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753-5. Conventus in medios,' into the midst of the assemblage. unde — legere,' whence he could observe all the spirits passing before him in a long train. Anchises now points out to his son each spirit, that is about to return to earth, and mentions the name and character, that he will bear. The passage is a mere eulogy on the great men of Rome down to the time of the emperors. It must be taken for granted, that the pupil has some knowledge of the outlines of Roman history.
756 - 9. In this order; ' Nunc age, Expediam dictis; Dardaniam Gloria,' what glory will hereafter attend the Trojan race. qui nepotes maneant,' what progeny will spring up: nostrum — ituras,' about to assume our name.
760-3. That youth, whom you see Testing upon a pointless spear; a spear without an iron head was the ancient badge of a king. lucis,' the light of life; — who will next return to life. Silvius, the posthu. mous son of Æneas, succeeded to the throne. Italo — sanguine '; because his mother, Lavinia, was an Italian.
764-6. tibi longævo Éducet,' shall bring forth to you advanced in years : 'regein — parentem,' to be a king himself and the father of kings. Unde,' through whom : • Alba Longa'; see note to Book 1. 7.
767 - 9. Procas, Capys, Numitor, and Silvius Æneas, were all kings of Alba, descended in direct line from Æneas, though not in immediate succession. qui — reddet,' who shall bear your name.
770..si Albam,' if he should ever obtain his kingdom in Alba. He was kept from the throne by an usurper, till he was fifty-two years old.
772. Those who have their temples shaded with the civic crown of oak leaves, given as a badge of honor to the founders of cities.
773-5. Names of Italian cities founded by these monarchs.
777 - 9. And Romulus also, the son of Mars, shall join his grandfather on the throne, - whom Ilia, of the race of Assaracus (of Trojan descent,) shall bear. See how the double plumes wave on his head, -alluding to the glory of Roinulus in war; see note to Book I. 274. He reigned jointly with Numitor, before he founded Rome.
780 – 3. • Pater ipse Superùm,' Jupiter himself, the father of the gods : signat suo honore'; endows his person with divine dignity. •Imperium — Olympo,' shall extend its sway to the bounds of the earth, and raise its spirit as high as heaven. arces,' the seven hills of Rome.
784-5.*. qualis – urbes,' as the Berecynthian mother, crowned with towers, is carried in a chariot through the Phrygian cities. Cybele is intended, to whom the mountain Berecynthus, in Phrygia, was consecrated; see note to Book III. 111. She is represented with a mitre, or head-piece, shaped like the battlements of a lower. As she was the mother of the gods, by a magnificent figure, the pride of Rome in the illustrious men whom she produced, is compared to Cybele's joy in her celestia
787 – 90. omnes — tenentes,' all possessing ethereal habitations. * Huc - acies,' now turn your eyes hither. Some gross flattery follows towards Augustus Cæsar; but how nobly expressed! 'omnis — Progenies'; the whole Julian family : 'magnum — axem,' about to come forth under the great arch of heaven, - soon to appear in ihe upper world.
792-5. For the golden age," and " Saturn's reign," see note to Ecl. IV. 5-6. "condet,' shall establish: "Garamantas'; see note to Ecl. VIII. 44. Proferet imperium,' shall extend his empire : 'tellus,' the land of his triumphs.
796 - 7. · Extra - vias'; “In climes beyond the solar road." – Gray. 'anni vias,' for – annual journey: ubi - aptum,' where the heavenbearing Atlas supports on his shoulder the firmament fretted with burning stars ; see notes to Book I. 741. and IV. 247.
798-800. “Caspia regna '; kingdoms in the interior of Asia, around the Caspian sea : 'horrent,' are struck with dread at the coming of Cæsar, which is announced to them by the oracles. "Mæotia'; see
note to Geor. III. 349. The Nile flows into the sea through seven mouths. "turbant,' in the sense of “trepidant.'
801 - 3. The tasks inposed on Hercules made him traverse a great part of the globe ; he struck with an arrow the brazen-footed hind, and slew the Eryınanthian wild boar and the Lernwan hydra. ' licèt, although. • Erymanthi'; see note to Book V. 448.
