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ter fight it out than repent or give off now ;-or ‘ else,’ see what mercy you may find from the State of England. And seeing holy Church is engaged in it, we will, by one means or another, hook-in the Commons, and make them sensible that they are as much concerned as you, though they were never in arms, or came quickly off !”—And for this cause doubtless are these two coupled together; by which your honest dealing is manifest enough.

But what! Was the English Army brought over for this purpose, as you allege! Do you think that the State of England will be at Five or Six Millions charge merely to procure Purchasers to be invested in that for which they did disburse little above a Quarter of a Million ? Although there be a Justice in that also, which ought, and I trust will be seasonsbly performed towards them—No, I can give you a better reason for the Army coming over than this. England hath had experience of the blessing of God in prosecuting just and righteous Causes, whatever the cost and hazard be !* And if ever men were engaged in a righteous Cause in the world, this will scarce be a second to it. We are come to ask an account of the innocent blood that hath been shed; and to endeavor to bring to an account,_by the blessing and presence 'of the A1mighty, in whom alone is our hope and strength,—all who, by appearing in arms, seek to justify the same. We come to break the power of a company of lawless Rebels, who having cast off the Authority of England, live as enemies to Human Society; whose principles, the world hath experience, are, To destroy and subjugate all men not complying with them. We come, by the assistance of God, to hold forth and maintain the lustre and glory of English Liberty} in a Nation where we have an undoubted right to do it ;-—wherein the People of Ireland (if they listen not to such seducers as you are) may equally participate in all benefits ; to use ‘ their’ liberty and fortune equally with Englishmen, if they keep out of arms.

And now, having said this to you, I have a word to them; that in this point, which concerns them in their estates and fortunes, they may know what to trust to. Such as have been formerly in arms, may, submitting themselves, have their cases presented to the State of England ;-where

" Hear this Lord Lieutenant!

t‘ Liberty,’ here, which much astonishes our Irish friends, is very far from meaning what in most modern dialects it now does. ‘ Liberty’ with this Lord Lieutenant, means ‘ rigorous settled Obedience to Laws that are just.’ Which it is very noble indeed to settle, ‘ and hold forth and maintain' against all men. Laws grounded on the eternal Fact of Things,-Which is a much preferable ‘ ground’ to the temporary Fiction of Things, as set fonh at any Clonmacnoise, Kilkenny, or other Supreme Centre-of-J argon, there or elsewhere, that has been or that can be!


no doubt the State will be ready to take into consideration the nature and quality of their actings, and deal mercifully with them. As for those now in arms, who shall come in, and submit, and give Engagements for their future quiet and honest carriage, and submission to the State of England, Idoubt not but they will find like merciful consideration ;-—except only the Leading Persons and principal Contrivers of this Rebellion, whom I am confident they will reserve to make examples of Justice, whatsoever hazards they incur thereby—And as for such Private Soldiers as lay down their arms, and shall live peaceably and honestly at their several homes, they shall be permitted so to (Id—And, ‘ in general,’ for the first two sorts, ‘for such as have been or as now are in arms and shall submit,’ I shall humbly and effectually represent their cases to the Parliament, as far as becomes the duty and place I bear. But as for those who, notwithstanding all this, persist and continue in arms, they must expect what the Providence of God, in that which is falsely called the Chance of War, will cast upon them.

- For such of the Nobility, Gentry, and Commons of Ireland as have not been actors in this Rebellion, they shall and may expect the protection in their Goods, Liberties, and Lives which the Law gives them; and in their husbandry, merchandising, manufactures, and other trading whatsoever, the same. They behaving themselves as becomes honest and peaceable men; testifying their good affections, upon all occasions, to the service of the State of England, equal justice shall be done them with the English. They shall bear proportionably with them in taxes. And if the Soldiery be insolent upon them, upon complaint and proof, it shall be punished with utmost severity, and they protected equally with Englishmen.

And having said this, and purposing honestly to perform it,--if this People shall headily run on after the counsels of their Prelates and Clergy, and other Leaders, I hope to be free from the misery and desolation. blood and ruin that shall befall them; and shall rejoice to exercise utmost severity against them.

‘ Ouvnn CBOMWELL."

‘ Given at Yonghal, —- January, 1649.’

This Declaration, as appears here, does not date or even ex

“ Declaration, 81.0., as above given. Licensed by the Secretary of the Amy. Printul at Cork .' and reprinted at London, by E. Gnflin, and are to be sold . in the Old Bailey; March 21, 1649. King’s Pamphlets, small 4to, No. 462, p 6. In Ayscough “55., N0. 4769 (a Fragment of an anonymous Contemporary Narrative, which will by and by be more specially referred to), are some two pages of this Declaration, transcribed from the Cork Edition: the concluding words are not, ‘ exercise utmost severity against tliem,’ but ‘ act severity against them,’ which probably is the true reading.


presst sign itself : but by search, chiefly in a certain Manuscript Fragment, which will by and by concern us farther,“= we find that it was drawn up at Youghal, after the, 15th, and came forth printed at Cork before the 29th of January; on which latter day the Army took the field again. And so we leave his Declaration ;— probably the remarkablest State-Paper ever published in Ireland since Strongbow, or even since St. Patrick first appeared there.

