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Aitz and Wolf.-11. Are the unities of nature susceptible of perceptions ? Our Author needs not be more embarrassed by this question, than his neighbours in philosophy. On the suppolition of two diftin£t fabstances his hypothesis is subject to as little difficulty as that of the doctors, who maintain an immediate and physical influence of mind upon body, and of body upon mind, -and on the suppofition of one fubftance only, he recurs to the fiat of the Creator ; and Dr. Priestley (if his material cohefion of-we know not what-holds yet tight) will help him out of the mud, or enable him to fit in it respectably. However this may be, M. BEGUELIN's discussions of this laft queftion are acute and ingenious in a very eminent degree: they are worthy of the high reputation he defervedly bears, as one of the first adepts of the present age both in speculative and natural philosophy:

Inquiries concerning the ancient judiciary proceedings against Sexe Gerers and Witches. By M. FORMEY. This thews, from good documents, that the forcerers were rich, and that the judges. were covetous rogues, who neither believed in witchcraft nor magic, but panted after confiscations.

Memoir. Concerning certain Maxims that ought always to be kept in view in philosophical investigations. By M. CóChius. Solid and judicious.

Memoir concerning Defects. By Dom, PERnety. What he says is true and trite.

BelŁES LETTRES. Memoir concerning the influence of the fiiences on Paetry, Fourth Memoir-By M. MERIAN, This Memoir, which contains only 150 pages, takes up Latin poetry in its cradle, and follows it step, by step in five sections, until, after a long state of ficke ness and decrepitude, it expired in the arms of Sedulius, under the reign of Conftantine.


MEMOIRES de l' Academie Imperiale et Royale des Sciences et Belles-

Lettres de Bruxelles : i. e. MEMOIRS of the Imperial and Royal
Academy of Sciences and Belles-Lettres of Brussels. Vol. II.
1780, 460, pp. 671. (price 14. 5. fterling:)
THIS valuable collection is carried on with regularity, ca-

pacity, and spirit, and deferves, in an eminent degree, the attention and applause of the republic of letters. The present volume, in pursuance of the plan already observed in the former, is divided into two unequal parts: the first is taken up with the journal of the fittings of the academy, which contains an account

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* For our account of vol. I, see App, to Review, vol. lix. p. 510.

of the pieces presented, and of the subjects of their deliberations, and the second contains the Memoirs.

JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY. Extract of a Memoir concerning the Glofopetras and Bufonita, by the Abbe WITRY, Canon of Tournay; designed to prove, against the affertions of the celebrated Mr. Henckel, that these productions derive their origin froin different marine bodies.

Extract of a Memoir concerning an economical Stove, better adapted to warm Apartments, than those hitherto invented; by the fame. As chimneys certainly warm a chamber unequally, and are a kind of ventilators, adapted more to renew the air, than to diffuse warmth in an apartment, this memoir is an object worthy of attention.

EXTRACT of a learned Memoir of M. Van Wyn, pensionary of the Brille (now of Gouda), designed to remove the confusion which the resemblance of certain names has produced in the Flemish history.

ANALYSIS of the Memoir of Mr. Needham, concerning the contagious Disorder that reigns (and has reigned so long in the New therlands, more especially in the United Provinces) among the horned cattle. Having divided the disorders incident to organized bodies into two clasies, the first comprehending those that are inflammatory in consequence of a fuperabundance of vital powers, and the second, those that, through a defect of vigour, are of a putrid or gangrenous nature, our academician places the disease among the horned cattle in the latter, and therefore conSiders antiseptics, as the true preservatives against this fatal malady. As, however, the expences attending the Peruvian bark, nitre, brandy, asa foetida, camphor, &c. are considerable, and burdensome to the peasant, he recommends marine or rock-salt as a cheap and effectual prefervative ; and he thews, by a variety of arguments and observations, its salutary effects.

Extract of a Memoir, containing a General Theory of round Flints, together with Considerations on the strata of these Flints, that are found in the Country about Louvain. By M. DE LAUNAY.

Řemarks on the learned Preface to the Irish Vocabulary, printed at Paris in 1768, by the Count De FRAULA,who thews that the Irish and the Belgi have the fame origin, and descend from the ancient Scythians.

OBSERVATIONS on the Belemrites, by M. De MARCI.

A Memoir concerning some MSS. of the Public Library of the Abbey of St. Vincent at Besançon. By Dom. BERTHOLD. The object of this memoir is a collection of 8o volumes in folio, which are comprehended under the general title of_Manuscripts of Granvelle. They contain the most interesting events that diso tinguished the reigns of Charles V. and Philip II. during the ministry of Nicholas Perrenot, and Anthony his fon, known



under the title of Cardinal Granvelle. Though there are fonie interruptions in this important feries of historical materials, those that have escaped the ruins of time are curious and instructive: such are, the original letters of Charles V. Ferdinand, Maximilian II. Philip II. Mary Queen of Hungary, Eleonora Queen of France, Mary Stuart, the two Margarets of Austria, and other illustrious personages. These letters, written at a period when no suspicion of their future publication could influence or restrain the writers, lay open springs of action, reasons of state, motives and views, which serve as authentic guides in judging of events, and expose to observation characters, which historians have only delineated by conjecture.

