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rius, under Germany (Gottorp), and Ohio: Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. cat. Seba, under Netherlands (Amsterdam). James, J. F. 1887.1.

Tiflis; Caucasian Museum; account. Pennsylvania: Philadelphia; Acad. Nat. Radde, G. F. 1899.1.

Sci. -- Types of fishes. Fowler, H. W. Spain: Madrid; Real gabinete de his 1902.5. - Index to scientific contents of toria natural. Bru de Ramon, J. B. 1786.1. the Journal and Proceedings. 1812–1912.

Instituto de Jovellanos. Jiménez de Cis Nolan, E. J. 1913.1. neros, D. 1904.1.

Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh; Carnegie Sevilla; University Museum. Calderon y

Mus.; cat., fossil fishes. Eastman, C. R. Arana, L. Add. 1889.1.

1911.1. Sweden: Stockholm; Museum Adolpho

Texas: University of Texas; list of fossil Friderici, Palace of Ulricsdahl; descrip

types. Montgomery, T. H. 1904.1. tions. Balk, L. Pre-Linn. 1749.1; Lin- SOUTH AMERICAN MUSEUMS næus, C. Pre-Linn. 1754.1.

Upsala; Univ. Thunberg, C. P. 1787.1. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Museu Na- Linnæan type-specimens. Lönnberg, A. cional. Ribeiro, A. 1903.1, 1904.1. J. 1896.3. - List of Japanese fishes. Ny Para; Museu Goeldi. Snethlage, E. 1909.1. ström, E. 1887.1.

Chile: Santiago; Museo Nacional; cat. Switzerland: Geneva; Nat. Hist. Mus

Quijada, B. 1912.1, 1913.1. eum; fossil fishes. Woodward, A. S. 1898.5.

Canada: Fisheries Museum; reports.

Comprising the structure and develop

ment of the muscular system. Halkett, A. 1905.3, 1907.1, 1910.2.

For the eye muscles, see Oculo-motor appaMexico: Museo Nacional; cat. Herrera,

ratus under Eye. A. L. 1896.1.

The heart muscles are included with and United States

treated under Heart.

For the electrical organs, which are derivaConnecticut: Yale Univ.; Triassic coll.

tives of, or which are transformed muscles, see Eaton, G. F. 1903.1. -- Wesleyan Univ. under Electrical Fishes. Goode, G. B. 1877.1, 1878.12, 1879.4.

For the general function of the muscles, see District of Columbia: Washington; U.S. under Locomotion. National Museum. - Reports. Bean,T.H.

For technique in the study of muscular con1884.9, 1889.18, 1890.25, Add. 1885.1

traction in respiration, see under Technique and

Methods. 1893.1. - Collection of European fishes. For the chemical composition of the muscles, Bean, T. H. 1879.7. - Selachians. Gar see Analysis of flesh under Chemistry. man, s. 1885.4. - List of publications.

For an excellent treatise in English on the Geare, R. I. 1906.1. - Fossil coll. List of

musculature of the salmon which may be type specimens. Merrill, G. P. 1907.1. Collection of Prof. 0. C. Marsh. Walcott,

used as a manual for the dissection of the C. D. 1900.1. ---Fossil fishes. Eastman, C.

muscles of a typical bony fish or teleost, see R. Add. 1917.3. - Mounted collection.

*Greene, C. W. & Greene, C. H. Add.

1914.1. Shufeldt, R. W. 1894.2,.3. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.

Another valuable paper, on the myology - List of publications, 1846-1903. Rhees,

of Amiurus, is * McMurrich, J. P. 1884.1. W. J. 1882.1, 1903.1. - History. Gill, T.

Development of muscles N. Add. 1897.2.

Massachusetts: Boston; Boston Soc. Nat. For an excellent general account, in GerHist. --reports. Putnam, F. W. 1861.1,

Putnam FW 18611 man, of the development of the muscular 1863.1, 1866.8, 1869.2, Add. 1868.1. --- Ad

system, with a full bibliography, see ditions to collections, 1842. Storer, D. H.

