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Likewise references to certain structures derived from the epidermis will be found elsewhere, such as Phosphorescent organs under Luminosity, and Poison glands under Poisonous fishes.
The integument in fishes, as in all vertebrates, consists of two layers, an outer epidermis (Oberhaut) consisting of the modified ectoderm, and an inner dermis or corium (Cutis vera, Lederhaut) composed of the outer or superficial layer of the mesenchyme which is modified mesoderm.
The dermis in fishes is thin and presents few distinctive features. It has in consequence not been the subject of extensive study. While many of the following references include the structure of the dermis, in general they refer chiefly to the epidermis.
Skin in general Miscellaneous papers on the skin of Teleosts. Batelli, A. 1880.1; Leydig, F. 1851.1; Rathke, M. H. 1847.1.
Papers relating to the structure of the skin in the following Teleosts. - Muræna. Clark, A. 1849.1. - Mala pterurus. Fritsch, G. T. 1886.1. - Cyprinus. Grunelius, A. 1913.1. - Lophius. Guitel, F. 1890.2. - Cyclopterus. Hase, A. 1911.2. - Xiphias. Nardo, G. D. 1841.2. - Salmo. Sacchi, M. 1887.1. Orthagoriscus. Turner, W. 1862.1. Symodontis. Vaillant, L. L. & Pettit, A. 1898.1. — Ameiurus. Wright, R. R. 1884.1.
In the blind fish Typhlogobius, there is "a highly abnormal development of bloodressels in the sub-epidermal portion of the integument” obscuring the pigment layer and giring the living fish a pink color. This condition is presumably for the purpose of cutaneous respiration. Ritter, W. E. 1893.1.
No true metamerism is shown in the skin, such resemblances are due to muscular stresses. Grosser, 0. 1905.1.
Transplantation of patches of skin from the uncolored ventral surface to the colored dorsal surface and vice versa in Nemachilus show no changes in color of the transplanted area until later immigration of chromatophores from surround areas and resorption takes place. Sécerov, S. 1912.1.
The skin of Anguilla, like other glandular structures, undergoes an excitatory variation as a result of electrical, thermic, and mechanical stimulation. Reid, E. W. 1894.2; Reid, E. W. & Tolputt, A. G. 1894.4.
Cutaneous sensory papillæ In the blind fishes (Amblyopsida), the lack of eyes is com pensated by the great development, especially on the head, of the cutaneous sensory papillæ. Eigenmann, C. H. 1909.2.
Although possessing eyes, the Gobiidæ likewise possess an extraordinary development of such cutaneous pa pilla, whose arrangement is said by Sanzo to be of diagnostic value. *Sanzo, L. 1911.1; Winther, G. P. 1874.4.
Nerve terminations in the epidermis. Fusari, R. 1901.1, 1907.1; Jobert, C. & Grandey, - 1870.1; +Merkel, F. 1880.1; Retzius, M. G. 1892.4,.5; Schöler, E. 1885.1; Schulze, F. E. 1892.1.
For the epidermal sense organs (Hautsinnesorgane), see End organs under Senses and sense organs.
THE EPIDERMIS The epidermis consists of two layers, a lower thick layer of actively dividing cells, the stratum of Malphigi and an outer layer of protective cells, the stratum corneum, which to replace. wear is constantly renewed by division of the cells in the lower or Malphigian layer.
In various amphibians and reptiles this outer layer (periderm) is periodically shed as a whole but no such process occurs in fishes.
The most comprehensive general treatise (in German) on the epidermis, with a full bibliography is *Studnička, F. K. 1909.1.
Other older general treatises in German, are *Leydig. F: 1879.1, and *Maurer, F. 1895.1.
Probably the best summary in English of the literature on the epidermis of fishes is given in *Reid, E. W. 1894.3.
Glandular elements In correlation with their aquatic environment and in order to reduce surface friction by the secretion of mucus or " slime," the epidermis of fishes is generally rich in unicellular glandular structures.
