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orders, besides these, we find two addic of the teeth, especially as they vary in tional bones, placed in the front, and be- number and figure in the quadrupeds of tween the others; they are termed the every different order. intermaxillary or labial bones, and contain The teeth are fixed firmly into the jaws, the cutting-teeth. In the order rodentia, by means of fangs or roots, and covered and some others, these bones are so large with a beautiful white enamel of great as to constitute the forepart of the mouth, hardness. They are not solid throughout, concealing in a manner the true maxillary but have a canal proceeding from the exbones, and forming also a portion of the tremities of the roots into the body, through external boundary of the orbit. .
which a nervous filament and minute artery The lower jaw, in man, at least in the are transmitted. adult, consists of one solid undivided bone, In man, the teeth, from the differences -but in many quadrupeds it is constituted observable in their shape and use, are diby two portions, united at the apex, (where vided into four classes : namely, incisores the chin is in man,) by intervening carti- or cutting teeth ;-cuspidati or canine lages and ligaments. The absence of a teeth ;-bicuspidati, or teeth with double chin, as well as a greater length in propor points; and “molares or grinders. Their tion to the cranium, distinguishes it parti- number is as follows;- in each jaw, four cularly from that in the human subjeet. incisores,-two cuspidati,-four bicuspi«. The condyles, or processes by which dati,- and six molares. the lower jaw is articulated to the skull, In the various orders of the mammalia, are found to vary according to the nature the teeth both in shape and number vary of the food on which the individual lives. exceedingly, and have an especial reference For instance, in carnivorous animals, their to food and habits, more or less obvious, form and situation are such as to prevent save in a few instances, in which certain rotating motion, permitting it only in a relationships invariably occurring between vertical direction ;-while in most grami- the teeth and the general structure of the nivorous animals, they are rounded, and system, (as we have noticed previously'in their construction and mode of articulation ruminating animals,) cannot be satisfactorily are such, as to admit of motion at once accounted for.'" hingelike and rotating, thus enabling the In taking a survey of the human race, animal to grind its food into pulp or we shall perhaps be surprised at the great powder.
variety which the cranium presents, with In the order rodentia, we find the lower respect to shape and general expression. jaw capable to a certain extent, of retrac- Among all the inferior animals, in the intion and protrusion, and by this means the dividuals of the same species, especially in powerful teeth are capable of being applied those unreclaimed from their state of nature the more effectually, and with the greater and freedom, similar differences are scarcely precision, to the hard substances, as bark to be observed ;-at all events, they do not or nuts, which, to many of these animals, prevail to so unlimited an extent as in the afford their principal food.
human race... on Boo Long10291 • In man, the lower jaw admits of con- . But as, among the individuals of the siderable facility of motion in almost every same species in the brute creation, there is direction, and its construction is such as to not, generally speaking, that variety in disfit it for the multiform kinds of food upon position and instinct, so this variety of which he subsists.
- shape and expression is hardly perhaps to We have thus sketched briefly the chief be looked for.10200 ali to 500 bis of those causes, which occasion that ex- It is most probable, we think, that the treme difference in the general contour of shape and contour of the skull are primathe skull, observable not only between the rily modelled in infancy by the pressure of lower classes, and man,-but which con- the expanding brain, If, therefore, a difstitute also grounds of difference between ference in disposition and talents be con. the orders and species of which that class nected, (and it certainly must be allowed) consists. It is true, that if we were to with the organization of the brain, we may descend to minutiæ, we should find many rationally expect all that endless variety in other points upon which the comparative size and contour, which is ever to be seen anatomist might long expatiate ; but these around us. * T o Cu 901 NO 1,4" neither the nature nor limits of our plan But besides natural talents and dispowill permit us to notice. We must not, sition, education also may be supposed to however, pass from the consideration of havé a considerable share in modifying the this part of our subject, without pausing figure of the skull, in as much as we may a few moments to examine the structure I believe it to affect the organ it encloses.