801 - 6. Bacchus made a triumphal expedition through India, in a chariot drawn by tigers, and founded the city of Nysa, on a mountain called Meros. Nec Liber,' nor did Bacchus pass over so much ground:
flectit juga,' for currum,' guides his chariot : panipineis habenis,' with reins covered with vine leaves. And do we yet hesitate to enlarge our fame by our erploits. When such a noble offspring is prepared for us, shall we grudge any effort in preparing the way for them?
808 - 9. 'rainis — ferens,' marked out by olide branches, as a friend of peace, and bearing the sacred utensils, as a priest. Numa, the second king of Rome, is meant, who cultivated the arts of peace, and established laws and religion for his people. “incana menta, hoary chin, the long white beard which Numa wore.
811-4. «Curibus'; Cures, a small town of the Sabines, gave birth to Numa. "Cui deinde subibit Tullus,' ichom Tullus Hostilius shall succeed, - the third king of Rome : 'movebit,' shall excite. After the peaceful reign of Numa, Tullus engaged again in war, and imitated the exploits and character of Romulus.
815-8. jaclantior Ancus,' the more boastful Ancus Martius, the fourth king. popularibus auris,' in the favor of the people. Vis et videre,' do you wish to see also, &c. "Tarquinios'; there were two kings of this name, the latter of whom was expelled by Brutus, avenging the insult offered to Lucretia. "fasces receptos,' the fasces, ensigns of authority, restored to the people, and by them given to the Consuls.
819 - 22. sævas secures,' the cruel ares, with which Brutus caused his own sons to be beheaded : ' moventes,' exciting the people to restore the Tarquins. Ad pænain vocabit,' shall derote to death. utcumque -- minores,' horoerer posterity shall judge this action.
824-5. Decios, Drusosque'; renowned in Roman history. 'sævum securi,' cruel with the are, as Torquatus also put to death his own son. ' referentem signa,' bringing back the standards, Camillus rescued from the Gauls the standards, which they had taken in the great defeat of the Romans at Allia.
827 - 31. Concordes nunc,' in harmony with each other now,' dum prementur,' while they are here in Hades. Julius Cæsar and Pompey are intended, the former of whom was father in-law to the latter. si
- Altigerint,' when they shall attain the light of life. . Cæsar, when he made war on Pompey and the Roinan state, invaded Italy by way of the Alps. •Monæci,' a promontory of the maritime Alps. gener Eois,' Pompey drawing out the troops of the east in opposition. An af. fecting apostrophe to the Romans follows, deprecating civil war.
8:34 - 6: · Tü'; Augustus, whose family, through Æneas, was traced back to the gods. ósanguis meus,' my descendants. The verse is in. complete. llle'; L. Mummius, who obtained a triumph by defeating the Greeks near Corinth. In the triumphal procession, the victorious general drove his chariot up to the capitol.
833 - 40. ille'; L. Æinilius Paulus, who defeated Perseus, king of Macedonia, and completed the conquest of that country. ' aciden'; Perseus, who claimed descent froin Achilles. See note to Book I. 284. templa temerata'; see note to Book I. 41.
841 - 4. Quis te tacitum relinquat,' who will pass over thee in silence ? Cato the elder is meant, not he of Utica. Cossus was a military tribune, who slew with his own hands the king of the Vejentes. "aut — Li. bye,' or the lio Scipios, tro thunderbolts of war, the scourge of Africa. Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal at Zama, and his grandson, called
Africanus the Younger, finally destroyed Carthage. parvo potentem,' rich with a little ; Fabricius, though poor, refused the magnificent pres. ents of Pyrrhus. C. Atilius was at work with the plough, when he received the news, that he was appointed dictator; hence, he was sur. named Serranus, from "serendo.'
845 – 6. fessum,' me' understood ; wearied with this long enumeration of worthies. Many of the Fabii were distinguished, but chiefly Fabius Maximus, who, by his prudence and skill, stopped the victorious career of Hannibal. He was called "Cunctator, because he wearied out his opponent by delays; •rem,' success, prosperity.
84753. A noble passage, in which, comparing the Roman character with the Greek, the poet admits the superiority of the latter in the arts and sciences, but asserts the preeminence of his countrymen in war and dominion. 'spirantia æra,' breathing statues of brass : Orabunt,' plead in a law.court : cæli meatus,' the orbits of the heavenly bodies :"radio'; see note to Ecl. III. 41. dicent,' name. pacis - morem,' dictate the conditions of peace.