Leydig (F. 1851.1), according to Reid (E. W. 1894.3), first demonstrated the possibility of a secretory process in the fish skin by the description of specialized cells in the epidermis of some twelve genera of fishes. To these cells he gave the general term "schleimzellen." Subsequent research has shown that several varieties were included under this general term.
“ Kolben” or club cells The first of the elements subsequently delimited was the “ Kolben " cell or “ Kolbenformige Gebilde" of Max Schultze (1861.2) of the epidermis in Petromyzon. By F. E. Schulze (Add. 1867.1) the "kolben " cells were shown to occur also in Tinca, Leuciscus, Cobitis, Anguilla, Esox, and Silurus, and by Fritsch (G. T. 1886.1) in Malapterurus. These are the club cells of authors (" clavate" cells of Wright. R. R. 1884.1. p. 254). Schultze thought the "kolben" cells to be of the nature of nervous end organs and possibly contractile, because of certain appearances in polarized light, resembling those of striated muscle fibre. Although this view has been upheld by Pogojefi (L. 1889.1), nearly all subsequent workers have agreed on their secretory nature. Foettinger (A. 1876.1) followed their actual extrusion. The careful experimental work of Reid (E. W. 1894.3) on Anguilla, clearly demonstrates that the "club " cells produce the fine granules in the slime and also the threads, which are homologous with and resemble the threads in the slime of Myxine but are of finer texture.
The most comprehensive treatise on the “ Kolben" cells, with a table showing the fishes in which they occur or are absent is *Oxner, M. 1905.1.
“Becherzellen" or goblet cells The second form of secretory cell is the goblet or Becher zell. Although known as the
Integument - Contd. " Vesicula limpida " of the intestinal epithelium by Henle as early as 1837, the " Becherzellen" were first adequately described by Schulze (F. E. Add. 1867.1). The name " Becherzellen" was first applied by this author in the “Centralbl. f. med. Wiss.," no. 11, 1866. These cells occur in the epidermis of fishes and amphibians, the intestinal epithelium of all vertebrates, and in the respiratory canal" of lung breathers. The “Becherzellen " receive adequate treat
These cells, called "Fadenkörper" by Müller. were independently termed " thread cells" by Blomfield. They are apparently specialized forms of the “ Kolben " cells, described above, and develop in the epidermal lining of the gland
Papers relating to the epidermis of MYIine with the thread cells, mucous glands, etc. Blomfield, J. E. 1882.1; Kölliker, R. A. 1860.6; and Retzius. M. G. 1905,1.
Chemical examination of the mucous secretions of Myrine shows granules presenting most of the features of a mucin, but which do not yield a body reducing Fehling's solution. Reid, E. W. 1893.1, 1894.1.
Bdellostoma also encloses itself in a transparent, gelatinous mas8 haring the consistency of thick egg albumen. Ayers, H. 1894.1.
List in the Arch. f. mikr. Anat., 1886, vol. 27, pp. 481-588, 6 pls.
According to the researches of Reid (E. W. 1894.3), the goblet cells supply the mucin and after reaching the surface and discharging their load, they are capable of undergoing regeneration.
The club cells, the goblet cells, and the ordinary epidermic cells, are descendants of the palisade cells of the basal layer of the epidermis.
Papers specifically relating to the goblet cells are List, J. H. 1885.1-.3; Helly, K. 1905.1; Oedmannson, - 1863.1; Oeffinger, H. 1867.1.
Epidermis in general The following papers in general refer to the histological structure of the epidermis including the club and goblet cells and other epidermal elements.
Epidermis of Petromyzon. *Fættinger, A. 1876.1; Kapelikin, V. 1897.1; Kölliker, R. A. 1860.6; Leuckart, C. G. 1856.1; Loewenthal, N. 1904.1; Marenghi, G. 1903.1; Müller, H. 1864.1,.2; Pogojeff, L. 1889.1; Razzauti, A. 1911.1, 1912.1; Schultze, M. J. 1861.2; *Schulze, F. E. 1863.1, Add. 1867.1; Studnička, F. K. 1909.1.