Our readers must not, however, suppose , are even actually in contact. Besides this, that we intend to advocate the doctrine of the tables or laminæ themselves differ as Gall and Spurzheim, in which it is main-much in thickness ;- to which may be tained that the dispositions or capacities added, that the deep furrows which the of individuals, intimately connected, as convolutions of the brain occasion on the they may be, with organic conformation, inner surface of the internal table, are not are, in their peculiarities and extent, de- to be identified externally on the surface noted by external signs upon the skull,- of the skull, by corresponding elevations. and that these signs are certain enlarge- To these and many other circumstances, ments or elevations, from a consideration the advocates of the craniological system of which, the bent of mind, or intellectual seem not to have paid any serious attenpowers of an individual, may be surely tion. Ingenuity and novelty are sure to predicted. Such is not our meaning. It attract,-but time and slow experience are is simply this,—that as in natural mental the tests of truth. endowments and peculiarities, as well as Between the general contour of the skull, in education, the individuals of society and the expression of the features and forin differ more or less, but still differ; so also, of the face, there is however an harmonious is there a difference in the skull, as it re concordance,-a oneness, which is to be spects its general contour. No two skulls felt rather than described. As it regards are exactly alike,-and connected as the the differences in the general contour of general form may be with disposition, or the osseous structure of the face, these, the results of education, we must not be though not so observable as in the skull, understood as asserting that the brain con nevertheless occur, so that the whole presists of an assemblage of orgáns or parts, sents an unity and harmony of expression. each of which is connected with some one Independently of the variations in the power or passion, which predominates form and contour of the skull. connected more or less, according to the increased with intellect, or resulting from 'education, or imperfect development of its peculiar and which may be termed individual, there organ.;
are also national distinctions. Among This, however, is, if we clearly under different nations, differences in the peculiar stand it, the doctrine of Gall and Spurz- cast of countenance, and forni of the skull beim ; they have divided the skull into and face, may almost always be observed ; numerous distinct portions, as covering and if the several kingdoms of Europe do these various organs of the brain, to each not present these dissimilarities in so of which some mental peculiarity or striking a light, it is probably because they power, or some passion, is assigned, and have all in a great measure originated from from which it derives its distinguishing the same source, or become gradually inappellation. Thus one portion of the skull termingled and blended together. And is said to be the organ, or rather the situ- yet, although perhaps, with respect to the ation of the organ, of pride ; another, of shape of the skull itself, differences of a resolution, or locality, or murder, according character truly national cannot here : be to the experience and discrimination of the traced, it must be however allowed, that in craniologist.
the cast of expression, and contour of the It must not, however, be supposed that | face, to a certain extent, these may genewe object to the system of these ingenious rally be remarked. philosophers without a reason ;-for, setting But let us survey the broad divisions of aside the air of impossibility which it the globe ;-let us glance at the Asiatic, carries on its face, there is one fact which for African, the native of Australasia, or of militates so strongly against it, as to form the islands of the Southern Sea, and the what appears to us an almost insuperable justness of our observation is at once estab. objection ;-namely, the variableness in lished. Compare any one of these with the distance which the two tables of the the European, compare them among themskull are separated by the intervening can- selves, and we find not only the cast and cellated structure, so as to occasion per. expression of the living countenance difpetual confusion, and baffle the endeavours fering in a strong and peculiar manner, of the inquirer, who would build his sys- but the bones also of the skull and face tem on the most repeated examination of presenting varieties in general shape and the skull externally. So great, indeed, and figure equally striking and remarkable. indefinite is the variation in this respect, The height or breadth of the skull, the that while in one instance they may be form of the forehead, the position of the (as we ourselves have seen,) separated by orbits, the magnitude of the cheek-bones more than half an inch,-in another, they and lower jaw, are the principal points in