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[VoL i., p. 417: ‘ Not without reluctance on Mrs. Cromwell’s part, at Ludlow intimates.’]


DEEP sunk among the Paper Masses of the British Museum is an anonymous Fragment of a Narrative qf Oliver’s Campaign in Ireland; Fragment copied, as would seem, several generations ago, from an earlier Original, the beginning and end of which were already lost,—torn off by careless hands, and consumed as waste paper. The Copyist, with due hopeful punctuality, has left blank leaves at the beginning and end: but to no purpose; they are and continue blank leaves. In this mutilated obscure state, it lies among the Manuscripts of the British Museum ;— will perhaps be printed by some Dryasdust Society, in time. It is by no means a Narrative of much merit : entirely anonymous, as we say, without specific date or outward indication of any kind ; but written as if by a contemporary or even a fellow-actor, in a flat, diffuse, but authentic and exact manner. In obscure cases, as we have already found, it is worth consulting here and there ;—contains, in particular, the following and some other uniniportant Cromwell Letters, not found elsewhere, which we make a duty of preserving.

' Ayscough nss.. No. 4769 (Fragment of a Narrative, referred to in thl‘ previous Note), p. 100, et seqq.

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Having brought thc Army and my cannon near this place,—ac> cording to my usual manner in summoning places, {thought fit to ofl'er you Terms, honorable for soldiers: That you may march away, with your baggage, arms, and colors ; free from injury or violence. But if I be necessitated to bend my cannon upon you, you must expect the extremity usual in such cases.

To avoid blood, this is ofl‘ered to you by,
Your servant,
Omvan (incrementslb

What became of Cahir Castle, of it and of others, will appear in the next Letter.

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To the Governor, and Mayor, and Aldermen, of the City of Kilke'nny : These.

‘ Before Kilkenny,’ 22d March, 1649. GENTLEMEN,

My coming hither is to endeavor, if God so please to bless me, the reduction of the City of Kilkenny to their obedience to the State of England ;--from which, by an nnheardmf Massacre of the innocent English, you have endeavored to rend yourselves. And as God hath begun to judge you with His sore plagues, so will He follow you until He hath destroyed you, if you repent not. Your Cause hathbeen judged already in England upon them who did abet your evils :1> what may the Principals then expect!

By this free dealing, you see I entice you not to a compliance. You may have Terms ‘ such as’ may save you in your lives, liberties, and estates, according to what may be fitting for me to grant and you to re

“ Narrative Fragment (in Ayscough MSS., No. 4769, cited above).

1 Connor Lord Macguire (State Trials, iv., 654-754, Feb. 7, 1644-5), he and others have had public trial, doom and death, long since, for that; by the Law of England, well ascertained, known, and acted on, this long while, it is death to have been concerned in that. ,

eeive. If you choose for the worst, blame yourselves. In confidence of the gracious blessing and presence of God with His own cause, which by many testimonies this is,—I shall hope for a good issue upon my en

Expecting a return from you, I rest,
Your servant,
OLIVER Cnonwsnr..*

The Governor of Kilkenny, ‘ Sir Witlter Butler,’ we shall find, saw good to surrender ; chose not ‘the worst,’ but the bad-best in those intricate circumstances. The last struggles of this poor Governor, and of various others, are particularised in the next Letter.

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For my beloved Son, Richard Cromwell, Esquire, at Hursley in Hampshire . These. '

‘ Carrick, 26. April, 1650.


I take your Letters kindly: I like expressions when they come plainly from the heart, and are not strained nor affected.

I am persuaded it’s the Lord’s mercy to place you where you are: 1 wish you may oWn it and be thankful, fulfilling all relations to the glory of God. Seek the Lord and His face continually :-let this be the business of your life and strength; and let all things be subservient and in order to this! You cannot find nor behold the face of God but in Christ; therefore labor to know God in Christ; which the Scripture makes to be the sum of all, even Life Eternal. Because the true knowledge is not literal or speculative; ‘ no,’ but inward; transforming the mind to it. It’s uniting to, and participating of, the Divine Nature (Second Pater, i., .4): ‘ That by these ye might be partakers of the Divine Nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.‘ It’s such a knowledge as Paul speaks of (Philippians, iii., 8—10): ‘ Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ

" Narrative Fragment (in Ayscough $55., No. 4769).

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