855. M. Claudius Marcellus, surnamed "the sword of war," obtained repeated victories over the Gauls and Carthaginians.
857 - 9. “Hic Sistet rem Romanam,' he shall strengthen the cause of the Romans. And, for the third time, shall hang up in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius the captured arms. The 'spolia opima' were first obtained by Romulus, then by Cossus, and the third and last time by Marcellus, who slew with his own hand the king of the Gauls. Such spoils were consecrated to Jupiter Feretrius, here called pater Quirinus.'
861 – 4. • Egregium - juvenem,' a young man of fine person. For the young Marcellus here intended, see Introduction to Ecl. IV. 'dejecto — vultu,' his eyes cast down, alluding to his premature death. .virum comitatur'; the youth is described as accompanying his name. sake, the elder Marcellus Filius,' is it his son ?
865 – 6. quantum instar,' how great the likeness to his older companion! Nox atra’; Night is here put for Death. Marcellus died, when only eighteen years of age.
809 – 73. Ostendent - sinent,' the fates will only show him to the earth, but will not permit him to remain there. propria, permanent.
Quantos — gemitus,' that field, which is near the great city of Mars, how great lamentations of men will it send forth! The funeral of the young Marcellus was celebrated with great pomp on the Campus Martius, near the Tiber.
876 – 80. .nec – alumno,' nor will the land of Romulus eder pride itself so much upon any of its sons. 'non - armato,' no enemy would hare met him with impunity, when armed. · 822-3. ési-eris,' if by any means you could alter the hard decree of the fates, you would become another Marcellus, equal in renown to the first of that name.
884 - 6. animam — Munere,' I will at least heap up these offerings to the spirit of my descendant, and will discharge thé unavailing office of mourning over him. By request of Augustus, Virgil recited this elegant and affecting tribute of verse in presence of the youth's mother, Octavia. She was moved to tears, when he began, and when he came to the name, which is with great judgment kept back till the close, she fainted. The poet received a noble reward for his verses.
890. Then he instructs neas respecting the war, that was immediately to be carried on, against Turnus and the Latins.
892. And how he might avoid or encounter every difficulty.
893-6. To avoid the necessity of carrying Æneas over the same ground, which he had just traversed, it was necessary for the poet to dismiss his hero froin Hades by a different portal from that by which he had entered. Virgil, therefore, adopts from Homer an old fable about the two gates, by which dreams come up from the lower world; the one of horn gives exit to true dreams, or those which rightly indicate future events; deceptive visions pass out by the ivory gate. As Æneas and his guide were not veræ umbræ,' the poet sends them forth by the gate of ivory. Perhaps, also, he intended an allusion to the fanciful and imaginary character of the scenes just described. fertur Cornea,' is said to be of horn : quâ facilis exitus,' by which an easy egress : • falsa insomnia,' delusive dreams.
899 – 900. viam secat,' passes quickly on his way: 'fert se recto limite,' sails onward in a direct course : Caietæ,' a harbour to the north of Naples, now called Gaeta.
The plan of this book is certainly borrowed from that passage in the Odyssey, in which is described the visit of Ulysses to the world of spirits. But how much improved and amplified is this magnificent episode from that dim and imperfect sketch. Among all the poets, who have copied the same original, none deserve a comparison with Virgil, in point of sublimity of conception, and poetical fervor and bril. liancy, except Milton, in the matchless opening of “ Paradise Lost." Both the Roman and the Christian poet were thoroughly imbued with all the learning of their times, and nobly did they use their stores of erudition to dignify and embellish these adventurous flights of a poetical spirit. Careful analysis will detect in each many incongruities, and some absurdities; but the reader, hurried away by a succession of striking images and grand conceptions, has neither time nor inclination to pause upon such defects. Greater sublimity undoubtedly belongs to Milton, but Virgil is superior in the variety and abundance of the scenes described, in the polished elegance of the versification, and, for most readers, perhaps, he has produced a more pleasing poem. This com. parison refers, of course, only to the pictures of the infernal regions, drawn by the two bards; for if extended to tbe whole poems, the result might be very different. The mythology and philosophy of the ancients, disjointed and unreasonable as they usually appear, in this book assume an earnest, and even sublime aspect. Even the morality of the poem, considering its origin among a Pagan people, and in a licentious age, is wonderfully pure and dignified. The mild and amiable character of the poet shines out in thany places, without injuring the severity and grandeur of the design; and no fault of taste, no paltry conceit, mars the delightful impression left upon the reader's mind. The youthful pupil, who studies the book with care, will find that many a striking image and noble sentiinent, clothed in smooth and sounding verse, will remain indelibly imprinted on his memory.