which this difference exists. To convey, derable length, yet, from its comparative however, an accurate idea of these differ- lightness, it cannot in general be more than ences, without presenting either specimens sufficient to counterbalance the hinder part or drawings to our readers, is impossible ; of the cranium. In the bird, the head ris we can, therefore, only recommend those comparatively small; the number of verwho may feel interested in the subject, to tebræ of which the neck is composed, toge consult the plates of Cowper, or visit the ther with the method of their construction museum of anatomy, and there place in and attachments, allowing to it the utmost contrast the skulls of the English,-Rus- facility of motion. sian, Turk,Negro,-Hindoo,-Ancient In the human race, and throughout the Egyptian,- Greek,- Caribbee, and na- whole chain of the brute creation, the posi. tive of Australasia'; in which the national tion as well as the form and contour of the distinctions are obvious and striking. head accords in unison with the structure,
The position of the skull, and the relative figure, and design of the whole body. In situation of the articulating processes by this respect no animal could suffer an altewhich it is affixed to the spine, constitute a ration, without an incongruity never observmark of difference between man and the able in nature; hence, as one part of the inferior animals, which we must not omit frame reflects the rest, from an inspection to notice. In the human species, the skull of the skull, or a part of it, the general is exactly equipoised upon the spine, the figure of the body, and consequently the centre of its basis being the point of union; habits and leading instincts of the animal, thus in the erect position the head is ba-may be readily ascertained. Thus, through lanced on the neck with the slightest effort the various classes and orders of animals, of the muscles; but in the race of quadru. there are general rules which are never peds, although perhaps the ape tribe may broken, concordances from which there is have some claims to be considered as an no deviation, exception, the articulating processes, instead We have now completed our sketch of of being placed, as in man, in the centre the structure and mechanism of the Osseous of the base, are situated completely at the System. It is merely an outline; for we back of the cranium, so that the head de- have forborne to enter into a separate and pends, requiring for its support, constant minute detail of all the parts composing it, and considerable muscular exertion. The or to investigate particulars which can only muscles therefore of the neck are large and be studied in the school of anatomy. Our strong, and this the more especially in aim has been, to give a general idea of the ferocious animals, as the wolf and tiger,) so principles upon which this beautiful fabrie as to enable them to bear away their prey is constructed, to point out its fitness for its with facility
intended uses, and to shew the concordance The muscles of the neck in man, though which prevails among its several portions." marked and distinct, are small, and adapted It would indeed have been easy to exmerely for moving the head, and turning it tend and amplify our remarks, and carry in various directions ;-they are not power-on our researches to an almost indefinite ful-because great strength would at once length, but then, instead of affording inbe useless, and incompatible with grace or formation to our readers, instead of giving symmetry. The contour of this part of the them a succinct idea of the general plan, body, and its manner of supporting the head, we should have led them into a labyrinth, add much to the beauty of the human the intricacy of which would confuse and figure,-a circumstance to which the an. not instruct, and which they would feel no cients paid particular attention;-hence, in inclination to re-enter. We cannot conthe air of grandeur, which so much distin- clude without expressing a hope, that while guished the busts of their statues, as well as contemplating a subject so replete with skill in the peculiarly graceful manner in which and wisdom, they have seen His power the head surmounts the neck, varying in and goodness, whose care is over all that minuter details in the demigod, the philoso- He has created. Well has the Psalmist pher, and the gladiator, is their excellence written, “ The works of the Lord are great; unrivalled.
sought out of all them that have pleasure In the position of the head, and the situ- therein.” ation of the articulating processes by which But in our researches through the book it is conjoined to the neck, the feathered of nature, how often is its great Author fortribes approach more nearly than the brute gotten ! such, however, we trust has not mammalia to man. In several species the been the case on the present occasion. On skull is almost perfectly equipoised; for opening any one page, our readers could although the beak may project to a consi- ' not but have seen the mystic characters in
which His name is inscribed. Science is | cans, that the time of their departure, which the handmaid of Religion ; and he who, in was shortly to take place, was regarded by his researches after knowledge, contents the latter with feelings bordering on despair. himself with a consideration of merely | A few days before the period of separation second causes, leaves half his work undone. | arrived, they visited the ship in a company, Hammersmith. ' W. MARTIN.
