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nonymous here with aera magnum in i. 300; the unbounded heaven. Wagner substitutes fugiuntque ex acthere nimbi, on the authority of a single manuscript. Neptune is attended by a numerous train of marine divinities and monsters.- -822. Cete; pl. of cetos, a sea monster; for the plural of this and a few other Greek nouns of similar form, see Gr. § 94; Z. § 89.

-823. Senior; a term often applied to marine deities.Palaemon, called also Melicerta, and Portunus, (see above, 241,) was the son of Ino; hence Inous.- -824. Tritones. See on i. 144.- -Phorci; Phorcus. See above, 240.- -825. Tenet. Gr. § 209, note 9.-Thetis; daughter of Nereus and Doris, and mother of Achilles.Melite; Panopea; these also, and all those that follow, were Nereides, or daughters of Nereus. See on 240, above. Virgil appears in the passage, 820-826, to have in view a group of statuary by Scopas, which stood in the Flaminian circus at Rome, and is described in Pliny's Natural History, xxxvi. 5.- -827. Hic, etc. Now

Nereids and Tritons.

calm joy in turn pervades the anxious mind of father Aeneas. Comp. i. 502. –829. Attolli malos; he orders all the masts (the masts of all the fleet) to ve speedily raised. The masts were not fixtures, but could be raised, lowered, and removed, as circumstances demanded. Comp. 487.—Intendi brachia velis; the yards to be spread with the sails. We can also say, vela brachiis intendere. -830. Fecere pedem; they all tacked together; all the vessels, governed by the movements of Palinurus, took the wind now on the one side of the ship, now on the other. Pes was the name of the ropes called by us the "sheets," at the lower corners of the sails, which were alternately "let out" and "shortened," according as the ship took the wind from the right or left. Facere pedem is to manage the sheet.- -831. Solvere; they simultaneously opened the canvas, now on the left, now on the right. The yards themselves are also turned to one side or the other when the sheets are hauled or loosened. This was effected by ropes attached to the cornua, or extremities of the yards, and made fast to the sides of the vessel. These movements of the yards are expressed by torquent detorquentque; and also in iii. 549, by obvertere. See Smith's Dict. Antiq., article Antenna. -832. Sua; their own; that is, favorable.- -833, 834. Densum, agmen; the squadron following in close array. -S34. Ad hunc; the others were commanded to direct their course according to him; Palinurus.-

835. Mediam metam; the zenith.- -837. Sub remis; the ships were under sail, and the oars were unnecessary; hence the men were suffered to indulge in sleep, stretched along the hard wooden benches, (dura sedilia,) by their oars.- -839. Dispalit umbras. Somnus did not disperse the darkness, but passed through it, parting it, as it were, in his descent.- -840. Somnia tristia ; fatal slumbers.—841. Insonti; not deserving such a fate.- -Consedit; from consido.—S42. Phorbanti; this was the name of a son of Priam, mentioned in Hom. Il. xiv. 490.- -843. Ipsa; the waters make a pilot unnecessary; they are so favorable to your course, and so tranquil, they of themselves convey the fleet safely.- –844. Aequatae ; steady winds; such as make the sails aequata. See iv. 587. Translate, the winds breathe fair.—845. Labori; the dative is rare after furari. See Gr. § 224, R. 2. -846. Tua munera inibo; I will enter on thy duties.- -847. Vix; Palinurus is already oppressed with drowsiness, under the influence of Somnus.