Structure of the epidermis in Protopterus. Kölliker, R. A. 1860.1; Paulson, O. M. 1865.1.
Structure of the epidermis in the following Teleosts. -Salmo fario. Ebner, V. 1886.1. -- Trachypterus. Kaschkaroff, D. 1913.1. ~ Anguilla. Lengerken, H. 1913.1; Reid, E. W. 1894.2,.3. Teleosts. Nusbaum, J. & Kulczycki, W. 1906.1,.2. - Schizothorax and Capæta. Pavlovskii, E. 1910.1, 1911.2. -- Siluridæ. Rauther, M. 1907.1.
Thread cells of Myxine The hagfish or “slime eel," Myxine glutinosa, derived its specific name from its well known habit of exuding enormous quantities of mucus. According to Blomfield (J. E. 1882.1). “ two individuals thrown into a bucket of water are capable of gelatinising the whole with their secretion."
This secretion, according to Reid (E. W. 1893.1), is derived from a double row of glands (schleimsäcke of Müller), which are virtually simple involutions of the skin (epidermal inpushings into the dermis), extending along the belly of the animal from head to tail. Each gland has a separate duct to the surface. These structures were first described by Retzius (A. J. 1824.1) but more accurately by Müller (J. 1834.1, v.
The secretion, before its dilution with water, possesses a milky appearance due to the presence of large numbers of cells, whose protoplasm has been converted into a single complexly wound thread which, after exudation, readily unwinds and adds to the viscosity.
Cornifications of epidermis In general the epidermis of fishes is soft and cornifications of it are comparatively rare.
Among such cornifications are the “ pearl organs," small tubercles appearing chiefly on the head of various Cyprinida, at breeding time. Leydig, F. 1892.2; Reighard, J. 1903.2, 1904.1, 1910.2.
Similar “ contact organs " found on the scales or fins of the males of some Pæciliida at the breeding season, are not purely epidermal but possess an osseous or dermal core. Newman, H. H. 1907.1, 1909.1.
The "teeth" of the Cyclostomata (lampreys) are cornified epidermal structures. For references, see under Dentition.
Dockplatte. In some embryonic Anamnia, Petromyzon and Amphibia, the outer layer of ectoderm cells may, for a time, be ciliated. The cilia however disappear upon the hardening of the superficial protoplasm of the cells of the stratum corneum to form a so-called cuticula. By Studnička (F. K. 1897.5) this striated cuticular structure is termed “ Deckplatte."
In Lepadogaster, the epidermis of the adhesive disk forms a thick cuticular plate. Guitel, F. 1888.1; Studnička, F. K. 1906.1, 1909.1.
THE ARGENTEUM Underlying the dermis or corium of fishes is 8 layer of connective tissue, the tela subcutanes.
In many fishes, this layer contains numerous crystals of guanin which form a reflecting layer composing the argenteum which produces the silvery coloration,
According to Ewald and Krukenberg (1883.1), quoted from Cunningham and MacMunn (1893.1. p. 782), "the guanin is contained in connective tissue cells. in some cases in fine crystalline plates as a lime compound (guaninkalk) (Teleostei, Ganoidei, Cyclostomata), in others in the pure condition, and then it is only dead white, and has no metallic lustre (skin of Selachians).” The presence of guanin likewise frequently gives a silvery appearance to the peritoneum and the air bladder. "The beautiful metallic appearance of the iris in fishes is due to crystals of guanin."
