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1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 499 tion : Nay, in opposition to such an wise pay subsidies to their princes ; election's taking effect, the other to which let us add, that all the pro. two colleges of the diet of the em. visions for our armies, except cloath. pire would have a right to co operate ing our own national troops, must with France in having it set aside ; come frome foreign countries, and and thus, instead of preventing, we must be paid for by us in ready should precipitate an intestine war in A money. Nay, when we have been Germany, in which some of the so lucky as to penetrate into the electors, who had for years been tak- enemy's country, I never heard that ing our money, might perhaps de- our armies supported themselves at clare against us; for I am afraid, their expence, or that our generals that the hopes of a present addition accounted for the contributions they of territory, or a present view of the raised imperial diadem, will always be B This, Sir, Mould make us cautious more prevalent with most of the of ever calling upon any of our allies, princes of Germany, than a dif

or attempting to draw them into our tant prospect of the good of their quarrel, unless we can form such a country.

confederacy upon the continent of As to his majesty's union with his Europe, as may be able to carry on allies, I thill always be glad, Sir, the war against France with a proto hear of its subfitting in its full vi- C bability of success, and without much gour, provided we never think of of our assistance ; and the forming keeping it fubfisting by a sacrifice of of such a confederacy we may render the true interest of the nation ; and impossible, if we should raise among I can see no reason why we should the princes and states of Europe an pay for keeping it fubsisting, at a opinion of our officiously intermedtime when we have so little money to dling in their affairs, which may be spare ; for we may always be more Dche consequence of our giving ouruseful to our allies than they can ever selves so much to do about the elecbe to us : In case of our having a war tion of a king of the Romans. with France, we have not one ally To conclude, Sir, there are so that can be of use to us, without in. many, and such strong objections, volving us in a war upon the con- against almost every part of the adtinent; and the support of such wars dress proposed, that I cannot but apwill, I fear, at lait prove our ruin ; E

prove of the noble lord's motion for because it makes us neglect profecu- an amendment, and therefore it ting the war by sea and in America, shall have my hearty concurrence. and because France can always support a war upon the continent of Europe

(This JOURNAL to be continued at a much less expence than we can.

in our next.] The French armies are mostly composed of their own national troops, F have less pay than our armies have,

Remarks on Proposals lately made for and generally have all their provifions from their own country, or

repealing most of the Poor Laws, when they march to any great

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and for erecting County Work. tance, they support themselves at the

Houfes. expence of their enemies. On the EVERAL new schemes hay.

ing been lately formed for the continent of Europe are mostly com- better maintenance of the poor, and posed of foreign troops, have higher resolutions taken for greatly altering pay than the French have, and be. the good and wholesome laws now fides payiug the troops, we must like in being, for their relief and employ

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ment: And finding, upon the most unmarried, having no means to main. strict and impartial examination, tain them, and using no ordinary and that the designed alterations tend, daily trade to get their living by : not to the amendment, but the an- And also to raise weekly, or othernihilation and total repeal of those wise, a convenient stock of flax, laws, and the introducing a new and hemp, wool, thread, iron, and other confused method, highly injurious A ware and stuff, to set the poor on both to the poor, and to most of the work ; and also competent sums of parishes in this kingdom ; a few ani. money, for and towards the necessamadversions upon them are necessa- ry relief of the lime, impotent, old, ry.

blind, &c. and also for the putting I must humbly premise this re- out of such children to be apprenmark, that, from the projects form. tices. And the justices of peace, ed, it appears, that the contrivers of B or any one of them, are impowered them were never practically acquaint- to send to the house of correction, ed with the execution of our present or common goal, such as shall not laws relating to the poor : But what employ themelves to work, being is here faid, is from many years actu- appointed thereunto, as aforesaid." al experience, in a populous parish. The statute 7 Jac. I. c. 3 pro

I. Let it therefore be observed, vides also for the binding out of ap. that the defects complained of, are C prentices, and the well employing not in the laws themselves, but actu- the monies given for that use. ally in the execution of the laws ; By stature 12 and 13 Car. II. c. to which proper remedies may be ap- 12. Corprisations, or work houses, plied, as will appear by a few in are erected in the cities of London stances.