-849. Monstro; the sea is so termed, because it is a thing full of treachery and peril.- -850. Aenean, etc. For why should I trust Aeneas (to it), having been deceived so often (as I have already) by the flattering winds, and by the treachery of a calm sky?—Quid enim. What connection these words are intended to express is very doubtful. With our punctuation perhaps the following interpretation may be adopted: Do you ask me to confide even myself to this monster? No. Then surely not Aeneas; for why should I trust Aeneas to it, after being deceived so often, &c.? Others omit the comma after enim, and join auris with credam, translating the following et deceptus, "especially after being deceived."—853. Nusquam ; occasionally, as here, for nunquam.- -Amittebat; the last syllable lengthened. See note on gravia, iii. 464.-Sub astra; up towards the stars. -854. Lethaco; steeped in Lethean dew, it merely produced forgetfulness; but when the branch was vi soporatum Stygia, drugged with Stygian virtuc, it imparted a death-like sleep.—856. Cunctanti; to (of) him resisting the influence. -Natantia is proleptic.--Lumina solvit ; Somnus relaxed and closed the eyes of Palinurus, which had been strained and fixed steadily on the stars.857. Primos; for primum; scarcely had the unexpected sleep first unnerved his limbs.- -858. Et, for quum; as in iii. 9, et al.-Cum puppis parte revulsa. Some look upon the words from cum to gubernaclo inclusive, as an interpolation.-861. Ipse; Somnus.- -Ales; as a bird; a winged creature; so Hor. O. 1, 2, 42: ales in terris filius Maiae- -862. Currit; pursues; transitively, as in iii. 191.- -863. Promissis. Gr. § 249. -864. Jamque adeo; and now even; that is, it was even so far on the way, that it was approaching the rocks of the Sirens. These were off the southern coast of Campania. They were difficiles quondam, dangerous formerly, that is, when Ulysses sailed over this sea.- -Tum; then; at the time when Aeneas approached they were resounding afar with the constant surf.- -869. Multa gemens. See on i. 465.—Animum concussus; smitten

in his mind; for the acc. see on i. 228.- -871. Nudus, ignota; to die, away from one's native land, was a great misfortune, but the greatest of all was to be deprived of burial; to be left uncovered on the ground. Palinurus, soon after his death, meets Aeneas in Hades, (see vi. 347-351,) and gives him the particulars of his fate.

The Sirens.


Arrival of Aeneas at Cumae. His descent to Hades and interview with the shade of Anchises.

1-155. Aeneas lands at Cumae, and immediatoly proceeds to the temple of Apollo on the Acropolis, to consult the Sibyl. Deiphobe the Sibyl, who is also priestess of Hecate, informs him of his future wars and hardships, and instructs him how to prepare for his proposed descent into the lower regions.

1. Sic fatur lacrimans.

These words closely connect the narrative of

the Fifth and Sixth Books. So Books vii., ix., and xiii., of the Odyssey, are connected immediately with those which precede them.- -Immitit habenas; gives reins; in viii. 708, it is immittere funes.-2. Euboicis Cumarum; Cumae, a city situated on the coast of Campania, was founded in very ancient times by a colony of Greeks from Chalcis, (now Negropont,) in the island of Euboea; hence the terms Euboean and Chalcidian are applied to the city of Cumae and to objects connected with it. Strabo calls Cumae the most ancient of all the Italian and Sicilian cities. After passing through many vicissitudes of fortune, it was at last utterly destroyed in the thirteenth century by the people of Naples and Aversa. Its site, marked by the ruins of temples and villas, is often visited by modern travellers. The following view of Cumae and its environs presents in the distance near the sea the abrupt height of the Acropolis, on which stood the temple of Apollo and grove of Diana. In its sides were excavated many subterranean passages, some of which communicated with the holy place of the oracle, or grotto of the Sibyl. These caverns are still in existence, and have been cleared out and explored to some extent, though mostly filled with ruins and rubbish. -3. Obvertant. On landing, the prow of the ship was turned towards the water, and the stern towards the shore, that the ship might be ready to put to sea again.—Dente tenaci; with tenacious fluke; in i. 169, morsu is used instead of dente.- -4. Fundabat; held to the bottom, or secured; equivalent to fundo affigebat. Observe the imperfect interchanged with the historical present.-5. Emicat; springs or darts; as in v. 337.- 7. Abstrusa in venis silicis. Comp. i. 174. Fire and food are first thought of on anding.- -8. Tecta rapit; part quickly penetrate the forests, the dense dwellings of the wild beasts, and point out the discovered streams. Rapit, like corripere, i. 418, is equivalent to cursu rapit, and means here hurries into or through. Running water (flumina) must be used for purification before they can approach the shrine of Apollo.—9. Arces; for the singular, which is used in the 17th verse; the Acropolis, on which stood the tem

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