The discovery of the true nature of the guanin is due to Barreswil (Add. 1861.1) who upon making a chemical examination of the "blanc d'ablette" or silvery substance titracted from the skin of the bleak (Alburnus) and used in the manufacture or artificial pearls, decided that this material was identical with
the “guanin" isolated by Bodo Unger from Fritsch, G. T. 1894.2; Müller, H. 1852.1. guano in 1845. A short time later Voit (C. --- Chimæra. Cole. F. J. 1896.1..2: Col1865.1) independently reached the same con- linge, W. E. 1895.2: Reese. A. M. 1910.1: clusion, Early investigations on the nature of the
Solger, B. F. 1880.1. — Squaloraja. Woodsilrer substance. Goebel, F. 1836.1;
ward, A. S. 1887.2. Schnitzlein, A. 1836.1, Add. 1837.1;
Ganoidei. - Amia. Allis, E. P. 1888.1. Wittich, W. H. 1854.1.
-- Polypterus. Allis, E. P. 1900.1; Baur, Distribution of guanin in the skin of
G. H. 1896.1; Collinge, W. E. 1893.3, fishes. Bethe, A. 1895.1; *Cunningham,
1896.1. – Polyodon. Allis, E. P. 1903.3; J. T. & Mac Munn, C. 1893.1; *Ewald,
Nachtrieb, H. F. 1902.1-1912.1. -- AciA. & Krukenberg, c. F. 1882.1, 1883.1;
penser. Baer, K. E. 1826.1; Jaquet, M. Prince, E. E. 1893.2; MacMunn, C. A.
1899.2. — Lepidosteus. Cóllinge, W. E. Add. 1895.1.
1893.1. - Ganoidei. Collinge, W. E. For the use of guanin in making arti
1894.1, 1895.5; Kingsbury, B. F. 1896.1. ficial pearls, see this heading below Eco
Teleostei. Dantan, L. 1906.1; Leydig,
F. 1850.1; Solger, B. F. 1878.2, 1880.1, nomic products under Fisheries. For references to the “ biological signifi
1882.2, Add. 1877.2. - Murænidæ. Allis,
E. P. 1903.1. -Cottus. Bodenstein. E. cance of silvery coloration," see Miscellanea under Coloration.
1883.1. - Siluridæ, chiefly Ameiurus. Bunker, F. S. 1897.1; Fritsch, G. T.
(Malopterurus) 1886.1; Herrick, C. J. LATERAL LINE SYSTEM
1901.1; Pollard, H. B. 1892.1; Wright, For related structures, see under Senses and R. R. 1884.1. – Batrachus. Clapp, C. M. sense organs; Tactile organs; etc.
1899.1; Jordan, D. S. 1900.2. - IcosGeneral treatises. Sède de Lieoux, P.
teus. Cohn, L. 1906.1. – Gadus. Cole, F. (Teleosts) 1884.1; Leydig, F. Add. 1868.1.
J. 1898.1. . - Physostomi. Collinge, W. Development. Earliest anlage. Mitro
E. 1895.4. - Mugil. Fée, F. 1869.1. fanov, P. I. 1889.1; Wilson, H. V. & Mat
Lepadogaster. Guitel, F. 1887.2. - Cytocks, J. E. 1897.1; Krause, W. Add.
clopterus. 1889.1. -- Lophius. 1890.1, 1906.1. – Amia. Beckwith, C. J. 1902.1,
1890.2, 1891.1. — Lota. Hyrtl, C.J. 1866.1. 1907.1. --Torpedo, Coggi, A. 1902.2.
- Clupea. Ryder, J. A. 1890.3. - Per- Selachii. Klinkhardt, W. 1905.1.
coids. Steindachner, F. 1862.1 (ii). Lepidosteus. Landacre, F. L. & Conger,
Which are closely associatod with
the lateral line pula terminalis. 1887.1. --Macruridæ. *Pfüller, A. 1914.1.
