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4 Will

you ride to town to-day, sir ? 5 Shall we go into the field yonder to pick strawberries ?

REMARKS.For an explanation of the effect of emphasis on the upward slide, see “Course," p. 41, VI.-“Elements," Ch. V. $ II. VII.

The teacher should require the class to shift the emphasis, as marked in each question, to every word in the question successively.

The pressure of emphasis, it will be observed, produces merely a dip, or dent, in the slide.

Exercise 3d. 1 Who is this? 2 Why did he go there ? 3 How did he obtain his riches ! 4 Where shall I eat the passover with my disciples { 5 Which of the two first found out that the boat was leaking,

and would soon go to the bottom ? REMARKS.—The effect of emphasis on this kind of question is stated in the Course," p. 41, VII.; and in the “Elements,” Ch. V. $ II. VIII.

This effect is, to put off the downward slide until the emphatic word is reached, with which the slide always begins and continues thence to the end.

Of that portion of the question which precedes the emphatic word, the delivery is not uniform. Sometimes the voice proceeds on a level to 'that word; and sometimes rises to it by means of an upper sweep from the beginning of the sentence: the latter in the main, only, when the sentence is a very earnest and energetic one...

Having gone through the exercise on the emphasis as marked, place it on all the words successively in each sentence.

| Exercise 4th. 1 He was there of 2 They saw what was going on ? 3 You will ride to town to-day, I think you

said $ 4 Surely thou wilt not slay the righteous with the wicked ?

REMARKS.—The peculiar delivery of this question, as I have already intimated, (see Exercises on the Slides, 8,) is wholly the effect of emphasis. The upper emphatic sweep precedes the emphatic word, and the lower follows it. ($ce * Course," p. 42, VIII., and “ Elements,". Ch. V. $ II. 1x.)

As before, having gone through the exercise, shift the emphasis to other words, and repeat this important exercise as frequently as possible.

Exercise 5th. 1 Is it you, or 18 2 Will it answer to send thither, or must I


in person 8 3 Was he really bent on having the watch, or did he merely

pretend to want it for the sake of teasing his brother 8 REMARKS.- For the effect of emphasis on this question, see “Course,".p. 52, IX., and the "Elements,” Ch. v. $ II. X.; where it will be seen that this effect on the first part of the question is the same as that on the upward slide, (see Exercise 2d, above ;) and on the second part, is the same as that on the downward slide. (See Exercise 3d.)

VII.—EXERCISES ON PITCH, FORCE, AND RATE. 1. The proper pitch or key is that which we employ in animated conversation, neither higher nor lower. This is the pitch at which we can read easily, naturally, and give variety to our reading.




2. Force is the quantity of voice with which we read. It may be increased from a whisper to the utmost capacity of the voice. The proper quantity is, as before, that used in animated conversation.

8. Rate is the degree of slowness or rapidity with which a sentence is read. Wo should read as slow, in general, as we can, and secure attention to what we read. (See Pitch, Korce, and Rate, in Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. III.) 1

He went away. 2 They gave me a book, and bade me farewell. 3 And it was the third hour'; and they crucified him. 4 Do you think they will go ? 5 Was the man they looked for anywhere in that neighbor

hood ? 6 Why should they do it ? 7 What time of the day was it, when they arrived { 8 You will not fail to come then of 9 Surely it is the man whom I saw there last night f 10 Will

you ride to town to-day, or to-morrow 11 Must we be satisfied with this, or try it again another time 8

He said to me, where did you get it { 13 When

you met him, did he recollect having seen you before? 14 And so they left him': you are sure they did not give him

any thing REMARKS.-1. On Pitch, or Key.---Let the pupil deliver each of the examples first as low as he can distinctly and naturally, then a tone higher, and so higher and higher until he shall have reached the top of his voice, Having done this, let him reverse the process, and deliver the example lower and lower, until he shall reach the bottoni of his voice: care being taken that he does not sing or drawl, but that he give a natural expression to the bends, slides, and closes. Finally, let the pupil deliver the example at the proper pitch.