*Maurer, F. 1906.1. 1844.13,.14,.16.

Miscellaneous and general. Balfour, F. Mass.: Cambridge; Museum Comp. Zool. M. 1877.1; *Braus, H. 1898.1, 1899.1; Garman, S. 1879.1, 1881.1, 1890.5. -- Cal Gad, - 1877.1; Lebert, H. 1849.1; lionymide and Gobiidæ. Eigenmann, C. *Maurer, F. 1894.1-1912.1; SchmalH. & Eigenmann, R. S. 1882.2, 1888.2. hausen, J. J. 1912.1 (i). Early stages in New York: Albany; State Museum,

differentiation of myotome and sclerotome. Anon. 341, 342. — Type specimens Paleo- *Sunier, A. L. J. 1911.1. zoic fossils; cat. Clarke, J. M. 1903.1. - Development of the muscles in various Accessions, 1849-1850. Gebhard, J. fishes. - Elasmobranchii. Kastschenko, 1850.1.

N. 1890.2; Schneider, A. F. 1890.2; New York: American Museum of Nat. *Kaestner, S. Add. 1892.1. - Petromyzon ural History. -- Exhibit of fishes. Nichols. *Schiefferdecker, P. 1911.1. -- Teleostei. J. T. 1910.1. - Palæontological coll.; Vialleton, L. 1902.3. general account. Dean, B. 1904.3; addi

Histology of striated muscle tions to Devonian coll. 1899.1, Jay Terrell coll. 1900.3, restorations. 1911.2, 1912.3,.4,

Miscellaneous and general. Baumhauer, 1914.1; catalogue. Hussakof, L. 1908.1: E. H. 1848.2; Bornaud, E. 1887.2; progress of palæontology. Hay, 6. P. 1905.1: Emery, C. 1881.1; *Hirschler, J. 1910.1; history of fossil collection. Hovey, E. O. *Länsimäki, T. A. 1910.1; Munk, H. 1900.1. cat., fossil types. Whitfield, R. P. 1858.1; Leeuwenhoek, A. Pre-Linn. & Hovey, E. 0. 1900.1.


Myology — Contd.

Plectognaths. Rosén, N. 1912.1 (iv). Muscle fibers preserved in the Deronian Carassius. Schiefferdecker, P. 1909.1. fossil. Cladoselache. Dean. B. 1901.4. -- Luvarus. Haller, B. Add. 1881.1. 1902.3. Phylogenesis of striated muscle fibers.

MYOMERES OR MYOTOMES Maurer, F. 1900.1. - Muscle fibers, re The muscle-masses of Teleosts are comgeneration. Schmincke, A. 1907.1.

posed on each side of a series of transverse Continuity of muscle fiber and tendon. segments (myomeres) which are separated Schultze, O. 1911.1.

from each other by bands or fasciæ of Degeneration of muscle fibers and their fibrous connective tissue (myosepta or function as connective tissue in embryonic myocommata). selachians. Thulin, I. 1914.1.

Variation in form or shape and arrangeStructure of striated muscle in various ment of myomeres. Anderson, R. J. 1889.1; fishes. Trout. *Heidenhain, M. 1913.1, Dietz, P. A. 1909.1, 1913.1; Houssay, F. .2. - Petromyzon. KefersteinW. M. 1909.2. 1912.2: Wikström. D. A. 1897.1, 1859.2. Rays. Ranvier, L. A. 1873.1. 1903.1. - Petromyzon. Renaut, J. & Dubreuil, G. Trunk-myotome form in Petromyzon and 1905.1.

Acanthias. Langelaan, J. W. 1904.1. For the occurrence of striated muscle fibers Trunk-myotome form as influenced by fins. in the intestine of certain teleosts, see Tunica Tricht, B. 1907.1,.2. muscularis under Alimentary canal..

Actual counts of the number of myometes Innervation of striated muscle

in numerous adult selachians and telcosts.