Ampullæ of Lorenzini, mucous canals Innervation (by branches of the lateralis or subcutaneous pil-organs found on lateral nerve). Burne, R. H. 1901.1; Leydig, F.
and dorsal surfaces of the heads of Elasmo1850.2, 1851.2; Schulze, F. E. 1861.1.
branchs. Physiology, or functions, of the lateral Morphology, development, etc. Boll, F. line system. Bonnier, P. 1896.1; Knox,
1868.1; *Coggi, A. 1891.2, 1902.1,.2, R. 1825.1,.2, 1827.1; Lee, F. S. 1898.1;
1905.1; Brohmer, P. 1908.2; Forssel, *Parker, G. H. 1904.1,.2, 1905.1; Stahr,
G. 1894.1; Johnston, J. B. 1902.5; H. 1897.1.-Selachii. Fuchs, S. 1895.1..2.
*Minckert, W. 1901.1; Peabody, J. E. - Macruridæ. *Pfüller, A. 1914.1.
1897.1; Retzius, M. G. 1898.3; Rund, Cyprinus. Richard, J. 1896.1.
G. Add. 1914.1. Structure of the lateral line system.
As organs for pressure perception. Met
calf, H. E. 1915.1. Miscellaneous and general. Agassiz, J. L.
Ampullary canals in Chimæra. Cole, F. 1848.6; Beard, J. 1884.1, 1885.1; Der- jigo cum, F. 1880.1; Dunn, M. 1895.1, 1901.1;
J. 1896.2; Collinge, W. E. 1895.2. Marsson, M. 1897.2; Sappey, M. P.
Ampullæ of Savi (Savi's vesicle), of 1880.1,.2; Vogt, C. C. 1856.1.- Fossil the ventral surface of the head of Torpedo. fishes. Collinge, W. E. 1893.2; Wood
Anatomy. Boll, F. 1875.1; Coggi, A. ward, A. Ş. 1887.7. - Earliest reference.
1891.3; Fritsch, G. T. 1894.2; Garman, Rivinus, A. Q. Pre-Linn. 1687.1.
S. 1992.4; Kölliker, R. A. 1857.4. Larger researches. *Allis, E. P. 1904.1; *Heilig, K. 1912.1; +Hofer, B. 1908.1; LIVER (INCLUDING GALL BLADDER) Hyrti, C. J. 1843.1; Macdonnell, R.
For associated structures, see Intestine and 1864.1; Pell, M. 1907.1; Schulze, F. E.
Stomach under Alimentary Tract, also Pancreas 1870.1, 1871.1.
and Spleen. Structure of lateral line system in
For the occurrence of glycogen in the liver.
and for the role of the fat content of the liver various fishes. -- Ammocætes. Leuckart,
of sharks, see under Chemistry. C. G. 1856.1.
For urea formation in the liver, see Excretion Elasmobranchii. Ewart, J. C. & Mitchell, under Physiology. J. C. 1895.1; Fritsch, G. T. 1888.1; Gar Anatomy and morphology, general acman, S. 1888.1; Robin, C. P. 1846.5; counts. Guillot, N. 1846.1, 1848.1; Jones, Solger, B. F. 1880.1; Todaro, F. 1870.1. H. 1854.1; Mierendorff, F. W. 1817.1;
Mustelus. Allis, E. P. 1901.1. - Spin Rathke, M. H. 1826.1,.4, 1837.2; Weber, nar. Brohmer, P. 1908.2; Rund, G. Add. E. H. 1827.8; Schmid, F. C. Add. 1882.1; 1914.1. — Torpedo. Coggi, A. 1891.3; Shore, T. W. & Jones, H. L. Add. 1889.1.
Liver — Cont'd.
Er periments in remoring different fins; - Glandular structure. Retzius, M. G.
caudal considered chief locomotor organ of 1892.6.
sharks. Mayer, P. 1886.1. - Similar Anatomy of liver in various fishes. - exps. with teleosts. Monoyer, F. 1866.1, 2. Ammocætes and Petromyzon. Dervieux, L.
- Similar experiments with the cyprino1898.1; Kuliabko, A. A. 1898.1.
dont, Goodea. Dugès, A. 1905.1, 2. Ameiurus. Macallum, A. B. 1884.1.