2. Force.—Let each example be delivered, first, in little more than a whisper, then a little louder; that is, with more and more force, until the pupil shall have exerted the whole power of his voice. Having done this, let him reverse the process, and deliver the example with less and less force until he shall have got back to a whisper. All this must be done on the same series of tones, neither rising abave nor sinking below; for this would be a change of pitch. It may be well, perhaps, to take a single word, in the first instance, for practice; as, for example, the word "more;" and increase and diminish the quantity of force on this without changing the key until familiar with the process: then pass to the sentences which I have introduced for exercise. Finally, deliver the examples with the proper degree of force.

8. Rate.--After you have gone through the examples in exercising on pitch and force, then practise on rate thus : deliver the sentence as slow as you possibly, can, then a little faster, and faster and faster, until you have delivered it as fast as you can, and yet delivering it with distinct articulation. Having done this, reverse the process as before, and deliver it slower and slower, until you get back to the point from which you started. Having done this, until you can do it handsomely, deliver the example at the proper

These exercises on pitch, force, and rate will prove on trial extremely useful. The class will be extremely interested in them; which will be a great point gained: they will increase the strength and compass of the voice : they will secure the control and easy management of the voice : they will have the general effect of giving self-possession to the pupil.




VIII.-EXERCISES ON THE EMOTIONS AND PASSIONS. In form, and substantially, in the delivery, a sentence expressing emotion or passion does not differ from other sentences. The emotion or passion is disclosed, mainly, if not altogether, so far as the voice is concerned, through a modification of the ordinary tones of speaking, or peculiarities of pitch, force, and rate. (See Elements of Reading and Oratory, Ch. VI., Rule V., note.) These modifications or peculiarities can only be illustrated, never taught; and they can be illustrated only by means of the living voice of the teacher. They must be taught, if taught at all, by nature, observation, and practice : by considering, first, how a person would express a given sentence imbued with a given passion, and then endeavoring to express it in that particular manner. To aid the pupil, I subjoin a series of examples, in the main double, and intended to be read 'first without emotion, or with indifference, and then with emotion.

1. PARTIAL AND PERFECT Close. 1 Awe. He is a madman. He is a madman! 2 Unbelief. It is impossible. It is impossible ! 3 Pity. The poor dear little thing fell down. The poor dear

little thing fell down! 4 Anger. Get out of my way, you rascal. Get out of my way, 5 Terror. The mad dog is coming ! fly! fly! fly! for


lives! 6 Disgust. My soul sickens at the sight. My soul sickens at

the sight! 7 Spleen. Mother, the boys are making faces at me. Mother,

the boys are making faces at me! 8 Fear. Fun. It thunders dreadfully! Away went old Jack to

the hospital !

you rascal!

2. THE UPWARD SLIDE. 1 Awe. Is he mad? Is he mad! 2 Wonder. Is it possible? Is it possible! 3 Sorrow. Did he not have one kind word for me? Did he not

have one kind word for me! 4 Eagerness. Did you see it, boys ? Did you see it, boys ! 5 Astonishment. Are you not astonished, my friends, at such

conduct as this ! 6 Helpless anger. Am I to be treated in this cruel manner with

out having committed a single fault !

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3. The Downward SLIDE. 1 Pity. What a pity ? What a pity! 2 Fear. How he glares ? How he glares ! 3 Admiration. What sounds are these { What sounds are

these ! 4 Fun. How red your noses are f How red your noses are !



5 Fun. What a pickle we are in? What a pickle we are in! 6 Sorrow. Why, oh, why am I thus! Why do I suffer so many

sorrows ! 7. Fatigue. Astonishment. How tiresome it is! Who then can

be saved !

4. THE WAVING Slide. 1 Inquisitiveness. You did not see him then You did not

see him then! 2 Contempt. He treated him like a father! [say rather like a

brute.] 3 Supplication. Grant me this favor for once ? Grant me this

favor for once! 4 Incredulity. Surely, sir, you are mistaken ! Surely, sir, you

are mistaken! 5 Sad incredulity. Thou wouldst not have me make a trial of . my skill upon my

child !

5. The DOUBLE SLIDE. 1 Curiosity. Was it John, or William Was it John, or Wil

liam !
2 Determination. Will

it, or will


not do it! 3 Earnestness. Shall we tamely submit, or shall we fight this


REMARK.— The double slide is seldom used to express emotion.

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