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West, is the British settlement of Bombay (an island a little below the Gulf of Cambay, at the top of the Peninsula), and above it is the town of Surat on the Continent. Below it is Goa, the chief settlement of the Portuguese. The lower Western coast of the Peninsula is called the coast of Malabar, and the opposite Eastern, that of Coromandel. On the coast of Malabar is the Kingdom of Mysore, formerly possessed by the celebrated chieftains, Hyder Ali and his son Tippoo Saib, who were almost always at war with the British. Tippoo Saib was conquered and slain, and his capital, Seringapatam, taken by the British, May 4th, 1799; since which time the Mysore has been under the direction of the British Government. The extreme Southern point of Hindoostan is called Cape Comorin. On the Coromandel or Eastern shore, the Kingdom opposite the · Mysore is called the Carnatic, nominally possessed by the Nabob of Arcot, but virtually by the British. About half-way between Cape Comorin and Masulipatam, where the shore bends to the East, is Pondicherry, formerly the capital of the French settlements in the East Indies, but now possessed by the British, who are, in fact, the actual possessors of India Proper. South of Pondicherry is Tranquebar, and North of it is Madras. At the Mouths of the Ganges is
Bengal, whose capital is Calcutta, the chief of all the British settlements in India. To the North West of Bengal is Bahar, and below it Orissa, also belonging to the English. North West of Bahar is Oude, and North West of Oude is Delhi, whose capital of the same name is the seat of the once celebrated Mogul Empire; below Delhi is Agra:-all these provinces are virtually under British Government. Eastward of the Ganges is the Kingdom of Pegu, and South East of it Siam. The Peninsula below Pegu on the one side and Siam on the other, is called Malacca. On the East coast of the Gulph of Siam is Cambodia, and on the North East of it Cochin China. 'Above Cochin China is Tonquin, and the immense Eastern sweep of the coast is called China, which extends from the Gulph of Tonquin to the Yellow Sea. West of China, and stretching over the British settlements in India, the Mogul Empire, and the Peninsula of Malacca, is the immense unexplored region of Thibet. North and North West of China is the extensive and almost unexplored region of Chinese or Mongul Tartary, (or, as it should be rather called, Tatary). Still Westward, towards the Caspian, is Calmuc and Usbec Tartary (which consists of roving independent tribes), and between the Black and Caspian Seas, is Russian Tartary. The whole upper part of Asia, beyond the provinces already
described, belongs to Russia, and is included under one general name of Siberia. The North Eastern peninsular extremity is called Kamschatcka, and above it are the Coriacs and Tchutuskoi, between which and the North Western parts of North America is a straight called Bhering's Straights.
Among the more remarkable places and cities in Asia, we may reckon, In Asia Minor, or Natolia —
N. La. È. Lo. Smyrna 33° 28' 27° 7
On the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean
N. La. E. Lo. Aleppo 35° 40' 37° 16' Antioch 36 10 36 40 Damascus 33 30 36 40 Jerusalem 31 47 35 20
On the Arabian Gulph
.N. La. E. Lo. Medina 24° 20' 39° 33' Mecca 21 40 40 55 The former celebrated for being the
burial-place, the latter for being the birth-place of Mahomet.
On the Tigris
N. La. E. Lo. Bagdad 33° 20 44° 46' Near the site of antient Babylon.
, N. La. E. Lo. Ispahan 32° 35' 52° 32' The capital, which is 24 miles in
circuit, and contains 600,000 in
habitants. . Shiraz 29 37 52 40 Which is situated in a beautiful and
fertile vale, and most delicious climate.
The most important places in Hindoostan have been already described.
In China * the principal cities are
N. La. E. Lo. Pekin 39° 54' 116° 27' The population of which is esti
mated by the recent writers, who accompanied Lord Macartney in his Embassy, at 3,000,000 but this is perhaps an excessive calculation.
* The Wall of China is one of the most wonderful achievements of human industry. It is conducted over the summits of mountains, some of which rise to the height of 5225 feet, across the deepest vales, over wide rivers, by means of arches, and in many parts is doubled and trebled to command important passes. At almost every 100 yards is a square tower, or bastion. Its length is 1500 miles, its height 25 feet, and its breadth at the top 15 feet. The towers are 48 feet high, and 40 feet wide. A much greater antiquity is given to this stupendous work than is probably consistent with fact; it being asserted by Sir G. Staunton to be about 2000 years old; but the best informed writers do not give it an antiquity of 600 years, and perhaps even less would be nearer the truth. It was built to prevent the incursions of the Mandshur Tartars into China; who, however, climbed over it about A.D. 1630, and conquered China, which they have kept possession of ever since, the reigning Monarch, and all the principal officers, being always of Tartar extraction.
N. La. E. Lo.
ants, and is the principal port for
In Independent Tartary the principal city is
N. La. E. Lo. Samarcand 39" 40'65' 15' Where Timur the Great, or Tamer
lane, as he is more generally called, was born, in whose time and that of one of his predecessors, Zingis, the Tartars were a far more civilized nation than they are at present. In A. D. 1494, Sultan Baber, one of the descendants of Timur Khạn, was expelled from Bucharia, and founded the Mogul Empire in Hindoostan.
In Russian Tartary the most celebrated city is
N. La. E. Lo. Astrachan 46° 22' 47° 36'
The principal rivers of Asia are the Euphrates, which rises in the Mountains of Armenia, and flows into the Persian Gulph; the Tigris, which rises 150 miles South of the Euphrates, and joining the Euphrates near its mouth, flows also into the Persian Gulph; the Sinde, or Indus, which rises in the Tibetian Mountains, and flows into the Arabian Sea ; the Ganges, whose sources are