Comment on Dugès. Osburn, R. C. - Callionymus. Pilliet, A. H. 1889.1.
1906.1. Selachii. Pilliet, A. H. 1890.2. - Teleosts.
Swimming in fishes Segerstråle, E. 1910.1. -- Clarias. Weber, General accounts. Text in - Dutch. M. C. 1891.1.
Brugmans, S. J. 1812.1; Winkler, T.C. • Development, general papers. *Choron- 1860.3. - French. Amans, P. C. 1887.1, shitsky. B. 19001: Piper H. 1902.1..2..3. 1888.1: Chevrel. R. 1913.1: Giraud
Development in various fishes and groups Teulon, M. A. 1856.1. Add. 1858.1. of fishes. — Ammocates. Brachet, A. - German. Bickel, A. 1896.1; Meier, H. 1897.1. - Elasmobranchii. Brachet, A. 1860.1; Thilo, 0. 1901.1. - Italian. 1896.1; Hammar, J. A. 1893.1, 1897.1; Ducceschi, V. Add. 1903.1. Scammon, R. E. 1913.1. -- Dipnoi. Miscellaneous and relatirely unimporBroman, I. 1905.1; Neumayer, L. (Cera- tant papers. Text in English. Bennett, todus) 1904.1,.3. -- Amphiozus. Hammar, E. E. 1899.1; Buckland, W. 1941.1; J. A. 1898.1. -- Acipenser. Nicolas, A. *Kent, W. S. 1873.1, 1874.3; Nichols, 1904.1. - Trout. Stöhr, P. A. 1893.1; J. T. 1912.7; Wilder, B. G. 1870.1. Stricker, F. 1899.1.
Miscellaneous papers in German. Ahlers, Histology. Holm, J. F. 1897.1; *Oppel, C. 1900.1; Brehm, A. E. 1871.1; KathA. Add. 1900.1. — Acipenser and Cerato ariner, L. 1899.1; Schlesinger, G. 1911.2; dus. Bluntschli, H. 1903.1, 1904.1. - Anon. 175, 609, 610. Selachii. Scammon, R. E. 1915.1. - Miscellaneous papers with text in Amphiorus. Zarnik, B. 1905.1.
French. Corblin, H. 1887.1, Add. 1888.1; Gall bladder. - Anatomy. Cabibbe, Gouriet, E. 1864.1. - Italian, Dei, A. G. 1903.1. -- Development. *Choronshit
1896.1. -- Dutch. Harting, P. 1873.3. sky, B. 1900.1. - Development, Elasmo - Norwegian. Kent, W. S. 1874.2. branchs. Scammon, R. E. 1913.1. - Finnish. Regnard, P. 1893.3. - Polish. Biliary calculi in squeteague. Tower, R. Staff, F. 1911.1. W. 1902.1.
TYPES OF SWIMMING
Borelli's theory; that in suimming, the
tail vibrates on either side of a giren line ment. Scammon, R. E. 1913.1.
which corresponds to the aris of the fish For the chemical composition of bile, see
when the body is straight. This is the aris under Chemistry.
of motion; the tail acts as a rudder. Borelli,
G. A. Pre-Linn. 1680.1. — Remarks on LOCOMOTION
Borelli. Winslow, J. B. Pre-Linn. 1735.1. For the organs of locomotion, see Fins.
Undulating, wriggling, or eel-like locoFor the flight of fishes, see Flying-fishes.
motion and related tu pes. Schlesinger, G. For the hydrostatic functions of the swim. 1911.1..3: Strasser, H. 1882.1, 1583.1. bladder, see under Air bladder.
Progression of sharks by undulation of For the maintenance of equilibrium, see under Hearing and the static sense.
the swaying from side to side of the un
symmetrical caudal fin and the whole puke For a comprehensire reriew in German
terior part of the body. Ahlborn, C. G. of all technical researches on locomotion, 1895.2: Polimanti. 0. 19113. see *Du Bois-Reymond, R. Add. 1914.1.