Magnan, A. & La Riboisiere, J. 1912.1. Being chiefly the peripheral terminations of motor nerves in the voluntary or striated

Cranial and visceral muscles muscle fibers. Baglioni, S. 1909.1; Be

Muscles with their insertions in the jaws lousov, N. 1909.1; Bisselick, J. W. 1905.1;

; and visceral arches and serving to move Boeke, J. 1902.2, 1908.2; Cavalié, M.

1. these structures. Inclusive of mandibular 1902.1, 1904.3; Ciaccio, G. V. 1877.2,

and pharyngeal muscles. .3, 1882.1, 1883.1; Fusari, R. 1901.1,

A noteworthy treatise on the cranial and 1905.1; Giacomini, E. 1898.2,.3; Huber,

visceral musculature of Amia, with magnifiG. C. & De Witt, L. 1898.1; Kallius, E.

cent illustrations, is that of Allis, E. P. 1897.1; Razzauti, A. 1914.1; Retzius,

1895.1, 1898.2. M. G. 1892.7; Supino, F. 1898.1; Trin

For a general treatise on the embryological chese, S. 1892.1; Wikström, D. A. 1897.1,

development and homologies of the cranial 1903.1. Demonstration of continuity between nerve

muscles of vertebrates including fishes, set

+Edgeworth. F. H. 1911.1. cell and muscle cell from the very first se para

For an illuminative paper in English on tion of the two sets of elements (Lepidosiren).

the morphology of the visceral muscles of Kerr, J. G. 1902.1, 1904.2.

Selachii, see #Marion, G. E. 1905.1. Innervation of striated muscles by sensory nerves. Poloumordwinoff, D. 1899.1,

A recent treatise summarizing the homolWunderer. H. 1908.1.

ogies of the several jaw muscles throughout

the vertebrate series is *“ A memoir on ANATOMY OF MUSCLES

the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in reMusculature in general

cent and fossil vertebrates " by L. A.

Adams. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1919, rol. The following references, in general, in

ng reierences, in general, in- 28, pp. 51-166, pls. i-xiii. clude the complete muscular system, i. e., Muscles of the jaws, adductor and both cranial and body musculature.

depressor mandibulæ, etc., respectively Miscellaneous and general. Baudelot, E. closing and opening the mouth. They 1867.1; Carlisle, A. 1805.1; *Jaquet, M. include as parts, the M. constrictor I. dor1897.2; Kuhl, H. & Hasselt, J. K. 1820.1, salis (M. levator maxillæ superioris),M. 1824.1.

levator palatoquadrati, M. spiracularis, Muscular system of Amphioxus. Gren etc. These muscles are innervated by the acher, H. 1867.1; Rhode, E. 1892.1. trigeminal and facial nerves.

Anatomy of muscles of Cyclostomata. - Structure in Elasmobranchii (sharks and Myrinidæ. Cole, F. J. 1905.1 (ii). — Cy- rays). Edgeworth, T. H. 1902.1; Fürclostomata. Grenacher, H. 1867.1. - bringer, M. 1895.1; *Luther, A. F. Petromyzon. Stannius, F. H. 1851.1. 1909.3, 1913.2; Marion, G. E. 1905.1;

Structure of the muscles in Elasmo *Tiesing, B. 1895.1. branchii. Chaine, J. 1902.1. – Mustelus. Structure in Teleostei. Arcangeli, A. Humphry, G. M. 1872.3. - Raja. Ran. 1911.1; Ayres, W. 0. 1848.5; Chaine, J. vier, L. A. 1873.1. .

1904,1, 1905.2; Vetter, B. 1878.1; Morphology of the muscles in Ganoidei Dietz, P. A. 1912.2, Add. 1914.1. and Dipnoi. Polyodon. Danforth, C. Gadus. *Holmquist, O. 1911.1. – Silurus H. 1913.1; Handyside, P. D. 1875.1 (ii). glanis. *Juge, M. 1899.1. - Neoceratodus and Protopterus. Hum- Structure in - Cyclostomata. Fürphry, G. M. 1872.1.

bringer, P. 1874.1, 1875.1. -- Dinichthys. Structure of the muscles in various Tele Gregory, W. K. 1915.2. - Amia. Meosts. - Salmo. Bruch, C. W. 1861.3. - Murrich, J. P. 1885.1. - Hypoglossus Malopterurus. Cleland, J. 1858.1. - musculature, development. Neal, H. V.