and entreated their friends not to depart till they had once more joined them in the
feast and the dance. Their request was THE SLAVE SHIP.
acceded to, and the following day appointed "Hear this, ye senates, hear this truth sublime,
for the farewell entertainment. - He who allows oppression shares the crime.”" All the luxuries of uncivilized nature A VESSEL touched at the coast of Guinea, were collected, to enrich the strangers' last the crew of which were, or feigned to be feast; and amidst their mirth and festivity, suffering greatly for want of provisions, and the tear would start into the eyes of the the kind-hearted, unsuspicious natives came Africans, whenever any little incident called down in great numbers to the ship, bring- more immediately to their recollection, the ing with them the fruits of the country, and purpose for which they were assembled. other things acceptable to the distressed Morambo led the king of the water-palace, strangers. The Europeans would not take (for so he called the captain of the vessel, their presents without making them others | to the different spots which they had visited in return, and a sort of commerce was together : “We shall converse with each established between the Africans and the other no more, my friend," said the African, white people. The former were ready to “nor sit any more in these pleasant shades barter The most valuable goods they pos at evening; in a few hours you will have sessed, for things of little intrinsic worth, spread those mighty wings, that will again such as knives, looking-glasses, beads, and carry you beneath the distant waters from other trifles. Every day served to impress which you rose." the natives with additional confidence, till The sun was resting his dilated orb on at length they viewed their correspondence the verge of the horizon, the Europeans and with the white men, as being the happiest Africans were engaged in the dance, and circumstance that could have transpired for | Morambo with his wife Zilla was sitting them. They came on board the vessel beside the captain, who held their boy in without the least distrust; and if they felt his arms, and seemed to treat him with any regret, it was on account of the proba unusual tenderness. Suddenly a gun from ble departure of the strangers.
the vessel was fired. The Africans looked : The negro village which more especially alarmed, and for a moment suspended their held intercourse with the Europeans, con festivities. Zilla snatched her child from sisted of about a hundred huts, in which the captain, and the eagle eye of Morambo were not less than six hundred inhabitants threw its lightning glance on their comincluding children. The name of the chief panion, who betrayed no emotion. Silently was Morambo, and that of his wife Zilla; the chief resumed his seat, and beckoned they were remarkable for conjugal affec Zilla to do the same. She did so, but tion, and love for their infant offspring, a clasped her boy still closer to her breast. boy and a girl. It was, perhaps, in the The dance commenced again, but the hila, first instance, in obedience to the com- rity of the feast was gone, and the Africans mands of their chief, that the natives came regarded each other with fear and astonishdown to the coast to supply the wants of ment. ' the white men, rather than from direct con The extreme edge of the sun was just fidence in the formidable visitors, who, ac- sinking behind the distant mountains. cording to their ideas, had risen out of the Morambo sat thoughtful and silent, and distant ocean. Morambo indeed sought Zilla's tears coursed down her cheeks, and every means of removing their distresses, fell upon her child. Another gun was and endeavoured by the kindest offices of heard. Morambo sprung upon his feet, genuine humanity to conciliate their esteem. and raised up the almost fainting Zilla. When the chief beheld the captain of the “Go, Zilla," said he,“ haste to our dwellship caressing his boy, his joy was at its ing, and find the other child; Orissa, proheight, and his confidence complete; he tect us! we are betrayed, Zilla !”. Three blessed the heart of the white man who gups were now fired in quick succession, could feel such brotherly affection for the and the Africans all fled towards their habichildren of Orissa.