Screw propeller action of single median For a popular treatise in English on all
dorsal fin rapidly ribrating from end to end kinds of locomotion in animals including
in pipefishes, Syngnathida. - Hippfishes, see *Pettigrew, J. B. Add. 1883.1.
campus. Anthony, R. & Chevroton, L. Miscellaneous items, not readily classi- 1913.1: Ishihava, M. 1905.1. - Sungfiable. - Relation of number of myo
tion number oJ myo- nathus. Weinland, D. F. 1856.2. tomes to bodily rigidity. Magnan, A. & Progression by vibration of the elongated La Riboisière, J. 1912.1. — Methods of median anal fin of Notopteridæ. Schles fixation against strong currents by means inger. G. 1910.3. of spines. Thilo, (). 1900.1, 1903.1. - In
Swimming with tail and walking on fluence of high pressures on muscular con bottom with dactyliform rays of the pectorals, traction. Regnard, P. 1887.1.-- Demon- Trigla. Chabry, L. 1883.1; Deslongstration of steering mechanism of fishes. champs, J. A. 1843.1; Polimanti, O. Völker, H. 1911.1.
1911.3. -- Prionotus, Allen, H. 1886.. Experimental researches
Observations on the vertical scimming
position of Amphisile strigata. Willey, A. Effects on locomotion, of the extirpation
rtirpation Add. 1902.1. or section of various parts of the central nervous system. Bethe, A. 1899.1: Poli
Unusual types of locomotion manti. 0. 1911.3..5. 1913.1: Rynberk. Climbing habits and orerland progression G. A. 1905.5, 1906.4, Add. 1904.1; Cor of the "climbing-perch," Anabas scandens, blin, H. Add. 1888.1.
Daldorff, D. C. 1797.1; Mitchell, J.
1864.1; Neill, B. A. 1864.1; Zur Mühlen, with a full bibliography, see *Mangold, E. M. 1911.22; Layard, E. L. Add. 1853.1. Add. 1910.1.
Climbing of the Andean catfish, Arges An excellent recent physico-chemical marmoratus. Johnson, R. D. 1912.1, Add. treatise, including all groups of light1913.1.
producing organisms, is *" The nature of Ichthyopatolites or petrified track-wings · animal light" by E. Newton Harvey. of ambulatory fishes. Buckland, W. 1843.1. Philadelphia and London (Monographs
Leaping habits of marine fishes, ascent on experimental biology), 1920, 182 pp., of water-falls, etc. Clapham, T. 1879.2; 35 figs. Dumesnil, A. 1906.1; Holder, C. F. Physical base of animal phosphorescence. 1903.3; Smith, Everett 1879.1.
Watase, S. 1895.1. Lam preys ascending water-falls. Smith, Three-day old specimens of Ephippuis H. M. 1900.3, 1902.6.
(surface fishes without luminous organs) Orerland progression or terrestrial loco were very decidedly phosphorescent at night motion of. - Doras and Callichthys. when sudden impulses were imparted to the Allen, G. 1885.1; Hancock, J. 1828.1. water. Ryder, J. A. 1880.1. -Gobiesox, found 40 feet from water. Observations on the emission of Pickering, C. 1862.1. -- Xenomystus. light by living fishes. Our belief in the Schlesinger, G. 1912.2. - Clarias. Vaill existence of luminous organs in fishes is ant, L. L. 1895.3, 1896.3. - Unnamed based on their comparative structure and fishes. Anon. 619; Gostling, D. Add. the following few actual observations on 1894.1.
living fishes. Overland migrations of the eel, Anguilla. For a résumé of all such observations, inDanner, H. 1880.1; Lengerke, - 1876.1; cluding a few additional to those given beLindes, L. 1880.12; Schreitmüller, W. low, see *Brauer, A. 1908.2 (pp. 127-133). 1914.11; Anon. 3, 254.