1897.1. — General. Teutleben, E. Add. water symbols. Norwood, J. W. 1912.1. 1874.1.

- The fish as a sexual symbol. Eisler, R. Branchial or respiratory musculature, or Add. 1914.1. the mechanism for opening and closing the Ichthyophobia or taboo of fish. Matthews, gill clefts, including both internal and ex W. 1898.1. - Fish totems in Torres Straits ternal interbranchials. The preceding refer and New Guinea. Haddon, A. C. & Rivers, ences also include this subject. Albrecht, W. H. Add. 1904.1; Seligmann, C. G. P. 1876.1; Bazin, A. 1839.2,.3; Borcea, Add. 1910.1. -- Fishing myths and cereJ. 1907.1,.4; Favaro, G. 1902.1; Mc monies in the Malay Peninsula. Skeat, William, J. A. 1885.1; Remak, R. 1843.1. W. W. Add. 1900.1.

Musculus protractor hyoidei (M. genio Hieroglyphics or markings believed or hyoideus, auct.), extending from ceratohyal alleged to have been found on fishes. Preto symphysis of dentary. *Albrecht, P. Linn. refs. Bartholinus, T. 1654.1; Döbel, 1876.1; Anderson, R. J. 1881.1; Chaine, H. W.1718.1; Francus, A. 1591.1; JerauJ. 1900.2, 1901.1; +Holmquist, O. 1910.1, curius, A. 1588.1; Simson, A. 1622.1. 1911.1, 1913.1, Add. 1910.1; Rouvière, Miscellaneous papers on mythology. H. Add. 1906.1; Zavattari, E. Add. Anon. 738; Eckstein, K. Add. 1911.1. 1910.1.

- Pre-Linn. refs. Castrillo, H. 1692.1; Limb and trunk muscles

Kornmann, H. 1666.1; Lemnius, L.

1559.1; Picinelli, D. F. 1670.1; By morphologists (Gegenbaur, Kingsley


delet, G. 1558.1; Vogelhaupt, J. 1670.1. et al.) the trunk musculature is regarded as --- "Trees producing fish.Duret, C. divisible horizontally into dorsal (epaxial) 1605.1. and ventral (hypaxial) portions, the line of division being marked by a horizontal

Fishes in heraldry. Use of fishes in partition of connective tissue.

armorial bearings, seals, etc. Robinson, The following references, chiefly to teleosts,

P. S. 1883.1; Moule, T. Add. 1842.1;

Schulenberg, W. Add. 1911.1; Peacham, include in general the structure of the entire trunk musculature including the muscles of

H. Pre-Linn. 1627.1. the fins. *Chevrel, R. 1913.1; Greene,

Myth of the shipholder. The “ shipC. W. 1913.1; Hartmann, R. 1881.1; holder ” (Remora or Echeneis) was beHindersson, H. A. 1910.1; Knauer, F. K. lieved by ancient mariners to be the cause 1910.1; +Maurer, F. 1892.1-1912.1; of the retardation or the standing still of Reichert, C. B. 1871.1; Schmalhausen, ships even when under full sail in a good J.J. 1912.1 (ii).

breeze. This phenomenon is now known Musculature of dorsal fin in - Motella. to be caused by “dead-water” which is Bogoljubsky, S. 1908.1 - Hippocampus. due to a layer of fresh or brackish water Ranvier, L. A. 1874.1; Rollett, A. 1888.1; resting upon the denser sea water. A Schultze, 0. 1911.1.

vessel moving in such a place creates Supracarinales of Teleostei. Favaro, G. waves in the boundary between the two 1902.2. -- "Rectus abdominis" of Petromy- water-layers whose conflicting currents zon. Schneider, A. F. 1882.1.

stay the ship. Dorso-ventral division of lateral muscles For the first scientific explanation of this considered empirical, and lateral muscle in phenomenon, see Ekman, V. W. 1906.1. teleosts regarded as composed of a single For a full review of all the known literalayer. Shann, E. W..1914.1.

ture on this myth, with reproductions of early figures, see E. W. Gudger, in Ann.