and Weltminster, and in other towns The legislature hath provided, in and places within the weekly bills of the ampleit manner, for the employ. Dmortality. ment and comfortable maintenance, And by statute 9 Geor. I.“ Church. of such poor in every parish as are wardens and overseers of the poor, able to work: And for the relief in any parish, &c. with the consent and indulgent care of the lame, in. of the major part of the inhabitants, firm, impotent, or old, who are un. assembled in vestry or other publick able to labour. So that our present meeting for that purpose, are emfyftem of laws relating to the poor, E powered to purchale or hire any is as perfect as any human inítitution houle, or houses, in the same parish, can be : Which every intelligent and to contract with any persons for person, who has examined them the lodging, keeping, maintaining, throughout, must readily confefs. and employing any or all such poor

Bui, for the sake of those who in their respective parishes, &c. as have not had leisure or opportunity Thall desire to receive relief or collec. to look into those affairs, i fhall give F tion from the same parish. And a few extracts from the laws now in where any parish shall be too fmall to force concerning the poor.

purchate or hire such house or houses By statute 43 Eliz. che churchwar. for the poor of their own parish ondens and overseers of the poor are ly, it thall be lawful for two or more injoined to "take order, for setting fuch parishes, with the consent of to work the children of all such, the major part of their inhabitants, whose parents Mall not by the said G and with the approbation of any jur churchwardens and overseers be tice of peace, to unite in purchasing, thought able to keep and maintain hiring, or taking such houses. And their children ; and also for fetting if any poor perlon, or persons, frall 10 work all such persons, married or refule to be lodged, kept, and

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1751. Defects in the Execution of the Poor-Laws. 501 maintained in such houses, he, she, box, with a hole in the lid, should be or they fo refusing, shall not be in deposited in the vestry, or near the titled to ask or demand relief or door of every parish church, into collection.”

which any aggrieved person might From these few extracts, it most privately thruit a paper, containing plainly appears, that our laws have his complaint, and denoting who is amply provided, that the vast sums A not equally rated with himself: And raised for the use of the poor, should to these complaints proper regard be expended, not on their mere main- ought to be had, when a new rate is tenance only, but on their employ- made. Or if there should not, upon ment :- That there is great care a proper application to the justices, taken in them, that the children of the rate ought not to be confirmed, the poor should be educated in habits till the aggrieved person has obtained of industry, by being bound appren-B redress. tices :- That tho' many parishes are

2. Another defect in the execution too small separately to raise a stock, of the poor-laws is, that the oversufficient wherewith to employ their seers too readily distribute the parish poor, yet they may unite for that money, without consulting the rest purpose.

of the parishioners, or even their felSuch are our laws; and, there- low-overseers or church wardens: fore, what must be thought of the C They frequently diftribute it to im. mighty bustle lately made upon this proper objects, to lewd, drunken, subject, as if it had been entirely clamorous, or idle wretches ; acneglected by former parliaments ? cording to favour

or affection ; It appears, then, upon the least ex- to relations ; to customers to their amination, that the defects complain. shops, &c. ed of do not proceed from the want Statutes 3 Will. & Mary, c. 11.$. of good laws, but from a bad execu. D 11. and 9 Geo. I. §. 1, 2. forbid intion of them.

deed such partial and audacious proAnd from fact, and repeated expe- ceedings, but lay no penalty on the rience, it is found, that the defects offenders : Whereas any officer prein the execution of the laws relating suming to act in that manner, ought to the poor, are the following ; to pay the inoney out of his own which may easily be redressed, and pocket. call indeed for redress.

E And to prevent the like inconve1. The rates are partially and un. niences for the future, it should far. equally made *. The leaders, who ther be enacted, that in order to are generally the wealthiest and most provide for occasional poor (such conliderable men in parishes, screen poor as are not in the workhouse, or themselves too much, and lay the in the standing yearly lift) the pa. burden on the middling and inferior rithioners should stay at church every inhabitants. And these cannot open. F Sunday, after fermon is ended'; Jy complain, or loudly remonstrate (which would be the most convenient against it, without much hurting in country parishes, where the houses themselves, and perhaps entirely are scattered about and at a dillance.) losing their businels, which for the Or else, that they should meet weekly, most part depends on the others. at a certain place and hour, and re

Now, to remedy this inconve- lieve occasional objects, who should nience, it hould We enacted, that a G then appear, or else make an order

for • Lord chief justice Hale long ago observed, obat « Tradesmen, nst enduring (beir personal Rates should be cbarged, ebrow rbe wbile load on the rents of lands and boules, wbicb 'alone are nos fufficient to raise a pock". - And I bas "' Ibe over feers being paribioners 68unwilling ** barge itemselves, or displease beir neigbbours."

for that purpose, entering it into a book, produce their accounts, revised and approv. and subscribing it with their own hands. ed by the parishioners, (as the archdeacons And that each parish should keep an ac- fummon churchwardens to exhibit their count or counter-part of these occasional presentments) and to fine them upon their reliefs, to be a comptrol against the over. neglect or refusai. roers accounts. Such frequent meetings A Such are the usual and most Aagrant deare the only method to keep a parish's af- fects in the execution of the poor-laws. fairs in good order.

