
103 - 5. non - Latinus'; Latinus did not keep it to himself, but allowed the prophecy to become known. per - tulerat,' had carried the story through the cities of Italy: · Laomedontia pubes, the Trojans.
109 - 10. et - monebat,' and on the grass, they placed wheaten cakes under the food, - so Jupiter directed them; they used the flat cakes, prepared for sacred purposes, as plates to hold the other articles of food.
111. And this substratum of bread they load with rustic fruits.
112-5. • aliis,' the other articles of food : 'penuria edendi,' the want of something niore to eat : • Exiguam in Cererem,' upon the small cakes : 'malis,' with their teeth :' Fatalis'; because the bread thus used had respect to the fate of the Trojans : quadris,' the fragments.
116-9. etiam - consumimus,' we are eating up even the dishes : Nec plura alludens,' not carrying the jest further.' tulit finem'; it signified that the end of their sufferings was at hand : primampater,' his father first caught it up from the mouth of the speaker : 'numine,' by the fulfilment of the oracle : pressit,' for 'repressit vocem Ascanii'; interrupted him.
121 - 3. fidi,' 'true to your word, for they had predicted, that he should arrive in Italy. Genitor – reliquit,' for I now remember, that my father Anchises left behind such secrets of the futes for me. In fact, it was the harpy Celæno, who delivered this prediction, but it was probably interpreted and commented upon by Anchises.'
125-9. • Accisis dapibus,' your provisions being exhausted : • domos,' a fired habitation : Prima – tecta,' establish your first edifices, and surround them with a mound, or fortification. hæc — modum,' this last trial awaited us, which is to put a limit to our sufferings; "hæc su. prema,' agreeing with 'fames.'
132.et - petamus,' and let us go out in different directions from the harbour, or landing-place.
134. 'vina - mensis,' and again place wine upon the tables for liba. tions. It is quite in keeping with the pious character of Æneas, to render the appropriate offerings to the gods first, and to appoint the morrow for business.
136 - 40. primam deorum'; Hesiod represents the Earth as the first of the gods, after Chaos. The nymphs and the rivers are the local dei. ties, like the • Genium loci.' 'signa,' the constellations : • Phrygiam Matrem,' Cybele : ex ordine,' successively: "duplices - parentes, and both his parents, Venus in heaven and Anchises in Hades.
141 - 5. • Pater,' Jupiter : clarus,' in a clear sky; thunder was es. teemed a happy omen under such circumstances. There follows a description of the lightning, as if shot from Jove's own hand, and supposed to come from a cloud, though none was visible. Or, nubem' may be considered as the flash itself. “Diditur,' is spread abroad : de. bita,' promised by fate.
146-7. omine; at the thunder, which was a happy omen: 'vina coronant'; see note to Book I. 724.
150. Diversi,' as in line 132. hæc - Numici,' they ascertain that this water was from the fountain of Numicus,-small stream in the country of the Rutuli, to the south of the Tiber.
154. ramis '; the olive branch, the token of peace, was sacred to Minerva. The leaves of the tree were twined into the form of a chaplet for the heralds.
157 - 9. • Ipse – locum,' Æneas himself marks out the line of the walls with a low ditch, and prepares the place for defence. The spot where Æneas fortified his camp is on the bank of the Tiber, near its mouth. pinnis atque aggere,' with ramparts and a mound of earth.
162-5. Before the walls of the city, they find the Latin youths practising horsemanship, after the manner of the heroic age. domitant currus,' restrain the steeds harnessed in the chariots. • Aut- lacessunt,' they bend the tough bows, or hurl the pliant darts with their arms, and contend with each other in the race and throwing the javelin.
167 – 8. ignota — viros,' that men in strange garments had arrived : ingentes'; the Trojans were actually of larger stature than the Latins, or the frightened messenger exaggerated the story. Ille,' Latinus.
171. On the highest point — the acropolis -- of the city, was the palace of the Laurentian Picus, the ancestor of Latinus.
173 -4. Here it was — omen,' a solemn usage — for the kings to receive the sceptre, and here first to raise — fasces,' the ensigns of authority; that is, to be inaugurated; this templum,' sacred building was their senate-house.
176-81. patres,' elders, or senators : • Perpetuis mensis,' at long
tables. Statues were placed in the vestibule, as was customary in temples. 'e cedro’; wooden images belonged to the earliest times. They were placed 'ex ordine,' in chronological order. Italus was a fabled monarch of a remole age. Sabinus introduced the cultivation of the vine into Italy. The god Janus was represented with two faces, the one before and the other behind; see note to Book I. 295.
182. • Martia vulnera,' wounds received in war.
187 - 91. Among the statues, that of Picus was conspicuous, holding the •Quirinali lituo,' augur's staff, such as Romulus afterwards bore; Quirinus was the name of the deitied Romulus. trabeâ '; the short, purple robe, worn by high officers on solemn occasions. The goddess Circe fell in love with him, and when he rejected her advances, she struck him with her rod, and changed him into a woodpecker, called in Latin a "picus.' 'versum venenis,' transformed by magic potions : "Circe,' in apposition with conjux.' "Aureâ '; a dissyllable; Gr. $ 306.