Mag. Nat. Hist. 1918, ser. 9, vol. 2, pp. MYTHOLOGY AND SYMBOLISM

271-305; 1919, ser. 9, vol. 4, pp. 17-21. For the Christian fish symbol, see under Theology.

NERVOUS SYSTEM For a valuable recent work in English,

Comprising the morphology, developtreating extensively the mythology and sym ment and physiology of the nervous mechbolism of fishes among the Greeks and anism. Romans, Egyptians, and Assyrians, see Many of the parts of the nervous system have *Wm. Radcliffe, “ Fishing from the been treated separately. See Auditory organs, earliest times," London. 1921. 478 p.

Brain, Eye, Gustatory organs, Lateral line General treatises. Folk-lore and legends;

system, Olfactory organs, Spinal cord, etc. fictitious and mythical fishes, etc. *Guber

Anatomy and morphology in gennatis, A. 1872.1; Hulme, F. E. 1895.1; eral. Reference should also be made to *Robinson, P. S. 1883.1; Vinycomb, J. the various subdivisions of the nervous 1906.1; Watkins, M. G. 1896.1; Sebillot, system below for the literature relating P. Add. 1901.1.

specifically to these constituent parts. The great sea-serpent, its identification General treatises. Baudelot, E. 1883.1; with fishes. Collett, R. 1884.1; Holder, Girgensohn, O. G. 1846.1; *Johnston, C. F. 1903.3; Holder, C. F. & Jordan, J. B. 1906.1, 1907.1, 1913.1; Key, A. & D. S. 1913.1; +Oudemans, A. C. 1893.1; Retzius, G. 1875.1. Smith, H. M. 1904.1; Anon. 496.

Miscellaneous and general. Apáthy, S. Fishes as mystic symbols in China and 1895.1; Bailly, E. M. 1824.2; Bazin, A. Japan. Carus, P. 1911.1; Laufer, B. 1839.4; Bellonci, G. 1880.1; Cortese, F. 1912.1. - Fish symbol of Egyptian paint. 1846.1; Desmoulins, L. A. 1822.1,.2,.3; ings. Mahler, E. 1913.1. -- Fish and Dubreuil, E. 1885.1; Ebel, J. G. 1788.1;


Nervous System - Contd. Fenner, C. W. 1835.1; Le Boux, M. 1887.1; Le Roux, M. F. 1887.1, Add. 1889.1; Swan, J. 1835.1; Treviranus, G. R. 1820.1; Zaghorskii, A. P. 1833.1; Wittzack, J. C. 1817.1.

Amphioxus. *Heymanns, J. F. & Stricht, 0. 1898.1; Quatrefages, J. L. 1845.1; Rhode, É. 1892.1; Schneider, A. F. 1880.2.

Cyclostomata. - Petromyzontidæ. Ahlborn, C. G. 1882.1, 1883.1; Alton, E. & Schlemm, F. 1838.1; Desmoulins, L. A. 1824.1, 1825.2. - Myxine. Retzius, A. J. 1822.1–1828.1; Sanders, A. 1894.1.

Dipnoi and Ganoidei. Polyodon. Handyside, P. D. 1875.1. - Protopterus. Wiedersheim, R. E. 1880.2.

Elasmobranchii. Onodi, A. D. 1886.1; *Savi, P. 1844.1; Szczawinska, W. 1898.1,

Teleostei. Gehuchten, A. 1894.1; Le Roux, M. 1887.1. – Cyprinus. Büchner, G. 1835.1. Lepadogaster. Guitel, F. 1887.3. -- Argyropelecus. Handrick, K. 1901.1. – Amiurus. Wright, R. R. 1885.3.