II. But, now, if we consider the proAs for accidents and misfortunes, the un- posed alterations, by county work-houses, happy objects ought immediately to be tak. and common funds, very far will they be en care of by the ofñcers of the parish where found from remedying those and the like the accidents happen, under a great penal. defects. ty; if the persons cannot be removed with

For, let any impartial person, that ever the utmost safety : Adding, however, this B had the least notion of human nature, provision, that the parents or matters of judge, whether there will not be the utmost the unhappy sufferers (if able) should be room for partial and unequal rates, when at half the expence of the cure and main- all the inhabitants of the parith they are tenance of the said sufferers : Which half, imposed upon, are not prefent, or even or proportion of expence, should be ad. consulted, at the making of them; or judged and set by two neighbouring jus. even can be, without the utmoft trouble tices.

and charge. 3. A third defect in the execution of the Suppole, the making of the rates should, laws relating to the poor, is, the over

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for a while, be left to the overseers of the leers neglecting to account ; some even for refpe&tive parishes, they would (I assure two or three years, or more. The act of them) frequently be called upon to enlarge 17 George II. hath indeed made an excel. their afferiments : Aud the power of asserlent provifion against this neglect, by or. ing themselves would soon be taken from dering, that “the church wardens and over. them, upon some pretence or other ; and feers of the poor Tall yearly, within 14 double of what they had ever paid before, days after other overseers shall be nominato if not more, would be exacred from them ed and appointed to succeed them, deliver D with the utmost rigour. This has been the unto such succeeding overseers, a just, true, case in most places where corporation workand perfect account in writing, fairly en. houses have been erected. tred in a book or books to be kept for that Again, what ample room will there be purpose, and signed by the said churchwar. for wasting and m (applying the vast sums dens and overseers, of all fums of money. laid and raised upon the parishes? How shall by them received, or rated and affefied and parishioners know, whether their own parnot received ; and also of all goods, &c. ticular poor are well and honestly taken that shall be in their hands; and Mall also

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care of ? Must parishioners travel 10 or pay and deliver over alt fums of money, perhaps 20 miles, to observe and take care goods, &c. as Thall be in their hands, unto of those things ? What trouble and what such succeeding overseers of the poor ; charge would that occafion? Who can have which said account thall be verified hy oath. .so much time or money to spare, as to fub

And in care such church wardens and mt thereto ; at least for any continuance ? overseers shall refuse or neglect to make and And as for such endless and con plicated yield up such account, &c. it thall be law. accounts as must neceffarily be kept ; ful for two justices of the peace to commit what able accomplant will undertake chade him or them to the common goal, until F burden ? How will the respective parishes they shall have given such account.'

know, whether their money is honefly But you will fay, wilio cares to be so re- and fairly laid out? And whoever pays vere up in his good neighbours ? If, indeed, money for such publick service, has a right so much over-complaisance, or such a (pi- to know and observe with his own eyes in rit of indolence, reigns in parishes, an ad- what manner it is best wed. dition ought to be marle to this statute, to So that, in a word, no method can be compel them by large fines (which mould contrived fuller of glaring absurdilies ; or be levied by warrant of justices for the use

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that would open a wider door to all the of the poor) to bring their overseers regu. cheats and impofitions imaginable. lariy to account, in pursuance of the said Therefore the best, the safest, and the facute ; and that upon the complaint of most rational means, is to continue, with. any one inliabitant.

out alteration, the commendable method To which may be added, that the jur. which many parishes are come into, of tices, or their clerks, should be authorized erecting diftinét work houses, I mean one io call upon the overseers of every parish in every parish of any tolerable bigners & at Easter, when others are appointed, to Where the poor are well looked to ; kept

N monarchy, as the readiners in rubo

1751.