Æneas buries his nurse Caieta, and calls the spot after her name. Then, sailing past the habitation of Circe, he arrives at the mouth of the Tiber, and, entering that river, lands in the Laurentian territory. Some account is given of the former state of Latium, and of the prodi. gies by which the coming of Æneas had been foretold. The prophecy of the harpy Celæno, respecting the eating of the tables, is fulfilled. Æneas sends heralds' to king Latinus, to offer gifts, and ask for territory whereon to found a city. Meanwhile, the Trojans measure out and
fortify a camp. Latinus receives the embassy kindly, accedes to the request, and farther, offers his daughter Lavinia in marriage to Æneas, having been informed by an oracle, that she must wed a foreigner. Juno brings up Allecto from hell to disturb this arrangement, who first incites Amata, the wife of Latinus, to oppose the intended match, and then rouses Turnus, king of the Rutuli, to a more active opposition. The Trojans going out to hunt, Ascanius unwittingly wounds a tame stag, belonging to the children of the royal herdsman. A quarrel ensues, and two of the Latins are slain, whose bodies are carried into the city, and made the means of rousing the fury of the people. Latinus still refusing to engage in hostilities, Juno herself opens the gates of war, and he is compelled to allow things to take their course. A catalogue is given of the native princes and tribes, who come to aid Turnus against the Trojans.
1. “Tu quoque,' thou also, as well as Misenus, whose memory is preserved by the promontory that bears his name.
3-6. And now your fame is connected with the spot, and the appellation of the place points out where your bones are laid in great Hesperia, if this honor amounts to any thing." ritè solutis,' being duly performed: 'Aggere — tumuli,' the mound over the tomb being erected.
8-9..in noctem,' toroards night the breeze freshened : nec negat,' favors, assists : splendet - pontus'; one who has watched the play of the moonbeams on the slightly rippled surface of the sea, will recog. nise the exquisite propriety of this expression.
10-1. They coast along the neighbouring shores of the Circæan land; see note to Book III. 386. This place is now a promontory, though believed formerly to have been an island. The sorceress, a daughter of the Sun and an ocean nymph, dwelt there with four attendants. All persons who came thither were first feasted, and then, on tasting of her magic cup, were converted into swine and other beasts. The fable is a mere allegory on the effects of intemperance. Dives,' referring to the magnificence of her dwelling: inaccessos,' rarely visited.
13-14. cedrum,' the sandarach tree, burnt for a light and for the fragrant smell. 14. Repeated from Geor. I. 294.
16 – 20. Indignantly rattling their chains and roaring late at night. in præsepibus, in their dens : "forme luporum,' for Jupi.' Whom, once wearing the human shape, the cruel goddess Circe, by her powerful herbs, had clothed with the aspect and bodies of wild beasts.
21. Quæ monstra,' this monstrous transformation 24. Gave speed to them, and carried them past these seething shoals.
27-8. posuere,' se'' understood; subsided : Flatus,'breath of wind: 'et-tonsæ,' and the oars move with difficulty in the sluggish sea.
30-2. Hunc -- prorumpit,' through this grove, the Tiber, with its pleasant current gliding along in swift whirls, past wide and yellow sands, flows into the sea.
36. opaco,' shaded by the forest that covered its banks. Æneas appears to have sailed a little way up the stream, but the precise spot on which he landed, is not mentioned.
37 – 41. The exploits of Æneas in Italy are now to be related, and as this forms a great division of his theme, the poet begins with a new invocation. Erato,' one of the Muses : • Expediam, I will relate :
quæ - rerum,' what was the situation of affairs : advena exercitus '; Gr. § 205. Rem. 11. 'appulit classem,' brought a fleet to Italy. "ya. tem mone,' direct the poet.
42-4. I will sing of battles, and kings urged on by self-roill to fatal deeds. "Major — ordo,' a more important series of events now lies before me.
47-51. The family of Latinus is traced back to Saturn, who is reputed in fable to have been the most ancient king of Italy. Faunus