Development and embryology. Squalus. Neal, H. V. 1915.2. - Petromyzon. Shipley, A. E. 1886.1. -- Transient nervous system. - Selachii. Beard, J. 1892.2, 1896.1,.3,.4; Dobrn, A. 1882.2 (xvii). — Trout. Rohon, J. V. 1884.1. ' Epibranchial placodes. Landacre, F. L. 1908.1, 1912.1.

For other transient nervous structures, see also Giant ganglion cells under Spinal cord.

Histology. General treatises. Hannover, A. 1844,1; Lenhossék, M. 1894.1, 1895.1; *Ramon y Cajal, S. 1899.1.

In various fishes. - Myxine. Holm, J. F. 1901.1. Teleosts. Le Roux, M. 1887.1. - Branchiostoma. Quatrefages, J. L. 1845.1.

Physiology of the nervous system.

For effects of extirpation of cerebrum, medulla, etc., see Physiological researches under Physiology.

For a comprehensive review of the physiology of the nervous system in all vertebrates, see Baglioni, s. Add. 1910.1.

General treatises. Girgensohn, O. G. 1846.1; *Polimanti, 0. 1911.3, 1913.1; Vulpian, E. F. 1864.1.

Miscellaneous and general. Bailly, E. M. 1824.2; Desmoulins, L. A. 1822.1, .2,.3; Flourens, M. J. 1825.1; Treviranus, G. R. 1820.1. - Oxygen metabolism. Baglioni, S. 1905.2; Buijtendijk, F. J. 1910.1. - Branchiostoma. Polimanti, 0. 1910.1. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS


It has been found impossible to separate Cranial and Spinal ganglia and ganglion cells from those belonging to the peripheral nervous system.

For ganglia of particular nerves, see those nerves under Peripheral nervous system.

Development and histology. Beard, J. 1892.1; *Dohrn, F. A. 1882.2 (xvii); Schaffer, J. 1896.3; Schenk, S. L. 1877.1; Schultze, H. 1878.1. - Lophius. Antoni, N. 1907.1. --- Amphiorus. Boeke, J. 1907.3. - Selachii. *Gast, R. 1909.1. -- Raja. Robin, C. P. 1847.5.

Occurrence of canals and alreoli in ganglion cells. Studnička, F. K. 1903.1, Add. 1899.1.

Cranial ganglia. Anatomy. Beard, J. 1885.1, 1888.2. -- Salmon embryos. Fürst, C. M. 1900.2, 1901.1. - Amphiorus. Johnston, J. B. 1905.1.

Development. Elasmobranchii. Beard, J. 1888.2; Guthke, E. 1906.1 (Torpedo); Klinkhardt, W. 1905.1; Mitrofanov, P. I. 1892.1.

Development of cranial ganglia, Ameixrus. Landacre, F. L. 1910.1.

Cerebro-spinal ganglia. Histological structure. Levi, G. 1906.1; Retzius, M. G. 1880.2, (Myrine) 1890.2. -- Petromyzon. Tomaselli, A. 1907.1. - Selachii. Cannieu, – Add. 1899.1.

Spinal ganglia and ganglion cells. Structure and development. Gehuchten, A. & Nelis, C. 1898.1; Holmgren, A. E. 1899.1, 1900.1; Kolster, R. 1899.2; Levi, G. 1911.1; *Neumayer, L. 1906.1; Rawitz, B. 1882.1. - Petromyzon. Freud, S. 1879.1. — Amphiozus. Johnston, J. B. 1905.1. — Cyclostomes. Mawas, J. 1910.2.

Elasmobranchii. - Pristiurus. Lenhossék, M. 1892.1. - Raja. Wahlgren, F. 1852.1.

Teleosts. Trinci, G. 1905.1. - Salmon. Fürst, C. M. 1900.2, 1901.1. -- Lophius. *Holmgren, A. E. 1899.2. - Perca. Kolster, R. 1898.2.

Development of neural crest, out of which are formed dorsal spinal ganglia. Coggi, A. 1895.1,.2; Dohrn, F. A. 1882.2 (XX), 1892.1.