These are repeated in Mangold, E. 1907.1 Terrestrial progression of Periophthalmus and 1910.1. by hopping in mud. Allen, G. 1885.1; First notice of light emission in fishes. *Johnstone, J. 1903.2; Martens, E. Astronesthes fieldii, observed during a roy1881.1; Pickering, C. 1862.1.
age to Brazil, “sent forth two strong and Terrestrial locomotion of Gasterosteus. vivid greenish lights, which intermitted moGergens, - 1862.1.
mentarily, and ceased altogether when the
fish died.” Reinhardt, J. T. 1853.1, 1854.1. LUMINOSITY AND PHOSPHOR -- Astronesthes observed also by Vanhöffen, ESCENCE (OF FISHES)
E. 1901.1. Comprising the production of light by
Luminosity of post-orbital organ of Melmeans of specialized photogenic organs,
anostomias mclanops seen during Valdivia which occur chiefly in the deep-sea fishes.
Expedition. Brauer, A. 1908.2 (p. 87). Miscellaneous observations, notes, popular
Porichthys, placed in an aquarium made accounts, etc., on the luminosity or phos
alkaline with ammonia water, exhibited a
brilliant white light for about twenty minutes. phorescence of fishes, luminous fishes, phos
Greene, C. W. 1899.1. phorescent organs, etc. Text in English. Bell, F. J. 1881.1;
A nearly dead specimen of Scopelus boops Hall, J. J. 1872.1; Franklin, C. L. 1900.1;
dredged off the Cape of Good Hope, "disKent, W. S. 1873.4; *McIntosh, W. C.
played a faint though an undoubted lumi1885.3, 1906.3; Nicols, A. 1872.1; Nut
nosity . : . in the pectoral region.” Guppy, ting, C. C. 1899.2; Shufeldt, R. W. 1894.1,
H. B. 1882.1. 1907.1; Weber, M. C. 1901.1.
Maurolicus pennantii observed in the Text in French. Deslongchamps, J. A.
Naples aquarium. Mangold, E. 1907.1. 1838.1; Gadeau de Kerville, H. 1890.1;
Among coral reefs of Malay peninsula, Khvorostansky, C. 1892.1; Mulder, E.
Steche observed a continuous glow in Photo1861.1.
blepharon and intermittent fashes in AnomText in German. Dittrich, R. 1888.1;
alops. Steche, O. 1907.1, 1909.1. Doflein, F. J. 1906.3; Frisch, K. 1909.1;
Sternoptyx, brought up in the trawl at Gadeau de Kerville, H. 1893.1; Haupt,
night in the North Pacific, glowed like a H. 1903.1; Marenzeller, E. 1889.1;
luminous star. Willemoes-Suhm, R. Pütter, A. 1905.1; Radziszewski, B.
1875.1. 1880.1; Schenkling-Prévôt, - 1902.1;
Isistius brasiliensis, a spinacid shark, Schneider, G. 1904.9; Stenta, M. 1905.1;
captured in Australian seas, was placed in Thilo, 0. 1910.2; Žugmayer, E. 1910.2;
an aquarium and remained aglow for about Anon. 338.
three hours. Bennett, F. D. 1840.1. Text in - Italian. Giglioli, E. H. 1870.1.
Spinax niger in a darkened room at the - Dutch. Harting, P. 1866.5; Mulder, E.
Naples aquarium, glowed “with a feebly 1859.1; Anon. 602. --- Swedish. Lönn
shining greenish lustre." Note by Th. Beer berg, A. J. 1904.1. - Latin. La Faille,
in Johann, L. 1899.1. -- "Spectral colors" J. M. Add. 1821.1.
of Spinax at Naples, visible even in day
light. Burckhardt, C. R. 1900.2.
Photophores or radiating organs For a scholarly treatise on light production The nature of these organs was origiin all groups of animals including fishes, nally disputed and they were termed