192-4. patrià Sede sedens,' sitting on his ancestral seat. "Atque - ore,' and to them having entered, he first spoke these words with a benign countenance.
195 - 9. He addresses them at once by name, 'Dardanidæ,' saying that he knew their place of origin. 'auditi,' knoron to us by report :
advertitis - cursum, you have steered your course hitherward. . quæ causa rates vexit,' what cause has brought your ships : 'aut - egentes,' or needing what, have ye come hither? Sive — vie,' from having lost your way?
203 - 5. Are descended from Saturn, and are just, not from compulsion or by the force of laws, but of their own accord, conforming themseltes to the institutes of the ancient god; that is, of Saturn. "fama — annis,' the tradition is less known from the lapse of years.
206-8. The old men of the Aurunci say thus ; that Dardanus, who was born in this country, arrived at the citics of Phrygia, near mount Ida. The · Aurunci' inhabited the southern part of Latium. Samothrace was an island in the Ægean sea, off the coast of Thrace, where it is said that Dardanus dwelt for a time, before he passed into Asia.
209 - 11. Having gone hence, from the Tuscan city of Corythus, the golden palace of the starry heavens nou receives him upon a throne, and his altar is added to the altars of the other gods.
213. "genus Fauni,' son of Faunus : actos,' nos' understood.
215-8. Neither have the stars, nor the shores deceived us in respect to our course ; we have not erred in our observation of the stars, nor from ignorance of the coast. “Consilio,' designedly: que - Olympo,' once the greatest that the sun beheld, coming from the farthest part of heaven.
22.-7. How great a tempest of war, coming from cruel Mycena, went through the Trojan country --- the Idæan fields; and, urged on by what fatalities, the two continents of Europe and Asia fought together ; – these things every one has heard of, even if the farthest part of the earth con. ceals him, ihe Ocean floring between, and if the region of an oppressive sun, -- the torrid zone, --stretched out in the midst of the four other zones, separates him from his fellow beings. More briefly, — the news of the Trojan war have reached the extremities of the earth, and must therefore be known to you. . quem' for . quemcunque.'
229 – 30. We beg of you a small drcelling-place for our paternal gods, a portion of the coast without harm to any one, and water and air, which are open to all.
235 -8. Either in keeping faith, or if any one has made trial of it in war and feats of arms. The right hand of Æneas has never failed, either when given to confirm a treaty, or when it has been put to the test in war. Many tribes and many nations have sought our alliance and wished to unite us to themselves; then do not despise us, because of our own accord we bring fillets in our hands — we come as suppliants and utter words of entreaty : precantia'; a trisyllable; Gr. § 306.
241-5. Huc repetit,' returns hither in the person of his descendant and representative, Æneas. Dat,'· Æneas' understood : " fortunæ Munera,' some small gifts, the relics of his former fortune. Hoc auro,' in this golden cup, - holding it out as he speaks.
249 - 51. 'The meaning is, that after hearing this speech from Ilioneus, Latinus remained, without changing his position, absorbed in thought. But what affluence of words! .detixa, Obtutu, tenet, immobilis, hæret, Intentos,' – all descriptive, but somewhat tautological
253-7. natæ,' of his daughter : “moratur,' dwells in thought, considers long : "sortem, the prophecy. "Hunc — generum,' this then was that son-in-law, announced by fate, coming from a foreign land: • Auspiciis,' authority.
259-62. .Di - suum,' may the gods prosper our designs, and fulfil their oron prediction. Non — deerit,' the fruitfulness of a rich territory and wealth, like that of Troy, shall not fail you, while Latinus is king. • deerit'; Gr. $ 306. (1.)
263 - 6. Ipse modò Æneas Adveniat,' only let Æneas himself come hither : cupido est,' illi' understood ; if he has so great a desire : "Si properat,' if he is eager. Pars — lyranni,' it will be a part of the treaty, for me to have clasped the right hand of the king.
268 - 71. jungere,' to join in marriage : sortes,' oracles, dicine forewarnings : Monstra,' portents : Hoc - restare,' this fortune was appointed for Latium, that a foreigner should a son-in-law to Latinus.
273. . quid veri'; Gr. $ 205. Rem. 9. “opto,' I desire it, for I predict that the union will be a happy one.
274 - 7. numero oinni,' out of the whole number which he possessed : nitidi,' equi' understood. "Omnibus ordine,' one horse for each of them in succession. 277. Swift-footed steeds, covered with purple and embroidered housings
279 – 84. •mandunt aurum,' they champ the golden bits. 'geminos — ætherio,' and a span of horses yoked to it, of celestial origin : patri — creavit,' whom the artful Circe had caused to be generated nothos,' of a mired breed, — uniting their dam with their sire by stealth. Circe secretly sent common mares to the renowned horses of her father the Sun, and ihe progeny consequently was half mortal, half celestial.
286-7. ab Inachiis Argis,' from Inachian Argos ; the city was so named from Inachus, a king of the Argives. • Jovis conjux,' Juno. 'auras — tenebat,' was passing on her way, carried through the air.