Sympathetic ganglia. Anatomy and morphology. *Huber, G. C. 1897.1, Add. 1899.1. Elasmobranchii. Diamare, V. 1902.1: Pitzorno. M. 1910.1–1913.1. -- Of heart, Sharks and Teleosts. Vignal, W. V. 1880.1, 1883.1.

Incertæ sedis. "Ganglienleiste," structure of. Boeke, J. 1903.1; Dohrn, F. A. 1882.2 (xxii); Froriep, A. 1901.1.

Miscellanea. - Ganglion isthmi. Johnston, J. B. 1905.4. -- Froriep's ganglion. Ostroumov, A. A. 1889.2. - Subcutaneous ganglion cells, Myrine. Retzius, M. G. 1890.2. - Sensory ganglia, histology. Chase, M. R. Add. 1909.1. - Anterior ganglionic cord, Torpedo and Pristiurus. Coggi, A. 1895.2.

NERVES Morphology and development. Büchner, G. 1836.1,.2; Harrison, R. G. 1906.1. - Petromyzon. Dohrn, F. A. 1882.2 (xiii). --- Nerves without ends. Hyrtl, C. J. 1663.1. Lophius. Raffaele, F. 1900.1.

Nerves classified on a functional basis. Motor nerves. - Viscero-motor

roots, Amphiorus. Johnston, J. B. 1905.1.

NEUROGLIA - Motor nuclei, arrangement in Chimara.

(Connective tissue cells of a supporting Kappers, C. U. 1912.1. -- Development,

character). Lepidosiren. Kerr, J. G. 1902.1, 1904.2.

Histological structure. Bonome, A. - Structure and functions. Moreau, F. A.

1907.1; Catois, E. H. 1898.1; 1859.1, 1860.3, 1861.1.

Fano, C.

1906.1; Mawas, J. 1910.1; Müller, E. For motor nerve terminations, see Myol. 1899.1; Retzius, M. G. 1893.3; Sala y ogy, Innervation of striated muscle.

Pons, C. 1894.1; Terry, R. J. 1907.1; Sensory nerves. - Structure and func- Valenti, G. 1891.1. — Neuroglia in tions. Moreau, F. A. 1859.1, 1860.3, retina. Sacchi, J. 1884.1. 1861.1.

Ependyma, columnar epithelial neuFor sensory nerve terminations in striated

roglia cells which line the cavity of the cenmuscle, see such heading under Myology.

tral nervous system. - Structure. Franz, Electrical nerves, see under Electrical

V. 1912.1; Retzius, M. G. 1891.4, 1893.3; fishes.

Stendell, W. 1914.5; Studnička, F. K. Nerve plexuses. -- Relations of pec- 1899.2, 1899.5. toral and dorsal fin plexuses. Fürbringer, Ependymal grooves, including subcomM. 1879.1. – Nerve plexuses, Elasmo- missural organ. Structure and developbranchii. Braus, H. 1910.2, 1911.1. - Tri- ment. Dendy, A. 1913.1, (Function) Add. gemino-facialis plexus in Lota. Gorono- 1909.1; Nicholls, G. E. 1912.2; Sargent, witsch, N. 1897.2. - Nervus collector in P. E. 1903.1. teleosts. Hammarsten, O. D. 1909.1: Punnett, R. C. 1900.1, 1901.1.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM For segmental structure of motor nerve See also Brain, and Spinal cord, indexed plexus, see under Metamerism.

separately because of the great number of citaNerve tissue. Histology and develop

tions under each. ment. Beard, J. 1892.1; Bornaud, E.

System of nomenclature based on func1887.1. - Ganoidei and Teleostei. Nemi tional dirisions. Johnston, J. B. 1902.1. loff, A. 1908.1; Sterzi, G. 1911.1.

Blood vessels of the central nervous For a comprehensive treatise on the

system. Sterzi, G. 1907.1. tissues of the nervous system, see Held, Anatomy and morphology. General H. 1909.1.

treatise. *Johnston, J. B. 1909.1. — CyNerve cells. Histological structure.

clostomata and Selachii. Sterzi, G.