HISTORY of ihe STADT HOLDERSHIP. 503 industriously employed ; and managed un- died in 1647, and was succeeded by his son der all the parishioners inspeAion ; in the William II : It was with him the states, most frugal as well as honelt manner. Ad. or rather some ambitious members of the vantages which would entirely be loft in republick, began their quarrels, which fuch rambling and overgrown places as they were the better able to manage, county work houses,

fince, by the military virtues of the princes Instead, therefore, of destroying and of Orange, they had triumphed over all setting aside this laudable institution of pri. their enemies, and were acknowledged as

A vate or parochial work-houses, it ought to a free ftate : But, before these broils were be made universal as much as pofsible, and totally composed, the prince died, and, parishes ought to be encouraged to set them 7 days after, the princess Mary his widow, up : But to compel them, I think, is not who was the eldeft daughter of Charles I. consistent with our constitution,

of England, was brought to bed of wil. [Wbat our correspondent furiber mentions liam Ill. prince of Orange, afterwards on ibis subje&, will be very acceptable ; and king of England. In 1654 the states geebe sooner we bave it, ibe better.]

neral made a treaty with Oliver Cromwell,

B by which they engaged to exclude the From ibe Westminster Journal, Nov. 2. young prince from all employments, and

soon after they made a law to abolish the History of tbe Stadtholdership : Occafioned office of stadtholder, with the posts of

by obe' Deatb of bis late Serene Highness • captain general and admiral, which was ibe PRINCE OF ORANGE * called, Tbe a&t of Exclufion : But in the

much honour to peace concluded between Charles II. and

the sta es general, in 1668, it was agreed, jects of republicks to have recourse to some c that

when the prince of Orange was at age, thing like it, whenever their affairs were in he should enjoy the posts of captain genea dangerous condition: This happened ral and admisal : Whether this was really frequently among the Grecian states, and intended, or not, is uncertain ; however, also in Rome, were they had a legal provision when the French, in 1672, invaded their for that purpose, by which, when the very provinces, the states found the necessary constitution of the state was declining, quotas for levying troops were denied by they invested a certain person with absolute leveral of the cities, until a captain genepower ; as Agamemnon, Leonidas, and ral was nominated ; and the people Philip of Macedon among the Greeks, D having affaffinated and core to pieces the who presided over their confederate armies; De Wits, whom they suspected to be in and as in Rome, under the title of dictator, the French interest, compelled the faces who was to take care that the common- not only to declare the p ince of Orange wealth suffered no detriment. This evinces radtholder, but to send depoties to release that they perceived the necessity of yield.

him from tbe oath he had taken never to ing to that government for certain seasons, accept of that employment : The prince tho’ they provided for the abolition of it was elected captain general and admiral as soon as that necesñty was over : Which

of the United Provinces, as also governor

E example was followed by the Dutch, of Holland and Zealand, whereby he was when they revolted from the Spanish mo. restored to all the posts and honours, which narchy, and chose William I. prince of his anceftors had exercised so much to the Orange for captain general and Stadtholder welfare and reputation of the republick : of the United Provinces. This prince was He found luis country in a melancholy fi. principally concerned in promoting the tuation, invaded, on th:ee different sides, union of the 7 provinces, and, happily for by the armies of France, Cologne, and his countrymen, defeated all the attempts Munster ; molefed at fea by the English; of the duke of Alva, the Spanish general, F and distracted by intestine commotions ; for reducing the provinces to the obedience yet the young prince nohly enc' untered and of Philip II. who was so exasperated at overcame the difficulties that surrounded che conduct and popularity of the prince, him. As the people were for removing that he hired Balthazar Gerard to affaf. several magiftrates, his highness fent cirfinate bim, which was executed on July cular letters to all the towns, declaring 10, 1584, in his own palace at Delft. that the calamities of the state proceeded The Nates immediately conferred all his chiefly from the treachery and coward ce honours and employments upon his fon,

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of the governors, officers, and soldiers apprince Maurice, who held his authority pointed to defer o the frontier places : The till 1626, when he was succeeded by his prince put himielt at the head of the Dutch brother Frederick Henry, under whose ad- forces he disappointed the attempts of miniftration the states began to flourish marshal Luxemburg; he drove the French in a confiderable light. Frederick Henry from Naerden, in the province of Holland;

and See an account of bis dealb, marriage, ilue, Co. in our laff, p. 473, 474.

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