tations. Suddenly one simultaneous shriek · The whites had so completely wrought of terror and despair burst from the natives : upon the credulous sensibility of the Afri-' | “The huts are in flames !" exclaimed
hundred voices, and the wasting element nation of casting overboard all the slaves, was seen spreading with inconceivable and suffering the vessel, thus lightened, to rapidity over the whole village. Morambo be tossed at the mercy of the waves, hoping perceiving too late the treachery of the Eu- that she might eventually ride out the storm. ropeans, was on the point of rushing on the | One by one the miserable wretches were captain, when his arms were seized, and he released from the hold, and no sooner did was loaded with irons, Being thus carried they arrive on the deck, than their inhuman on board the ship, he presently saw all his masters cast them headlong into the furious followers brought likewise in chains, and waters. Yet none struggled with his execudriven into the lower part of the vessel. tioners, or uttered a prayer for mercy. In But he was like a lion raging in the toils | the pauses of the storm, the splash of their of the hunter, when he saw his beloved bodies falling into the ocean struck the ear, Zilla inhumanly loaded with fetters, and , but nothing more was heard or seen of thein. dragged along by the white men, towards! A shrill shriek burst from the under part the same quarter of the ship with the rest of the ship, and in an instant Zilla had “ White man,” exclaimed he, almost suffo- | flown across the deck, and was in the arms cated with rage and anguish,“ White man, of Morambo. They embraced each other think not Orissa has no care for his chil- | with wild delight, their tears mingled, they dren, he will punish your treachery,--yet called on each other's name; their miseries give me my Zilla, and I will not curse you were at an end. ,Slavery might be en
see they have already wounded her arm dured, death was not terrible, they were with the fetters-Christian, have merey once more united. Morambo, uttered a hear, that shriek-Oh, Zilla, Zil-," He fell broken prayer to Orissa, that he would turn senseless at the foot of the mainmast, to the heart of the white man, and not destroy which he was chained, and his inhuman him. çaptors were sufficiently merciful to leave Heaven opened—the mountains of waters him in this state of forgetfulness. The un- were illuminated -a bolt of fire descended happy, Africans were all secured in the hold upon the vessel. The captain and his folof the vessel, the anchor was then weighed, lowers discontinued the work of destruction, and the ship stood away with a fair breeze and, crowding into the boat, left the refor the West Indies.
maining Africans in the flaming ship. MoSwiftly over the billows of the Atlantic, rambo, in a voice of madness, called to the the proud vessel flew along. But on the captain to take in Zilla, but his words were fourth day of her passage, the man at the lost in the roar of waters, the thunder peal, mast-head gave notice of an approaching and the successive discharge of the ship's storm. He pointed out the hardly percep guns, as they became heated by the flames. tible ox-eye, which was hovering on the | The captain before leaving the vessel had distant horizon, the sure forerunner of a inhumanly ordered the hatch-way to be tempest. The ominous speck gradually secured, to prevent the Africans rushing at rose in the sky, increasing in size, and once upon deck, and leaping into the boat, already congregatiog round it those black which would immediately have sunk on masses of vapour, which were shortly to hurl being so over-loaded. Dreadful were the their vengeance on the floating shambles.. groans and curses that issued from this den . A rushing hurricane swept round the of death. Amidst all the raging of the vessel, tearing away her sailsand cordage, storm they were heard ; and when the war and rocking her frightfully over the abyss of elements for a moment subsided, sounds which opened in the waters. The thunder 1 of more than mortal anguish and despair roared in one continuous peal, and the light- were echoed through the waste of waters. į nings seemed to strike through the ocean to Morambo, still chained to the remnant of the centre of the earth. Shrieks, groans, the shattered mast, stood like a statue. His exclamations of despair, and horrible im. folded arms enclosed Zilla. His eagle eye precations of vengeance, issued from the threw a wild indefinite glance over the lower parts of the vessel, where the Africans dreadful scene. He was insensible alike to were confined. Morambo, who continued the tears, the caresses, the shrieks of his chained to the mainmast, at one moment beloved. called on the name of Žilla, then with a The flames had communicated to every burst of frenzy invoked Orissa to exhaust part of the vessel. The feeble cries of the his most dreadful vengeance on the white suffocating wretches in the hold, were heard man. The captain and his crew, pale with no more. Morambo and Zilla alone terror, consulted as to the best measures that continued to live." The flames were fast could be taken for the preservation of the gathering round them, and in a few minutes ship. They came to the horrible determi- they must be consumed.