1907.1. Flemming, W. 1896.1; Held, H. 1896.1; Jacobsohn, L. 1910.1; Paladino. G. Miscellaneous papers. Arsaky, A. 1898.1; Schultze, H. 1878.1; Retzius, M.

1813.1, 1836.1; Meckel, J. F. 1836.1; G. 1911.3. - Petromyzon. Kolster, R.

Sanders, A. 1878.1; Treviranus, G. R. 1898.1 (ii), (Cottus) 1900.1; - Ganoidei

1820.1. and Teleostei. Nemiloff, A. 1908.1. -- Anatomy and morphology in vaChondrostei. Valenti, G. 1891.1.

rious groups of fishes. - Amphiozus. Various researches. -- Vacuolisation of Ovsyannikov, F. V. 1868.1; Retzius, M. nerve cells. Athias, – 1906.1. - Intra G. 1891.2; Steiner, J. 1886.3. cortical fibers. Bottazzi, F. 1893.1. -- Cyclostomata. - Petromyzon. Des"Myelocytes." Chatin, J. 1889.2. - Na- moulins, L. A. 1825.1; Mayer, F. 1897.1. ture of pericellular network. Hatai, S. - Myrine. Retzius, M. G. 1891.3. 1903.1. – Neurone, significance of size. Dipnoi and Ganoidei. - Dipnoi (ProJohnston, J. B. 1908.3. --- Teleneurones topterus and Ceratodus). Burckhardt, C. in Leuciscus Hoffmann, C. K. 1897.1. R. 1891.2, 1892.2, 1905.1; Bing, R. & - Intracellular fibrils, Lophius. Holm Burckhardt, C. 1905.1; Sanders, A. gren, A. E. 1903.1; Menci, E. (Scyllium) 1889.1. - Polypterus. Waldschmidt, J. 1903.3. -- Physiology of nerve cells. Jacob- 1887.1. sohn, L. 1910.1. - Nomenclature of nerve Elasmobranchii. Rohon, J. V. 1877.1; cells. Nissl, K. 1895.1. Development of Sanders, A. 1887.1; Steiner, J. 1886.2,3. nerre cells in Selachii. Pighini, G. 1905.1. Torpedo. Borchert, M. 1903.1, 1905.1,

- Sensory cells of Golgi. Ramon y Cajal, 1906.1. — Scymnus. *Burckhardt, C. P. 1897.1. - Canals and alveoli in axis R. 1907.1, (Palæo-selachii). 1911.1. cylinder. Studnička, F. K. Add. 1899.1. Chimæra. Valentin, G. G. 1842.2.

Nerve Abers or neurofibrils. His Teleostei. Grette, A. 1879.1; Stieda, tological structure. Auerbach, L. 1912.1;

L. 1868.1, 1870.1. - Orthagoriscus. Babukhin, A. I. 1868.1; Nemiloff, A.

Haller, B. 1891.1; Tagliani, G. 1894.1, 1910.1; Retzius, M. G. 1910.1; Schultze,

1895.1. H. 1878.1. - Significance of size. Her Development and embryology. Genrick, C. J. 1902.2. - Neurofibrillar con eral treatises. *Kupffer, C. W. 1906.1. tinuity. Held, H. 1905.1.

- Cyclostomata and Selachii. Sterzi, G. Nerve fibres in ganglion cells. Bethe, A. 1907.1. 1900.1. -- Amphiozus. Boeke, J. 1902.2. Special researches. Peter, K. 1901.1. - In retinal ganglia, Selachii. Schnaudigel, - Teleostei. Goette, A. 1873.1 (iii), 1878.2; 0. A. 1905.1.

Goronowitsch, N. Add. 1884.1. - Central Origin and development. Babukhin, A. canal. Rudnev, V. G. 1894.1. -- Earliest I. 1868.1; Neal, H. V. 1915.2.

differentiation. Schaper, A. Add. 1897.1.

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