288-9. And looking through a long tract of air, cren from the Sicilian promontory Pachynus, she beheld the jouful Eneas and the Trojan fleet. Going towards Carthage, probably, when over Pachynus, she saw that the Trojans had landed at the mouth of the Tiber.
293 - 7. .et – viam,' and ye fates of Troy, hostile to my destinies, or wishes ! Could they not perish on the Sigean fields, or when captured remain captives? Could not burning Troy destroy its inhabitants in the fire? Through the midst of the hostile ranks, through the midst of the fames, they have found a path. "Sigeis'; see note to Book II. 312. There is something like a play upon words in this passage, which is beneath the dignity of Epic poetry. At credo,' spoken ironically; mea numina,' my power.
298-301. Fessa jacent,' lies dormant from weariness. Quin sequi,' ay, and I have dared to follow them with hostile intent over the sea, when they were driven from their country. “Absumptæ,' sunt' understood, - have been exhausted.
304-6. • Securi - mei,' fearless of the sca and of my anger. Lapithům,' see note to Geor. II. 457. The combat, in which many of the Lapithæ fell, though their party was victorious, was excited by Mars, because Pirithous had not invited him to the banquet. "concessit Dianæ,' the father of the gods himself yielded ancient Calydon to the wrath of Diana. (Eneus, king of Calydon, a city of Ætolia, offered a rich sacrifice to all the gods, except Diana. To revenge this neglect, the goddess sent a wild boar, which ravaged all the country, till it was at last slain by Meleager, the son of Eneus.
307 - 9. scelus' is used in the sense of pænam,' and concessit' is understood before · Lapithas'; he gave them up to destruction, though what great punishment did either the Lapithæ, or Calydon deserve. 'nil - potui,' who have left nothing untried; potui linquere' for • liqui': quæ - verti,' who have had recourse to all expedients.
311 - 3. dubitem - est,' I may not hesitate to indoke whatereny other deity there may be. "Superos,' the celestial gods. “Non — Latinus,' it will not be permitted to me to keep them away from the kingdom of Latinus ; - be it so.
315 - 7. 'trahere,' to put off, to protract. Hâc mercede suorum,' at this price, the slaughter of their people.
319 - 22. And Bellona – the goddess of war — shall preside over thy marriage. Nor did Hecuba alone, pregnant with a firebrand, gire birth to a nuplial torch ; – that is, to a son, whose marriage kindled the flames of war; but the own son of Venus shall be of the same nature, - another Paris, and another fatal forch for Troy rising from its ashes. Hecuba, the daughter of Cisseus, just before the birth of Paris, dreamed that she gave birth to a firebrand. Juno threatens, that this marriage shall be as destructive to the Trojans, as the rape of Helen was formerly.
324 – 6. "Allecto,' one of the Furies ; Gr. § 69. Exc. 3. sororum,' sister Furies : 'cui bella cordi,' to whom wars are a delight; Gr. 227.
329. lot – colubris,' so many snakes does the foul pest produce. 331. Perform for me this special service, O virgin born of Night
332- 4. cedai loco,' lose ground, suffer great diminution. neu possint,' that the Trojans may not gain over Latinus to a nuptial alliance,
336. “Atque — domos,' to distress families by mutual hatred.
339 – 43. compositam,' that has been agreed upon : 'sere — belli, sow the causes of war; – that is, mutual accusations. The eagerness of Juno is strongly marked in the following rapid expressions. Gorgoneis infecta venenis,' imbued with the poison of a Gorgon; see note to Book II. 616. •lacitum — Amatæ,' sits silently at the door of Amata.
345 - 8. ardentem,' burning with rage : coquebant,' agitated. On her the goddess threw a snake from her dark hair, and places it secretly in her bosom, near to her very heart: Huic,' for in hanc': 'permisceat,' she throws into confusion
350-2. «Volvitur - nullo,' slides with imperceptible touch : 'fit vitlæ,' the great snake nou becomes a gold chain about her neck, now the long hanging ends of her head-bund. This seems too much like a conceit, and is more after the manner of Ovid, than of Virgil.
354-7. Ac - sensus,' and when the infection, gliding in with poisonous breath, first affects her perceptions, &c. "Mollius - est,' she spoke with some composure, and after the common manner of matrons.
359 - 63. ducenda,' in marriage : "O genitor,' Ö thou, who art her father. primo Aquilone,' with the first wind : alta petens,' going off by sca. Phrygius pastor,' the Phrygian shepherd, Paris : sic, in a similar way.
366 – 8. consanguineo,' to my relative; Turnus was the nephew of Amata. Idque sedet,' and this is determined upon.
370. She says, that all who are not subjects of Latinus must be con. sidered as foreigners; and, therefore, the prophecy applies to Turnus.
372. “ patres, sunt' understood ; are his ancestors : 'mediæ Mycenæ,' and they are from the midst of Greece, — Mycenæ ' being put for the whole country. Acrisius, king of Argos, was the father of Danaë.
374. Contrà stare,' fixed in the opposite opinion : penitùs – lapsum,' had penetrated to her very heart.
376 – 8. 'monstris,' the phantoms present to an insane mind. Immensam – turbo,' in her frenzy, she wanders about the great city, with