Memor of Dom. Berthod containing the Voyage of Claude Belin to Brussels, drawn from the 25th and 26th Volumes of the MSS. of Granvelle. It is well known that the Duke of Alva began his odious administration by the arrest and trial of the Counts of Egmont and Horn. Claude Belin, advocate-fiscal in one of the districts of Burgundy, was sent for to Brussels, to perform the functions of this office in the trial of the two counts. The substance of the memoir before us is drawn from letters, written on this occafion to Cardinal Granvelle, particularly by Belin, who seems to have been an honest man. In these letters we have a curious account of the unworthy proceedings of the council, that fat in judgment on these illustrious victims of fuperftitious tyranny, of the cabals of the Spaniards to remove all the Fremısh nobles from the council of state, and of the unsupportable arrogance of Vargas and Del Rio, who owed their ascendant to their servile submision to Alva. But the object we have particularly in view here, is a letter which Cardinal Granvelle wrote from Rome to Belin, in answer to his complaints of the proceedings of the council and its sanguinary chief. - This letter paints Granvelle's character in a much more lively manner than any historical pencil has done, and the antiquated French stile in which it is composed, is a veh:cle to the matter it contains, which (we know not why) strikes us most agreeably. We shall extract lome paffages from this letter, which, though they may lose a great part of their zest in our translation, will nevertheless shew the character of the man. " Good Mr. Advocate (lays Granvelle to Belin) I received your: 66 letters on St. Andrew's day, and, on my faith, they put me in

a great pother, seeing, by the fame, what is doing, and that " you have be un to stand forth against those who are placed in " the management of affairs; nay, even against the Spaniards, “ who have the Duke's good graces – whether they deserve " them or not-of which, in my thinking, you ought not to

come forth as a judge. -You have had rubs, it is true, but methinks you have already forgot what you wrote me lately,

os that

* that you remembered to have heard me fay, in my saloon at “Besançon, to wit, that there are things of which we must not " keep up a resentment or after-taste; such, for example, as " invectives and pills, which we ought to swallow without chew“ing, that we may not perceive their bitterness; and in like

manner at court.” Again - If by being too touchy, “s and by refusing to suffer and to yield gently to the humours " of your superiors, you render yourself odious, and spoil your “ affairs, it is not my fault, and I will say with the Prophet, " Quod in me fuit præstiti tibi.---For God's fake do both in

matter and manner, what they (Alva and VARGAS) will, " and how they will: they can give you no place, that will not " prove better than that which you hold in Burgundy, and if " they defire to have you among the fiscals, take care to serve to " the Duke's mind. He that aspires after preferment must “ learn to suffer, especially at his setting out, and must not be " daftardly and fearful. If you had been in my place in Flan« ders, when, two years long, I was told every day that I “ should be ftabbed, you would have died of the affright; and

even here, where I am at present, it behoves me to be upon

my guard. The man who hopes to rise, muft venture his: “ skin, and I wonder not a little at your apprehensions at the “ writings that will be composed in Germany against the pro“ ceedings (with respect to Egmont and Horne) - Only think of " the writings that were thrown out against me in Flanders: 1 " made a wide throat, and let them go down (weet as milk: ss the strokes of pen upon paper are not thrusts of a dagger.”. The whole letter is in this ftyle and manner, and thows the

Other Memoirs are mentioned in this JOURNAL, but as they are either printed entire in this present volume, or reserved for fucceeding volumes, we shall take notice of them in their proper place, in our account of the memoirs,—to which we now pro.. cted.

MEMOIRS. Memoir. Concerning elementary Fire, considered in general as existing throughout all Nature, together with conjectures relating. to its different Modifications, its Laws of Action, its End, and its universal Utility. By the Abbé Mann. We are working hard, in this period of philosophy, to get at the secret of Nature, with respect to the origin, eflence and properties of the substance, which, whatever it is, spreads light and beat throughout our globe, and seems to be the great spring and agent in the material world. · Experiments and observations are asliduously employed in this important line of speculation; and it cannot be said that they have been wholly destitute of success. Conjectures also may be allowed a place, fince, when they are not contradicted by the





other two instruments of investigation, they may have their ufes, and lead us through bye-roads into the path of truth. The very learned Author of this memoir is a first-rate conjecturer, and it must be confeffed, that his conjectures carry evident marks of fagacity and genius. His memoir is composed of three sections. In the first, he treats of light, heat, and the eletrical fluid, confidered in general as different modifications of one and the same principle, which he calls ELEMENTARY Fire. This fire, according to him, is a distinct substance, a separate and primitive element; it is an assemblage of the molecules of a matter that is evidently homogeneous, inalterable, incoercible *

always in action and motion, or tending thereto, effentially fluid, and the principal cause of all fluidity in Nature, and of all heat and burning in bodies. This account of fire contains nothing new : it is the revived opinion of Homberg, Boerhave and Si Gravesande, fet out with new improvements, and may, for ought we know, be right. Light, according to our author, is probably a modification of this elementary fire, which it can only produce, when active and disengaged, to a certain degree, from those heterogeneous bodies with which it is very often combine ed; whereas, in order to produce combustion or fenfible heat, only a high degree of density is required, which is always proportionable to the degree of the combustion. Hence he accounts for the existence of light without heat, and for the different degrees of the sun's heat, though light and heat be the effects of one and the same principle. Our academician considers farther, the elementary fire in the different degrees of what he calls its unitive affinity to different substances, and the effects resulting from thence

upon its action, as also in the different manner in which it exists in bodies, as lodging in their pores, or combined with them as constituent parts of their substances. He thinks, that by considering light as the motion of fire in a right line, and heat as the agitation of the fame fluid (fire) moving in all directions, this theory will explain, in a satisfactory manner, the several phenomena of light and heat, with all their modifications, that are observable on our globe. This theory is old, and may be true.

Electricity is the third modification of the elementary fire. It partakes, according to our Author, of the nature of light, common fire, and phlogiston, and holds a middle rank between light and heat, being more combined and mixed with heterogeneous substances than the former (which comes nearest to the nature of its principle), and less than the latter.

The result of this FIRST SECTION is, that the infinitely subtile and active fluid, which administers light and heat, and which

By incoercible, we suppose our Abbé means untractable,

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